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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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Printed  by;  Ni«iiOLS,  Son,  and  Bbntlbv, 
Ked  Lig£  Passaf  e,  Fleet  StM»ct»  Loiidoii. 





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IffgaiTEMi  FOft  J.  NICHOLS  AND  SON}  F.  C.  AND  J.  HTINQTON  {  t^  fAYNfi| 
OTRIDGE  AND  SON  ;  O.  AND  W.  NICOL  $  WILKU  AND  EOB1N80H  |  I.  WALKBft  f 
K.  LEA  ;  W.  LOWNDES ;  WHITE,  COCHSANBy  AND  CO.  |  t.  EQERTON  | 
•RUE,  AND  BROWN ;  CADELL  AND  DA  VIES  |  C.  LAW  }  J.  BOOXW  f  J.  CVTHBIX  t 
CLARRE  AND  SONS ;  J.  AND  A.  ARCH  }  J.  HARRIS ;  tMCXf  9SlMMY,  AND  CO. 



VriOTTO,  an  eminent  punter,  scnlptor^  tOxi  architecti 
was  bora  in  1276,  at  a  ~      mcfi,  of  pareobt 

who  were  plain  countr  a  boy,  he  viaa 

Bent  out  to  keep  sbeep  ii  having  a  natural 

inclination  for  design,  le  himself  with 

drawing  bis  flock  after  tl  in  the  best  man- 

ner be  could.     Cimabuf  iiat  way,  found 

him  at  this  work,  and  tl  ;o  good  an  opi> 

nion  of  hia  genius  for.painting,  that  he  prevailed  with  \m 
father  to  let  him  go  to  Florence,  and  be  brougbt  up  under 
him.  He  had  not  applied  himself  long  to  designing,  be^ 
fbre  he  began  to  shake  oS  the  stiffness  of  the  Grecian 
wasters.  He  endeavoured  to  give  a  finer  air  to  his  beads, 
and  more  of  nature  to  bis  colouring,  with  proper  actions  to 
his  figures.  He  attempted  likewise  to  draw  after  the  life, 
and  to  express  the  different  passions  of  the  mind;  but 
could  not  come  up  to  the  liveliness  of  the  eyes,  the  ten- 
derness of  the  flesh,  or  the  strength  of  the  muscles  in  naked 
figures.  What  he  did,  however,  had  not  been  done  in 
two  centuries  before,  with  any  skill  equal  to  his.  Giotto's 
reputation  was  so  far  extended,  that  pope  Benedict  IX, 
sent  a  gentleman  of  bis  court  into  Tuscany,  to  bring  him 
ajust  report  of  his  talents;  and  withal  to  bring  him  a  de« 
■ign  from  each  of  the  Florentine  painters,  being  desirons 
tfi  have  some  notion*  of  their  skill.  When  he  came  to 
VocXVI.  B 


Giotto,  be  told  him  of  the  pope's  intentions,  which  vrere^ 
to  employ  him  in  St.  Peter's  church  at  Rome ;  and  desired 
him  to  send  some  design  by  him  to  his  holiness.  GiottK)^ 
who  was  a  pleasant  ready  man,  took  a  sheet  of  white  paper, 
and  setting  his  arm  close  to  his  hip  to  keep  it  steady,  h% 
drew  with  one  stroke  of  his  pencil  a  circle  so  round  and  so 
equal,  tha[t  .^^rolfnd  as,  Giotjkp'^  O''  afterwarids  became 
proverbial.  Then,>  presenting  it  to  the  gentleman,  he  told 
him  smiling,  that  *^  there  was  a  piece  of  design,  which  he 
might  carry  to  his  holiness."  The  man  replied,  *^  I  ask 
for  a  design  f'  Giotto  answered^  ^^  Go,  sir,  I  tell  you  his 
hoUness  i^^s.aotJbijpg  else  of  me.'*  T!be  P^pf^t  who  under- 
stood something  of  painting,  easily  comprehended  by  this, 
how  much  Giotto  in  strength  of  design  excelled  all  the 
other  painters  of  his  time ;  and  accordingly  sent  for  him 
to  Rome.  Here  he  painted  many  pieces,  and  amongst  the 
rest  a  ship  of  Mosaic  work,  which  is  over  the  three,  gates^ 
of  the  portico,  in  the  entrance  to  St.  Peter's  church,  and 
is  known  to  painters  by  the  name  of  Giotto's  vessel.  Pp^ 
l&enedict  was  succeeded  by  Clement  V.  who  transferred 
Che  papal  court  to  Avignon;  whither,  likewise,  Giotto  was. 
obliged  to  go.'  After  som^  stay  there,  having  perfectly 
satisfied  the  pope  by  maqy  fine  specimens,  of  bis  art,  he 
was  largely  rewarded,  and  retfiriied  to  Florence  full  of 
riches  and  honour  in  13161  He  was  soon  invited  to  Padua, 
where  he  painted  a  new-built  chapel  very  curiously ;  thence 
he  Went  to  Verona,  and  then  to  Ferrara.  At  the  same  time 
the  poet  Dante,  hearing  that  Giotto  was  at  >  Ferrara,  tfhd 
£eing  himself  then  in  exile  at  ^ayenna,  got  him  over  to 
Kavetina,  where  he  executed  several  pieces ;  and  perhaps 
it  inight  b|e  here  that  he  drew  Dante's  picture,  though  the 
friendship  between  the  poet  and  the  painter  was  previotr^ 
^o  this.  In  1322,  he  was  again  invited  abroad  by  Castruc-^ 
cio  Castrucani,  lord  of  Luca;  and,  after  that,  by  Rgberl 
ling  of  Naples.  Giotto  painted  much  at  Naples,  and 
<;hiefly  the  chapel,  where  the  king -was  so  pleased  with 
iiim,  that  he  used  very  often  to  go  and  sit  by  him  while  be 
ivas  at  work :  for  Giotto  was  a  man  of  pleasant  conversa-' 
tion  and  wit.  One  day,  it  being  very  hot,  the  king  said 
to  him,  '*  If  I  were  you,  Giotto,  I  wQuld  leave  off  working* 
this  hot  weather;"  "and  ^o  would  I,  Sir,"  says  Giottc^^' 
V  if  I  were  you."  He  returned  fropa  Naples  to  Rome,  and 
from  Rome  to  Florence^  leaving  monuments  of  his  art  ia 
almost  every  place  through  which  he  passed.    There  is  ik 

tj  I  O  T  T  O.  3 

fiicttire  of  hb  in  one  of  tbe  churches  of  Florence,  repre- 
seottDg^  tbe  death  of  the  blessed  Virgin,  with  the  apostles 
ftbout  her  : .  the  attitudes  of  which  story,  Michael  Angelo 
tis^d  to  say,  could  not  be  better  designed..  Giotto,  how-» 
'  ever,  did  not  confine  his  genius  altogether  to  painting  :  he 
was  both  a  scillptor  and  architect.  In  1327  he  formed  the 
design  of  a  magnificent  and  beautiful  monument  for  Guide 
'  Tarlati,  bishop  of  Arezzo,  who  had  been  the  head  of  the 
Gfaibeline  foction  in  Tuscany :  and  in  1334  he  undertook 
the  famous  tower  of  Sancta  Maria  del  Fiore;  for  which 
work,  though  it  was  not  finished,  he  was  niade  a  citizen  of 
Florence,  and  endowed  with  a  considerable  yearly  pension* 

His  death  happened  in  1336:  and  the  city  of  Florence 
erected  a  malrble  statue  over  his^tomb.  He  had  the  esteem 
and  friendship  of  most  of  the  excellent  men  of  the  age  in 
which  he  lived  :  and  among  the  rest,  of  Dante  and  Petrarch* 
He  drew,  as  already  noticed,  the  picture  of  the  former  | 
and  the  latter  mencions  him  in  his  will,  and  in  one  of  his 
figUiiiUar  epistles. 

Giotto  is  said  to  have  been  the  inventor  of  Mosaic  work^ 
and  of  crucifixes.  The  former  has  been  disproved  in  our 
ArchsBologia.  The  latter  rests  on  a  story  which  we  hope 
has  as  little  foundation.  It  is  thus  related :  ^'  Giotto,  in* 
tending  one  day  to  draw  a  crucifix  to  the  life,  wheedled  a 
poor  man  to  suffer  himself  to  be  bound  to  a  cross  for  an 
hour,  at  the  end  of  which  he  was  to  be  released,  and  re- 
ceive a  considerable  rieward  for  it ;  but  instead  of  this,  as 
aftn  as  he  had  £ustened  him,  he  stabbed  him  dead,  and 
then  fell  to  drawing :  when  he  had  finished  his  picture,  he 
•carried  it  to  the  pope,  who  liked  it  so  well,  that  he  was 
resolved  to  place  it  over  the  altar  of  his  own  chapels 
Giotto  told  him,  as  he  liked  the  copy  so  well,  he  would 
show  him  the  original.  What  do  you  mean,  said  the 
pope?  Will  yon  show  me  Jesus  Christ  on  the  cross  in 
person?  No,  said  Giotto,  but  I  will  show  your  holiness 
the  original  ftam  whence  I  drew  this,  if  you  will  absolve 
^e  from  aU  punishment.  The  pope  promised  this,  which 
GicAto  belreving,  attended  him  to  the  place  where  it  was : 
as  soon  as  they  were  entered,  he  drew  back  a  curtain, 
which  hung  before  the  dead  man  on  the  cross,  atid  told 
kirn  wfaflt  1^  had  done.  The  pope,  troubled  at  so  barbarous 
an  actioii,  repealed  his  promise,  and  told  Giotto,  that  he 
should  surely  be  put  to  an  exemplary  death.  Giotto,  with 
a  seemiifg  r6Big:uatioii>  oulf  b^ged  l&aVe  to^hr^'  the 

B  2 

4  G  I  O  T  T  O* 

'  pi^ce  before  he  died,  which  was  granted  hiaiy  and  a  gtiard 
tet^pon  him  to  prevent  his  escape.  As  soon  as  the  pic- 
ture was  delivered  into  bis  hancis>  he  took  a  brush,  and 
dipping  it  into  a  sort  of  stuff  ready  for  that  purpose,  daubed 
the  picture  all  over  with  it,  so  that  nothing  of  the  crucifix 
could  be  seen.  This  made  his  holiness  stark  mad,  and  he 
swore,  that  Giotto  should  be  put  to  the  most  cruel  death, 
unless  he  drew  Another  equal  to  the  former;  if  so,  h6 
would  not  only  give  him  his^life,  but  also  an  ample  reward 
in. money.  Oiotto,  as  he  had  reason,  desired  this  under 
.  the  pope's  signet,  that  he  might  not  be  in  danger  of  a 
second  repeal.  This  was  granted  to  him;  and  taking  a 
wet  spunge,  he  wiped  off  all  the  varnish  he  had  daubed  on 
the  picture,  so  that  the  crucifix  appeared  the  same  in  all 
respects  as  it  did  before.  Upon  this,  the  pope  remitted 
his  punishment.  And  they  say,  that  this  crucifix  is  the 
original,  from  which  the  most  famous  crucifixes  in  Europr 
are  xlrawn."  * 


GIRALDI  (LiLio  Gregorio),  in  Latin  Gyraldus,  an 
ingenious  and  learned  Italian  critic,  was  born  at  Ferrara 
in  1479,  of  an  ancient  and  reputable  family.  He  learned 
the  Latin  tongue  and  polite  literature  under  Baptist  Gua- 
jrini;  and  afterwards  the  Greek  at  Milan  under  Demetrius 
Chalcondyles«  He  retired  into  the  neighbourhood  of  Al- 
bert Picus,  prince  of  Carpi,  and  of  John  Francis  Picus, 
prince  of  Mirandula;  and,  having  by  their  means  access 
to  a  large  and  well-furnished  library,  he  applied  him^f 
intensely  to  study.  He  afterwards  went  to  Modena,  and 
thence  to  Rome,  but  being  unfortunately  in  this  city  when 
it  was  plundered  by  the  soWiers  of  Charles  V.  in  1527,  he 
lost  his  all. in  the  general  ruin;  and  soon  after  his  patron 
tard jnal  Kangone,  with  whom  be  had  lived  some  time.  He 
was  then  obliged  to  shelter  himself  in  the  house  of  the 
prince  of  Mirandula,  a  relation  of  the  great  Picus,  but  had 
the  misfortune  to  lose  this  protector  in  1533,  who  was 
assassinated  in  a  conspiracy  headed  by  his  nephew.  Gi^* 
raldi  was  at  that  time  so  afflicted  with  the  gout,  that  he 
had  great  difficulty  to  save  himself  from  the  hands  of  th^ 
conspirators,  and  lost  all  which  he  had  acquired  since  the 
iacking  of  Rome.  He  then  returned  to  bis  own  country, 
4nd  lived  at  Ferrara^  where  be  found  a  refuge  from  hU 

G  I  R  A  L  D  I.  9 

misfottunes.  The  gout,  which  he  is  said  to  have  heightened 
by  intemperance,  tormented  him  so  for  the  six  or  $eveft 
last  years  of  his  life,  that,  as  he  speaks  of  himself,  he. 
might  be  said  rather  to  breathe  than  to  live.  He  veas  stich 
a  cripple  in  his  hands  and  feet,  that  he  was  incapable  of 
moving  himself.  He  made,  however,  what  use  he  could 
of  intervals  of  ease,  to  read,  and  even  write:  and  many  of 
his  books  were  composed  in  those  intervals.  He  died  at 
length  of  this  malady  in  1552  ;  and  was  interred  in  the  ca- 
thedral of  Ferrara,  where  an  epitaph,  composed  by  himr 
self,  was  inscribed  oipon  his  tomb. 

His  works  consist  of  seventeen  productions,  which  were 
first  printed  separately ;  but  afterwards  collected  and  pub- 
lished in  2  vols,  folio,  at  Basil  1580,  and  at  Leyden  1696« 
The  most  valued  pieces  among  them  are,  '^  Historia  de 
Deis  Gentium,'* — ^^  Historian  Poetarum  tarn  Grsecorum 
quam  Latinorum  Dialogi  decem,''— and,  ^^  Dialogi  duo  de  . 
Poetis  nostrorum.''  The  first  of  these  books  is  one  of  the 
last  he.  composed,  and  full  of  profound  erudition.  ^,The 
other  two,  which  make  up  the  history  of  the  ancient  and 
modern  poets,  are  written  with  great  exactness  and  judg- 
ment. Vossius  speaks  highly  of  this  work,  as  the  produc- 
tion of  great  judgment  and  learning,  as  well  as  industry, 
and  observes,  that  though  hi?  professed  design  is  to  collect 
memoirs  concerning  their  persoris,  characters,  and  writ- 
ings in  general,  yet  he  has  occasionally  interspersed  many 
things,  regarding  the  art  of  poetry,  which  may.  be  useful 
to  those  who  intend  to  cultivate  it.  Joseph  Scaliger,  in- 
deed, would  persuade  us,  though  not  very  consistently, 
that  nothing  can  be  niore  contemptible  than  the  judgment 
he  passes  on  the  poets  he  treats  of :  for  in  another  place  be 
allows  all  the  wovks  of  Giraldus  to  be  very  good,  and  that 
no  man  knew  better  how  to  temper  learning  with  judgment. 

There  is  a  work  also  by  Giraldus,  <^  De  annis  &  mensi- 
bus,  csBterisque  temporis  partibus,  una  ,cOm  Kalendario 
Romano  &.  Grseco,"  written  with  a  view  to  the  reformation 
of  the  kalendar,  which  was  .afterwards  effected-  by  pope 
Gregory  XIII.  about  1582.  There  are  likewise  among  his 
works  a  few  poems,  the  principal  of  which  is  entitled, 
*^  Epistola  in  qua  agitur  de  incommodis,  quse  in  direptione 
Urbaiia  passus  est ;  ubi  item  est  quasi  catalogus  suorum, 
amicorum  Poetarum,  &  defieaiur  interitus  Herqulis  Cardi- 
nalis  Rangonis.'*  This  poem  is  annexed  to  the  Florentine 
edition  of  the  two  dialogues  concerning  his  contemporairy' 

d  aiRALDL 

?oet5;  ftn4  contains  a  curious  literacy  history  o£  that  time, 
'o  other  praises  bestowed  upon  GiraJdus  by  authors  of  the 
first  name,  we  may  add  that  of  Casaubon,  who  calls  him» 
**  vir  solide  doctus,  &  in  scribendo  accuratus,*'  a  maa: 
solidly  learned  and  an  accurate  writer.  Thuanus  says^ 
that  **  he  was  excellently  skilled  in  the  Greek  and  Latia: 
tongues,  in  polite  literature,  and  in  antiquity,  which  he> 
has  illustrated  in  several  works ;  and  that,  though  highly 
deserving  a  better  fate,  he  struggled  all  his  life  with  ilU. 
health  and  ill-fortune.*'  His  books  he  bequeathed  to  his- 
relatives  John  Baptist  Giraldi  and  Pasetius.^ 

GIRALDI  (John  Baptist  Cintio),  an  Italian  poet,  of 
the  same  family  with  the  preceding,  was  born  at.  Ferrara. 
in  1504.     His  father,  being  ai  man  of  letters,  took  great  < 
care  of  his  education  ;  and  placed  him  under  Ctslio  Cal- 
cagnini,  to  study  the  languages  and  philosophy.     He  made 
an  uncommon  progress,  and  then  applied  himself  to  the, 
study  of  physic ;  in  which  faculty  he  was  afterwards  a  doc- 
tor.   #ALt  21  years  of  age,  he  was  employed  to  read  pubUc 
lectures  at  Ferrara  upon  physic  and  polite  literature.    In : 
1542,  the  duke  of  Ferrara  made  him  bis  secretary;  which* 
•  office  be  held  till  the  death  of  that  priace  in  1658.     He 
was  continued  in  it  by  bis  successor :  but  envy  having  dona 
him  som,e  ill  offices  with  his  master,  he  was  obliged  to  quit 
the  court.     He  left  the  city  at  the  same  time,  and  removed 
with  his  family  to  M oodovi  in  Piedmont ;  where  he  taught 
the  belles  lettres  publicly  for  three  years.     He  then  went 
to  Turin ;  but  the  air  there  not  agreeing  with  his  constitu- 
tion, he  accepted  the  professorship  of  rhetoric  at  Pavia ; 
which  the  senate  of  Milan,  bearing  of  his  being  about  to 
remove,  and  apprized  of  his  great  merit,  freely  offered 
him.     This  post  he  filled  with  great  repute ;  and  afterwards 
obtained  a  place  in  the  academy  of  that  town.     It  was  here 
he  got  the  name  of  Ciutio,  which  he  retained  ever  after, 
and  put  in  the  title*page  of  his  books*    The  gout,  which 
was  hereditaj^  in  his  family,  beginning  to  attack  him  se« 
verely,  he  returned  to  Ferrara*;  thinking  that  bis  native  air 
might  afford  him  relief.     But  he  was  hardly  settled  there, 
when  he  grew  extremely  ill;  and,  after  languishing  about 
three  months,  died  in  1573. 

His  works  itre  all  written  in  Italian,  except  some  orations, 
spoken  upon   extraordinary  occasions,  in  Latin.    They 

*  t 

.i;Jtf(Hn^»^Niceros9  Tol,  XKCC^^Roicoe'g  Leo.^*-Sasii  Ononu  m  Gyrtldqf. 


insist  chiefly  of  tragedies :  a  collection  of  which  was  pub«' 
$shed  at  Venice  1583,  in  8vo,  by  his  son  Celso  Giraldi  j' 
who,  in  his  dedication  to  the  duke  of  Ferrara,  takes  occa- 
sion  to  observe,  that  he  was  the  youngest  of  five  sohs,  ahd 
the  only  one  wHo  survived  hii^  ikther.  There  are  alsb  soirid^ 
prose  works  of  Giraldi:  one  particularly  upoh  comedy^' 
tragedy,  and  other  kinds  of  poetry,  which  was  prihted  aV 
Venice  by  himself  in  1554,  4to.  Soitie  make  no  scriifile 
to  rank  him  among  the  best  tragic  writers  that  litaly  has^ 
produced  ;  but  perhaps  the  work  by  which  he  nOw  is'best^ 
known  is  his  **  Hecatommiti,^'  an  hundred  noviefts  in  th^' 
nanner  of  Boccaccio,  which  have  been  frequently' printed. 
There  is  a  scarce  volume  of  His  poems  printed' at' Ferrara^ 
ih  1537,  at  the  close  of  which  is  a  treatise  of  Caelio  Cal-' 
cagnini,  <«  De  Imitatiorie,"  addressed  to  Giraldi.^ 


GIRARD  (Gabriel},  an  ingenious  French  writer^  waa' 
bom  at  Clermont  in  Auvergne  in  1676,  and  educkied  for 
the' church.    In  his  youth  he  had  a  canonry  ifi  the  colle-' 
giate  church  of  Notre  Dame  de  Monferrand,  but  resigned^ 
it  to  one  of  his  brothers,  that  he  might  be  at' liberty' to  go' 
to  Paris  and  devote  his  time  to  literary  purstiiCs.    llbere^ 
hj  the  interest  of  some  friends  be  Wa^  made  'alopidner  to  the* 
duchess  of  Berri,  daughter  of  the  regent,  and  also  ob*' 
tained  the  place  of  king's  interpreter  for  the  Sckvoniah' 
and  Russian  languages.     In  1744  he  was  admitted  a' mem-' 
ber  of  the  French  academy.     He  died  Feb.  4^  1748;    The^ 
work  by  which  he  is  best  known,  and  to  which  inde^d'he^ 
chiefly  owed  his  reputation  in  Francie,  is  his  **  Synonymea^ 
Frangais/'  12mo,  of  ^hrch  a  new  edition,  with  some  post*^ 
humous  pieces  by  Girard,  was  published  by  M.  Beauz6e^  in'^' 
1^69,  2  vols.  12mo.     No  grammatical  worJL  was  ever  mora 
popular  in  France,  nor  more  useful  in  defining  the  nreciise' 
meaning  of  words  apparently  syhohymotis ;  ahd  the  ele«  ' 
g^hce  and  moral  tendency  of  the  examples  he  produces ' 
have  been  much'  admired.   .  Ttie  abbd  Rotibaud  has  siiice^ 
published   "  Les  Nouveaiix  Syrionymes  Frangais,^*  1766^* 
4  vols.  8 vo,  which  may  be  considered  as  a  supplemenit  to 
Girard.     Our  author  published  also  a  grammar  under  the  ' 
title  of  '^  Les  vrais  principes  de  la'langue  Frangais/'  2'] 
vols.  12mo,'far  inferior  in  ingenuity  to  his  former,  arid 

1  Moreri.— NiceroD,  vol.  XXIX.--<3io^en4  Hut.  Litt.  d*Itii]ie,  T^I.  VI.  p.  4^. 
•*^axii  Onomast.  in  Gjrraldui. 

<  G  I  I^  A  II  p.  ,    ♦     ■ 

full  of  jpi&taphysical  whims  on  the  theory  of  language^  not 
unmixisd  with  those  infidel  principles  which  were  in  his 
time  beginning  to  be  propagated.' 

QIRTIN  (Thomas),  an  ingenious  young  landscape- 
painter,  was  born  Feb.  18,  1773,  and  received  his  first  in- 
structions from.  Mr.  Fisher,  a  drawing-master  in  Aldersgate- 
street,  and  was,  for  a  short  time,  the  pupil  of  Mri  Dayes. 
He  early  made  nature  his  model;  but  the  first  master  that 
strucl^  bis  attention  forcibly  was  Canaletti,  and,  in  the 
latter  part  of  his  life,  he  sedulously  studied  the  colouring 
of  Rubens.  He  was  the  first  who  introduce4  the  custom  of 
drawing  upon  cartridge-paper ;  by  which  means  he  avoided 
that  spotty,  glittering  glare  so  commpn  in  drawings  made 
on  white  paper ;  and  some  of  his  later  productions  have  a;| 
forcible  and  spirited  an  effect  as  an  oil*picture,.  and  are 
,  more  clear.  In  his  first  manner  he  made  the  outline  wit:h 
a  pen,,  but  afterwards  did  away  that  hard  outline,  whiqh 
gives  ^o  ^dgy  an  effect  to  drawings  that  are  not,  in  other, 
respects,  destitute  of  merit;  and,  having  first  given  his 
general  forms  with  Indian  ink,  finished  his  work  by  putting 
on  his  different  tints.  This,  if  judiciously  managed,  is 
certainly  a  great  improvement  in  the  art.  It  has  beea 
said,  that  he  made  great  use  of  the  rule,  and  produced' 
some  of  hb  most  forcible  effects  by  trick,  but  this  was  not 
the  case.  His  eye  was  peculiarly  accurate ;  and  by  that 
he  formed  his  judgment  of  proportions.  Whoever  inspected 
his  pallet  woiilc)  find  it  covered  with  a  greater  variety  of 
tints  than  almos||;  any  of  his  contemporaries  employed. 
Mr.  Moore  was  his  first  patron,  and  with  him  he  went  a 
tour  into  Scotland.  The  prospects  h^  saw  in  that  country 
gave  that  wildness  of  imagery  to  the  scenery  of  his  draw- 
ings by  which  they  are  so  pre-eminently  distinguished. 
He  also  wei^t  with  ^r.  Moore  to  Peterborough,  Lichfield, 
and  Lincoln ;  and,  ipdeed,  to  many  other  places  remark- 
able for  their  rich  scenery,  either  in  nature  or  architecture.  ^ 
That  gentleman  had  a  drawii)g  that  Oirtin  made  of  Exeter  , 
(Cathedral,  which  was  principally  coloured  on  -  the  spo^ 
wher<^it  was  drawn;  for  he  was  so  uncommonly  indefatiga- 
ble, that^  when  he  had  mfide  a  i^ketch  of  any  place,  h^ 
never  wished  to  (juit  it  until  be  had  given  it  all  the  proper 
tdnts.  H^  was  early  noticed  by  lord  Harewood,  Mr.  LaS' 
^|JleS|  and  Dr.  Monro ;  in  whose  collections  are  son&e  of 

I  Pkt.  Bilk 

Q  I  R  T  I  N.  9 

those  fine  specimens  of  the  arts  by  the  study  of  which  he 
forioed  his  taste.     The  doctor  has  in  his  possession  some  of 
his  earliest,  and  many  of  his  finest,  drawings.     He  painted 
two  pictures  in  oil ;  the  first  was  a  view  in  Wales,  which 
was  exhibited,  and  much  noticed,  in  1801  ;  and  the  se- 
cond, the  panorama  view  of  London,  which  was  exhibited; 
in  Spring-gardens.     About  twelve  months  before  his  death 
he  went  to  France,  where  be  staid  till  May.     His  last,  and 
indeed  his  best,  drawings  were  the  views  of  Paris,  which, 
were  purchased  by  lord  Essex,  and  from  which  aqua-tinta 
prints  by  other  artists  have  since  been  mslde.     This  pro-* 
mising  young  artist  died  Nov.  9,   1802,  of  an  asthmatic » 
disorder,  which  Mr.  Edwards  seems  to  attribute  to  irregu* 
larity.  * 

GIRY  (Lewis),  advocate  to  the  parliament  of  Paris, 
and  to  the  council,  and  inember  of  the  French  academy, 
was  born  at  Paris  in  1596.     His  abilities  and  probity  re- 
commended him  to  some  very  honourable  employments,  and 
he  particularly  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  cardinal  Mazarin. 
He  was  author  of  the  following  translations  i  *^  Dialogues 
des  Orateurs,'*  4to.;  "  TApologie  de  Socrate;'\  **  THist, 
Sacr^e  de  Sulpice  Severe ;''  "  TApologetique  de  Tertul- 
lien,^*  for  which  he  was  received  into  the  academy ;  ^Ma 
Cit6  de  Dieu,  de  St.  Augustin,"   I   vol,  4to. ;  **  Epitres 
Choisies  de  St.  Augustin,"  5  vols.  i2mo.     He  died  in  1665, 
'  at  Paris.     His  son,  Francis,   who  was  provincial   of  the 
Minim  order,  gained!  great  reputation  by  some  devotioqal 
works;  but  deserves  little  credit  for  his  principal  publica- 
tion, ^*  Les  Vies  des  Saints,"  fol.  which  although  esteemed 
ibr  its  piety^  is  full  of  fables,  and  far  from  accurate  as  to 
facts.     P.  Raffron,  of  the  same  order,  has  written  his  life, 
12mo.*  ^ 

GLABER  (Rodoij>h),  a  Benedictine  monk,  first  of  St« 
Cermaine  d^Auxerre,  and  afterwards  of  Cluni,  and  a  man 
ef  superstitious  credulity,  flourished  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, and  wrote  a  "  Chronicle  or  History  of  France,"  in 
the  L^tin  language,  tt  consists  of  five  books,  of  which  th« 
first  relate^  to  the  events  of  the  monarchy  previously  to 
>  Hugh  Capet,  and  the  four  subsequent  ones  to  those  foU 
lowing  it,  as  far  down  as  1046.  This  work  is  defective  as 
a  co^ippsitipn,  and,  at  the  same  time,  full  of  fat>uious 

>  Gcttt  Mag.  LXXlfr.aod  LXXUI — Pilkinirton.— Edwardt'f  Sapplcment  to 
Walpole.  *  Moreri.--*Dict.  HiiU 

10  .  G  L  A  B  E  R: 

Stories^  yet  it  contains  much  valuable  information  relatire 
to  those  remote  ages.  It  was  printed  in  the  collections  of 
Pithou  and  Duchesne.  He  was  author  of  a  life  of  William, 
aibbot  of  St.  Benignus  at  Dijon. ' 

GLANDORP  (JoHN)^  a  learned  philologist  of  the  six« 
teenth  century,  was  born  at  Munster.  He  studied  mider 
Melancthon  at  Wittemberg,  and  became  rery  distinguished' 
for  his  critical  knowledge  of  Greek  and  Latin.  In  1 533  he 
disputed  publicly  against  the  anabaptists  at  Munster. 
After  visiting  the  principal  German  academies,  be  was 
elected  rector  of  the  college  at  Hanover,  but,  Upon  some 
dispute,  he  quitted  in  1555,  and  retiring  to  Goslar,  was 
followed  by  most  of  his  scholars ;  but-  here  again  h^ 
had  the  misfortune  to  render  himself  unpopular,  and  was 
obliged  to  leave  the  place  in  1560,  on  which  he  went  to 
Marpurg,  and  was  made  professor  of  history.  He  died'in 
1564.  His  works  are,  I.  ^^  Sylva  CarmimimElegiacorum;^*' 
2.  <'  Descriptio  Gentis  Antoniae  ;"  3.  ^'  Familiae  Julias 
Gentis  ;^'  4.  ^^  Disticha  Sacra  et  Moralia  ;*'  5.  ^<  Annotate 
in  Jul.  Ceesaris  Comment.;'*  6.  <<  Annotat  in  Ciceronis 
Epist.  Famil.;"  7.  <'  Onomasticon  Historian  Romanaei.^" 

GLANDORP  (Matthias),  a  German  physician,  was 
born  in  1595,  at  Cologne,  where  his  father  f^as  a  surgeon. 
His  first  application  to  letters  was  at  Bremen ;  whence  he' 
returned  to  Cologne,  and  devoted  himself  to  philosophy, 
physic,  and  chirurgery.  He  studied  four  years  under 
Peter  Holtzem,  who  was  the  elector's  physician,  and  pro- 
fessor in  this  city ;  and  he  learned  the  practical  part  of 
surgery  from  his  father.  To  perfect  himself  in  these 
sciences,  he  went  afterwards  into  Italy,  and  made<  some 
stay  at  Padua ;  where  he  greatly  benefited  himself  by  at- 
tending the  lectures  of  Jerome  Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente, 
Adrian  Spigelius,  and  Sanctorins.  He  wad  here  made 
M.  D.  After  having  visited  the  principal  townd  of  Italy, 
he  returned  to  his  country  in  1 6  i  8 j  and  settled  at  Bremen ; 
.where  he  practised  physic  and  surgery  with  so  much  suc- 
cess, that  the  archbishop  of  this  place  made  him  his  phy- 
sician in  1628.  He  was  also  made  physician  of  the  re- 
public of  Bremen.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  precisely 
known;  some  say  1640,  but  the  dedication  of  his  last  woric 
is  dated  Oct.  8,  1662.     He  published  at  Brei&en,  <^  Spe-' 

A  Moreri.--.NiceK>D,  vol.  XXVIII.-^Stxii  OAwmtirCtm. 
'  Mart rK— 3axii  Oaomasiiceik. 

G  L  A  N  D  O  R  p.  11 

CQlam  Cfairargorum/'  in'1619,  8vo ;  reprinted  in  162S, 4to; 
^  Metbodus  Medendse  Paronychiae,"  in  1139;  '^Tractatut 
de  Polypo  Narium  affecta  gravissimo/'  in  1628;  and 
*'  Gazophylacium  Poljpusiucn  Fonticulorum  &  Setoqum 
Reseratum/'  in  1633.  These  four  pieces  were  coliecCed 
and  published,  with  emendations,  under  the  title  of  bis 
Works,  at  London,  in  1729,  4to,  with  his  life  prefixed^ 
and  some  curious  tracts  on  Roman  antiquities.  It  must 
needs  suggest  an  high  opinion  of,  this  young  physician^ 
that  though  he  died  a  young  man,  yet  his  works  should 
be  thought  worthy  of  a  republication  100  years  after; 
when  such  prodigious  improvements  have  been  made  in 
philosophy,  physic,  and  sciences  of  all  kinds,  of  which  he 
bad  not  the  benefit.^ 

.  GLANVIL  (BARTHOLOMEWJi,  a  writer  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  was  an  English  Minorite,  or  Franciscan,  of  the 
faimily  of  the  earls  of  Suffolk.  He  is  said  to  have  studied 
et  Oxford,  Paris,  and  Rome,  and  to  have  been  very  fami- 
liar with  the  writings  of  Aristotle,  Plato,  and  Pliny;  from 
which,  with  bis  own  observations,  he  compiled  his  cele- 
brated work  "  De  Propirietatibu*  rerum,*'  a  kind  of  gene- 
ral history  of  nature ;  divided  into  nineteen  books,  treating 
of  God,  angels,  and  devils,  the  soul,  the  body,  animals, 
&iC.  In  some  copies  there  is  an  additional  book,  not  of  his 
writing,  on  numbers,  weights,  measures,  sounds,  &c.  Some 
*^  Sermons"  of  his  were  printed  at  Strasburgh  in  1495. 
But  his  work  ^'  De  Proprietatibtis''  appears  to  have  heeti 
the  chief  favourite,  and  was  one  of  the  first  books  on  which 
the  art  of  printing  was  exercised,  there  being  no  fewer 
than  twelve  editions,  or  translations,  printed  from  1479  to 
14^4.  .  The  English  translation  printed  by  Wynkyn  de 
Worde  is  the  most  magnificent  publication  that  ever^issued 
from  the  press  of  that  celebrated  printer,  but  the  date  has 
not  been  ascertained.  A  very  copious  and  exact  analysis 
of  this  curious  work  is  given  by  Mr.  Dibdin  in  the  second 
volume  of  his  *'  Typographical  Antiquities.''* 

.  GLANVIL  (Sir  John),  younger  son  of  John  Glanvil  of 
Tavistocfein  Devonshire,  one  of  the  justices  of  the  com- 
mon pleas,  (who  died  in  1600),  was  educated  at  Oxford^ 
and  after  serving  for  some  time  in  an  attorney's  office^ 
studied  law  in  Lincoln's-inn,  where  he  preserved  the  re^ 

1  Moreri.—- NiceroD,  Ttfl.^tXXVIII.  <  Tanner's  BibUotbeca.—Dupiar 

j^DoDce'fl  lUustratioDi  of  Shakspeare,  voL  li.  p.  278.— Dibdin  ubi  supra. 

13  G  L  A  N  V  I  L. 

putation  of  I^gal  ability  for  which  his  family  had  long  been* 
distinguished^  When  he  had  been  a  barrister  of  some 
years  standing,  he  was  elected  recorder  of  Plymouth,  and 
burgess  for  that  place  in  several  parliaments.  In  the  5th 
of  Charles  I.  he  was  Lent  reader  of  his  uin,  and  in  May 
1639  was  made  Serjeant  at  law.  Being  cbos^en  speaker  of 
the  parliament  which  assembled  in  April.  1640,  be  shewed 
himself  more  active  in  the  king^s  cause,  than  formerly^: 
when  he  joined  in  the  common  clamour  against  the  prero* 
gative.  In  August  1641,  being  then  one  of  the  king's 
Serjeants,  he  received  the  honour  of  knighthood;  and 
'when  his  majesty  was  obliged. to  leave  the  parliament,  sir 
John  followed  him  to  Oxford.  In  1645,  being  accused  as 
a  delinquent,  or  adherent  to  the  king,  he  was  deprived  of 
bis  seat  in  parliament,  and  afterwards  committed  to  prison^ 
in  which  he  remained  until  1648,  when  he  made  a  com^ 
position  with  the  usurping  powers.  After  the  restoration 
he  was  made  king's  serjeant  ags^in,  and  would  have  probably  ^ 
attained  promotion  had  he  not  died  soon  after,  on. Oct.  2^ 
1661.  He  w&s  buried  in  the  church  of  Broad  Hiuton  in 
Wiltshue,  the  manor  of  which  he  had  bought  some  years 
before.  His  works  consist  chiefly  of  speeches  and  argu- 
ments, most  of  which  are  in  Rushworth's  "  Collections,*' 
His  ^*  Reports  of  Cases  of  controverted  Elections,"  were 
published  in  1775,  by  John  Topham,  esq.  * 

GLANVIL  (John),  a  grandson  of  the  preceding,  was' 
born  at  Broad  Hinton  in  1664,  and  became  at  the  age  of^ 
fourteen  a  commoner  of  Trinity-college,  Oxford.  He 
studied  law  afterwards  in  Lincoln's-inn,  and  was  admitted 
to  the  b^r.  Ha  is  known  by  some  minor  poems,  the  best 
of  which  may  be  seen  in  Mr,  Nichols's  Collection.  He 
made  the  tirst  English  translation  of  Fontenelle's  *^  Plu- 
rality of  Worlds.''     He  died  at  Broad  Hinton  in  1735.*  ' 

GLANVIL  (Joseph),  a  distinguished  writer,  was  bora 
in  1636,  at  Plymouth  in  Devonshire,  where  he  probably 
received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  education,  and  was  enr  ^ 
tered  at  Exeter-college,  Oxford,  April  19,  1653.  He  was- 
placed  under  Samuel  Conant,  an  eminent  tutor,  and  hav- 
ing made  great  proficiency  in  his  studies,  he  proceeded 
B.  A.  Oct.  li,  1655.  The  following  year,  he  removed  to 
Lin  coin -college,  probably  upon  some  view  of  preferment. . 

1  Prince's  Worthies  of  X>eTOii.—Ath.  Ox.  vol.  IL— Fuller's  Worthres.— Uoyd'i 
.Memoirs,  fol.  585.  ' 

«  Prince's  Worihiei.— Alb.  Ox.  vol.  II.— NichoU's  Poems,  vol.  IV.  . 

G  L  A  N  V  I  L.  13 

Taking  tbc  ilegree  of  M.  A.  June  29,  1658>  he  assumed 
the  priestljf  office,  according  to  the  forms  us6d  by  the  sec- 
taries at  that  time,  and  became  chaplain  to  Francis  Rouse, 
•sq.  then  made  provost  of  Eton-college,  by  Oliver  Crom- 
welly  and  designed  for  one. of  his  house  of  lords.     Had  this 
patroQ  lived  a  little  longer,  Glanvil's  expectations  would, 
.00  doubt,  have  been  fully  answered  ;  since  according  tQ 
Wood,  he  entirely  complied  with  the  principles  of  th© 
.then  prevailing  party,  to  whom  his  very  prompt  pen  must 
needs  have  been  serviceable.     But  Rouse  dying  the  same 
"year,  he  returned  to  his  college  in  Oxford,  and  pursued 
his  studies  there  during  the  subsequent  distractions  in  the 
state.  '  About  this  time,  he  became  acquainted  with  Mr, 
.Richard  Baxter,  who  Entertained   a  great  opinion  of  his 
genius,  and  continued  his  respect  for  him  aftei*  the  restor- 
ation, .when  they  espoused  different  causes.     The  friend- 
ship, was  equally  warm  .on   Glanvil's  side,  who,  Sept.  3^ 
.1661j  addressed' an  epistle  to  his  friend,  professing  him- 
self to  be  an  admirer  of  his  preaching  and  writings;  he 
also  offered  to  write  something  in  hid  defence,  but  yielded 
to  his  advice,  not  to  sacrifice  his  views  of  preferment  to 
their  friendship. 

,  Accordingly,  he  had  the  prudence  to  take  a  different 
method;  and  turning  his  thoughts  to  a  subject  not  only 
inoffensive  in  itself,  but  entirely  popular  at  that  time,  viz. 
a  defence  of  experimental  philosophy  against  the  nbtional 
way  of  Aristotle  and  the  schools,  he  published  it  this  year, 
under  the  title.of"  The  Vanity  of  Dogmatizing,  or  con- 
fidence in  opinions,  manifested  in  a  discourse  of  the  short- 
ness and  uncertainty  of  our  knowledge  and  its  causes,  with 
some  reflections  on  Peripateticism,  and  an  apology  for 
philosophy,*'  1661,  8vo.  These  meetings,  which  gave  rise 
.to  the  Royal  Society,  were  much  frequented  at  this  time, 
and  encouraged  by  learned  men  of.  all  persuasions;  and 
this  small  discourse  introduced  him  to  the  knowledo^e  of 
the  literary  world  in  a  very  favourable  light.  He  had  an 
opportunity  of  improving  by  the  weakness  of  an  antagonist, 
whom  he  answered  in  an  appendix  to  a  piece  called 
.  "Scepsis  Scientifica,  or  confessed  ignorance  the  way  to 
science,  in  an  Essay  on  the  Vanity  of  Dogmatizing,  and 
confident  opinion,'*  1665,  4to,  Our  author  dedicated  this 
piece  to  the  royal  society,  in  terms  of  the  highest  respect 
for  that  ipjst;itution ;  and  the  f^ociety  being  then  in  a  state 
•f  ia£uicy,  i^nd  having  many  enemies,  as  might  be' ex- 

14  G  L  A  N  V  I  L. 

peeled  in  an  undertaking  which  seemed  to  threateh  tfae 
ruin  of  the  old  way  of  philosophizing  in  the  schools,  the 
**  Scepsis"  was  presented  to  the  council  by  lord  Breret#tfiy 
at  a  meeting,  Dec.  7,  1664;  when  his  lordship  also  pro- 
posed the  author  for  a  member,  and  he  was  elected  acconl- 
ingly  in  that  month. 

In  1663,  the  house  of  John  Mumpesson  of  TedwH>rth,  in 
Wiltshire,  being  disturbed  by  the  beating  of  a  drum  in- 
\isibly  cv^ry  night,  our  author  turned  his  thoughts  to  thdt 
subject,  and  in  1666  printed^  in  4to,  "  Some  philosophi- 
cal considerations,  touching  the  being  of  Witches  and 
Witchcraft.'*  In  this  piece  he  defended  the  possibility  of 
witchcraft,  which  drew  him  into  a  controversy  that  ended 
only  with  his  life :  during  the  course  of  it,  be  propo^d  lo 
con6rm  his  opinion  by  a  collection  of  several  narratives 
relating  to  it.  But  as  he  held  then  a  correspondence  with 
Mr.  Boyle,  that  gentleman,  ob^serving  with  how  much 
warmth  the  dispute  was  carried  on,  gave  him  many  cau- 
tions about  managing  so  tender  a  subject ;  and  hinted  to 
bim,  that  the  credit  of  religion  might  suffer  by  weak  argu- 
ments upon  such  topics.  In  answer  to  which,  Glanvil  pro- 
fesses himself  much  obliged  for  those  kind  admonition&y 
and  promises  to  be  exceeding  careful  in  the  choice  of  his 
.  relations :  however,  he  made  a  shift  to  pick  out  no  less 
than  twenty-six  modern  relations,  besides  that  of  Mr* 
Mumpesson's  drummer.  They  were  not,  however,  printed 
till  after  his  death,  in  a  piece  entitled  "  Sadducismus 
Triumphans,  in  two  parts,''  1681,  8vo;  and  again  in  168^, 
with  large  additions,  by  ©r.  Henry  More,  the  editor  of 
both  editions ;  to  whom  our  author  had  addressed  a  letter 
on  the  subject :  and  in  an  appendix  to  the  first  patt  con- 
cerning the  possibility  of  apparitions,  there  is  added  an 
account  of  the  nature  of  a  spirit,  translated  by  our  author, 
from  the  two  last  chapters  of  More's'^^  Enchiridion  Meta-^ 

His  defence  of  the  royal  society  having  procured  him 
many  friends,  some  of  them  obtained  for  him  the  rectory 
of  the  abbey  church  at  Bath,  into  which  he  was  inducted 
June  the  same  year,  1666.  From  this  time  he  fixed  his 
residence  in  that  city  ;  and,  continuing  on  all  occasions  tof 
testify  his  zeal  for  the  new  philosophy,  by  exploding  Aris-i' 
totle,  he  was  desired  to  make  a  visit  to  Mr.  Robert  Gross^ 
vicar  of  Chew,  near  Pensford,  in  Somersetshire,  a  great 
zealot  for  the  old  established  way  of  teaching  in  the  sekK>lsi' 

G  L  A  N  V  I  L.  IS 

Out  avAckr  wcepted  the  iovitation,  and  going  to  Pensfoid 
in  1677,  happened  to  come  into  the  room  just  as  the  vicar 
was  entertaining  bis  company  with  the  praises  of  Aristotle 
and  bis  philosophy.  After  their  first  civilities  were  paid^ 
be  Wjeot  on  widi  bis  discourse,  and,  applying  himself  to 
Jilr.  Glanvil,  treated  the  royal  society  and  modern  philo- 
sophers with  soiQe  contempt.  Glanvil,  not  expecting  so 
sudden  a»  attack,  was'  in  some  measure  surprized,  and 
did  not  miswer  with  that  quickness  and  facility  as  he  other- 
if^  might  probably  have  done.  But  afterwards,  both  ia 
conversation  and  by  letters,  be  attacked  his  antagonist's 
assertion,  that  Aristotle  had  more  advantages  for  know- 
ledge than  jthe  royal  society,  or  all  the  present  age  had  or 
ef}jSd  haye,  because,  **  totam  peragravit  Asiam,'*  be  tra- 
Teljled  oyer  all  Asia. 

Glanvil  likewise  laid  the  plan  of  a  farther  defence  of  the 
iroyal  society ;  but  bishop  Sprat's  history  of  it  being  then 
^D  the  press,  he  waited  to  see  how  far  that  treatise  should 
andcipatf^  his  design.  Upon  its  publication,  in  1667, 
fijiding  there  was  room  left  for  him,  he  pursued  bis  reso« 
lution,  and  printed  his  piece  the  following  year,  with  this 
^tle,  expressing  the  motives  of  writing  it :  *^  Plus  Ultra, 
or  the  Progress  and  Advancement  of  Knowledge  since  the 
(days  of  Aristotle,  in  an  account  of  some  of  the  most  re- 
iparkable  late  improvements  of  practical  useful  learning, 
to  encourage  philosophical  endeavours,  occasioned  by  a 
conference  with  one  of  the  national  way,''  1668,  l2mo* 
|n  some  parts  of  this  piece  he  treated  the  Somersetshire 
yicar  with  rough  raillery,  and  this  the  vicar  returned,  in  m 
piece  whiph  was  denied  the  press  both  at  Oxford  and  Lon^ 
don,  for  its  scurrility.  Glanvil  somehow  obtaining  the 
intents,  printed  them  at  London,  with  proper  remarks  of 
bis  own,  under  the  title  of  ^*  The  Chew- Gazette,"  but  of 
these  there  were  only  100  taken  off,  and  those  dispersed  into 
private  hands,  in  order,  as  Glanvil  said,  that  Crosse's 
^ame  might  not  be  made  public,  ,&c.  After  this  letter 
iros  pqbUi^ed>  Crosse  wrote  ballads  against  our  author  and 
the  royal  society;  while  other  wags  at  Oxford,  pleased 
t^itb  the  controversy,  made  doggrel  ballads  on  them  both. 

This  aiflbir  also  involved  Glanvil  in  a  scurrilous  dispute 
^tb  Heory  St^ibbe,  who  was  then,  as  Wood  observes,  a 
memer  practitioner  at  Bath  ;  and  bearing  no  good -will  to 
the  proceedings  of  Glsinvil,  took  Crosse's  part,  and  encou- 
iVfedJum  la  wfUe  against  the  virtuosi,  and  ^t  the  same 

16  fe  L  A  N  V  I  t. 

time  entered  the  lists  himself,  and  the  following  pamphlets 
passed  between  them.     I.  "  The  Plus  Ultra  reduced  to  a 
Nonplus,"  &c.  1670,  4to,  Stubbe.     2.  *' A  prefatory  An- 
swer to  Mr.  Henry  Stubbe,  the  doctor  of  Warwick,  where- 
in the  malignity,  &c.  of  bis  Animadversions  are  discovered,'' 
-1C71,   12n)o^  Glanvih     3.   "  A  Preface  against  Ecebolius 
Glanvil,  F*  R.S.  subjoined  to  his  Reply,  &c.  Oxford,"  1671^ 
4to,  Stubbe.     The  doctor  also  fell  upon  his  antagonist,  in 
his  "  Epistolary  Discourse  concerning  Phlebotomy,"  1671, 
'4to;  upon  which  Glanvil  immediately  published  "A  farther 
Discovery  of  Mr.  Stubbe,  in  a  brief  reply  to  his  last  pam- 
phlet," 1671,   8vo,  to  which  was  added,  ^*  Ad  clerum  So- 
mersetensem  Epistola  nPOS4»aNH2I2."     And  the  doctor 
among  other  things,  having  censured  the  new  philosophy,  as 
tending  to  encourage  atheism  our  authorpublished  his  ^'Ph^ 
losophia  Pia,"  &c.  1671,  8vo-,  which  closed  the  controversy. 
When,  however,  Dr.  Meric  Casaubon  entered  the  lists 
in  his  "  Letter  to  Peter  du  Moulin,"  1663,  and  managed 
•the  argument  with  more  candour  and  greater  knowledge, 
Glanvil  chose  to  be  silent;  because  not  willing  to  appear 
in  a  controversy  with  a  person,  as  be  says,  of  fame  and 
learning,  who  had  treated  him  with  so  much  civility,  and 
in   a  way  so  different  from  that  of  his  other  assailants. 
While  he  was  thus  pleading  the  cause  of  the  institution  in 
general,  he  shewed  himself  no  unuseful  member  in  respect 
to  the  particular  business  of  it.  '  The  society  having  given 
out  some  queries  to  be  made  about  mines,  our  author  com- 
municated a  paper  in  relation  to  those  of  Mendip  hills, 
and  such  as  respect  the  Bath,  which  was  well  received, 
ordered  to  be  registered,  and  afterwards  printed  in  their 

In  the  mean  time,  he  was  far  from  neglecting  the  duties 
of  his  ministerial  function ;  on  the  contrary,  he  distin* 
guished  himself  so  remarkably  by  his  discourses  from  the 
pulpit,  that  he  was  frequently  desired  to  preach  upon 
public  and  extraordinary  occasions,  and  several  of  these 
«ermons  were  printed  in  a  collection  after  his  death.  But 
in  justice  to  his  memory  we  must  not  omit  to  miention  one 
which  was  never  printed.  His  old  antagonist  Stubbe, 
going  from  Bath  on  a  visit  to  Bristol^  had  the  misfortune 
on  his  return  to  fall  from  his  horse  into  a  riyer,  which, 
though  shallow,  proved  sufficient  to  drown  him :  hid  corpse 
being  interred  in  the  abbey-church,  our  rector  paid  an 
honourable  tribute  to  his  memory,  in  a  fuDeral  sermon  qq 

&  L  A  N  V  i  L.  17 

the  oecasion.  He  also  wrote  an  **  Essay  concerning 
Preaching,"  for  the  use  of  a  young  divine ;  to  which  he 
added,  <*  A  seasonable  Defence  of  Preaching,  and  the 
plain  way  of  it."  This  was  chiefly  levelled  against  that 
affectation  of  wit  and  fine  speaking  which  began  then  to  be 
fashionable.  This  essay  was  published  in  1678,  and  the 
same  year  be  was  collated  by  his  majesty  to  a  prebend  in 
the  church  of  Worcester.  This  promotion  was  procured 
by  the  marquis  of  Worcester,  to  whom  his  wife  was  re- 
lated ;  and  it  was  the  more  easily  obtained,  as  he  had  been 
chaplain  to  the  king  ever  since  1672  ;  in  which  year  he 
exchanged  the  vicarage  of  Frome  for  the  rectory  of  Street, 
with  the  chapel  of  Walton  annexed,  in  Somersetshire,  an 
exchange  which  was  easily  accomplished,  since  both  the 
livings  were  in  the  patronage  of  sir  James  Thynne. 

He  published  a  great  number  of  tracts  besides  what  have 
been  mentioned.     Among  which  are,   1.  ^'  A  Blow  at  Mo- 
dern Sadducism,"  &c.  1668,  to  which  was  added,  2.  '^  A 
Relation  of  the  fancied  Disturbances  at  the  house  of  Mr. 
Mumpesson  ;^^  as  also,  3.  ^*  Reflections  on  Drollery  and 
Atheism^"     4.  *^  Palpable  Evidence  of  Spirits  and  Witch- 
draft,"   &c.  1668.     5,  "A  Whip  for  the  Droll  Fidler  to 
the  Atheist,"    1668.      6.  ^^  Essays  on  several  important 
subjects  in  Philosophy  and  Religion,"  1676,  4to.     7.  "  An 
Essay  concerning  Preaching,"   1678,  8vo,  to  which  was 
added>  8»  *^  A  seasonable  Defence  of  Preaching,  and  the 
plain  Way  of  it."     9.  "  Letters  to  the  Duchess  of  New- 
castle."    lOi  Three  single  Sermons,  besides  four  printed 
together,  under  the  title  of  ^f  Seasonable  Reflections  and 
Discourses,  in  order  to  the  Conviction  and  Cure  of  the 
scoffing  Infidelity  of  a  degenerate  age;"     As  he  had  a 
lively  imagination,  and  a  flowing  style,  these  came  from 
him  very  easily,  and  he  continued  the  exercise  of  his  pen 
to  the  last ;  the  press  having  scarcely  finished  his  piece, 
entitled  "The  zealous  and  impartial  Protestant,"  &c.  1680, 
when  he  was  attacked  by  a  fever,  which  baffling  the  phy- 
sician^s  skilly  cut  him  off  in  the  vigour  of  his  age.     He  died 
at  Bath,    Nov.  4th,   1680^    about  the  age  of  forty -four. 
Mr,  Joseph  Pleydel,  archdeacon  of  Chichester,  preached 
his  funeral  sermon^  when  his  corpse  was  interred  in  his 
awn  parish  church,  where  a  decent  monument  and  inscrip- 
tion was  afterwards  dedicated  to  his  memory  by  Margaret 
lus  widow,  sprung  from  the  Selyvins  of  Gloucestershire. 
She  was  his  second  wife  ^  but  he  had  no  issue  by  either. 
Vol.  XVI.  G 


18  OLA  N  V  I  L. 

Soon  after  bis  deccasre,  ffevcml  of  his  tfemionSy  noA 
other  pieces,  were  coUected  and  published  with  the  title  of 
^^  Some  Discourses^  Sermons,  and  Kemains/^  les^l,  4tOy 
by  Dr.  Heory  Horneck,  who  tells  us  that  death  snatehed 
him  away,  when  the  learned  world  expected  some  of  his 
greatest  attempts  and  enterprizes.  Horneck  gave  a  large, 
and  apparently  very  just  character  of  Gianvil,  who  was  un- 
questionably a  man  of  learning  and  genius,  and  although 
he  retained  the  belief  in  witchcraft,  surmounted  many  of 
the  other  prejudices  of  his  time.' 

GLASS  (JaHN),  a  Scotch  clergyman,  and  founder  of  & 
sect,  was  born  at  Dundee,  163^8,  and  educated  in  the 
New-college,  at  St  Andrew^s,  where  he  took  his  degrees, 
and  was  settled  minister  of  a  country  church,  near  the 
place  of  his  uativity.  In  1.727  he  published  a  treatise  t0 
prove  that  the  civil  establishment  of  religion  was  incon- 
sistent with  Christianity,  for  which  be  was  deposed,  and 
became  the  father  of  a  new  sect,  called  from  him  Glassites;  ^ 
and  afterwards  from  another  leading  propagator,  Sande- 
tnanians.  Some  account  of  their  teoets  will  be  given  under 
the  article  Sandeman.  Glass  wrote  a  great  number  of 
controversial  tracts,  wbkh  have  been*  published  ^t  Edin- 
burgh, in  4  vols.  8vo.  He  died  att  Dundee,  in  1773,  aged 
seventy- five.* 

(aLASS  (JoHif),  son  of  the  sb^ve,  was  born  at  Dundee, 
in  1725,  and  brought  up  a  surgeon,  in  which  capacity  he 
went  sev^al  voyages  to  the  West  Indies,  but  not  liking 
his  profession,  be  accepted  the  command  of  a  merchanl'a 
ship  belonging  to  London,  and  engaged  in  the  trade  to* 
th€^  Brazilsr  Being  a  man  of  considerable  abilities,  he 
published  in  1  vol.  4U),  **  A  Deoription  of  TenerifFe,  with 
the  Manners  aiul  Customs  of  the  Portuguese  who  are 
settled  there.*'  In  I76S  he  went  over  to  the  Brasilsy 
taking  along  with  him  his  wife  and  daughter  ;^  and  in'  1765 
set  sail  for  London,  bringing  along  with  him  all  his  pro- 
perty ;  but  just  when  the  ship  came  within  sight  of  the 
coast  of  Ireland,  four  of  the  seamen  enteted  into  a  con-^ 
spiracy,  murdered  captain  Glass,  his  wife,  daughter,  the 
mate,  one  seaman,  and  two  boys.  These  miscreants^ 
having  loaded  their  boat  with  dollars,  sunk  the  ship,  and 
landed  at  Ross,  whence  they  proceeded  to  Dublin,  where 
ihey  were  apprehended  and  executed  Oct.  1764.* 

*  Gen.  Diet— Biog.  Brit—Ath.  On.  vol.  U.— .Priuctr's  Wortbieir 
9  PMceding  edit,  of  tbis  0ict.  *  Ibid. 

GLASS  I  U&  Id 

GLASSIUS  (Solomon),  an  ^mioetit  Getman  divine  and 
tritjc,  was  born  May  20^  1593,  at  SondershauseuV  ia 
Tburingla,  and  after  some  education  under  a  private  tutor, 
was  sent  in  1612  to  Jena,  where  he  was  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  D.  D.  and  was  made  professor  of  divinity.  Hm 
was  also  appointed  superintendant  of  the  churches  ^  and 
schools  in  the  duchy  of  Saxe-Grotba^  and  exercised  th« 
duties  of  these  offices  with  great  reputation.  He  died  at 
Gotha  July  27,  k6B6.  His  principal  work  was  published 
in  1623,  4to,  entitled  ^^  Philologia  Sacra,^'.  which  is  pro- 
nounced by  Mosheim  and  Buddeus  to  be  extremely  useful 
for  the  interpretation  ojT  Scripture,,  as  it  throws  much  light 
i^pon  the  language  and  phraseology  of  the  inspired  writers. 
There  have  been  several  editions,  the  last  at  Leipsic,  in 
1776,  by  professor  Dathius,  under  the  title  ^^  Philologia 
Sacra  bis  temporibus  accommodata.*'  He  was  author,  like* 
wise,  of  "  Onomatologia  Messiae  Propbetica  ;"  "  Christo<» 
]ogia  Mosaica  et  Davidica;'^  >^  Exegesis  Evangeliorum  el 
Epistolarum,''  and  some  other  pieces.^ 

GLAUBER  (John  Rodolph),  a  celebrated  chemist  of 
Amsterdam,  and  called  the  Paracelsus  of  his  age,  was  born 
in  Germany  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
He  travelled  much  in  the  pursuit  of  chemical  knowledge, 
and  collected  many  secret  processes ;  and  his  experiments 
contributed  to  throw  much  light  on  the  composition  and 
analysis  of  the  metals,  inflammable  substances,  and  salts. 
In  fact  be  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  the  labora.^ 
tory.  He  did  tuH  always  see  the  proper  application  of  his 
own  experiments,  and  vainly  fancied  that  he  had  disco- 
vered the  panacea,  and  the  philosopher's  stone,  which 
were  at  that  time  object(Sr  of  pursuit;  and  the  disappoint- 
tient  of  many  persons  who  had  been  seduced  by  bis  pro- 
mises, contributed  to  bring  the  art  of  chemistry  into  con« 
tempt.  His  theory  is  full  of  obscurity^  but  bis  practice 
has  perhaps  been  misrepresented  by  those  who  listened  to 
bis  vain  and  pompous  pretensions ;  and  who  accuse  him  of ' 
a  dishonourable  traffick,  in  first  selling  his  secrets  ta 
chemists  at  an  enormous  price,  of  again  disposing  of  them 
to  other  persons,  and  lastly,  of  making  them  public  iiv 
Ofder  to  extend  his  veputation.  Glauber  published  about 
twenty  treatises ;  in  some  of  which  be  appears  in  the  cha« 
racter  of  physician,  in  others  in  that  of  an  adept  or  metal- 

*  Frekeri  Theatrum.^^Moreru-— Saxii  Onoaiast. 



lurgist ;  in  the  latter  he  most  particularly  excelled.  How*- 
ever,  it  would  be  unjust  not  to  give  him,  the  praise  of 
acuteness  of  mind,  of  facility  and  address  in  tl>e  proseeu- 
tion  of  his  experiments,  and  of  extensive  chemical  knovr«- 
ledge.  He  was  the  inventor  of  a  salt  which  to  this  day  re^ 
tains  his  name  in  the  shops  of  our  apothecaries.  The 
works  of  Glauber  have  appeared  in  different  languages  y 
the  majority  of  editions  are  in  German,  some  in  Latin,  and 
others  in  French.  A  collection  of  the  whole. in  Latin  was 
published  at  Francfort  in  1658,  in  8vo,  and  again  1659^ 
in  4to.  An  English  translation  was  published  by  Chriato-^ 
pher  Pack,  London,  1689,  foK* 

GLISSO^  (Francis),  an  English  physician,  was  son  of 
William  Giisson,  of  Rampisham,  in  Dorsetshire,  and  grand- 
son of  Walter  Giisson,  of  the  city  of  Bristol.  He  appears 
to  have  been  bom  in  1596.  Where  he  learned  the  first 
rudiments  of  his  grammar  is  not  known ;  but  he  was  ad- 
mitted June  18,  1617,  of  Caius  college,  in  Cambridge, 
apparently  with  a  view  to  physic.  He  first,  however,  went 
through  the  academical  courses  of  logic  and  philosophy, 
and  proceeded  in  arts,  in  which  he  took  both  degrees,  that 
of  B.  A.  in  1620,  and  of  M.  A.  in  1624 ;  and  being  chosen 
fellow  of  his  college,  was  incorporated  M.  A.  at  Oxford, 
Oct.  25,  1627.  From  this  time  he  applied  himself  parti- 
cularly to  the  study  of  medicine,  and  took  his  doctor's  de- 
gree at  Cambridge  ia  1634,  and  was  appointed  regiuspro-* 
fessor  of  physic  in  the  room  of  Ralph  Winterton ;  which 
office  he  held  forty  years.  But  not  chusing  to  reside  con- 
stantly at  Cambridge,  he  offered  himself,  and  was  admitted^ 
candidate  of  the  college  of  physicians,  London,  in  1634, 
and  was  elected  fellow,  Sept.  30, « the  ensuing  year. 

In  the  study  of  his  art,  he  had  always  set  the  immortal 
Harvey  before  him  as  a  pattern  ;  and  treading  in  his  steps, 
be  was  diligent  to  improve  physic  by  anatomical  dissections 
and  observations.  In  1639  he  was  appointed  to  read  Dr. 
Edward  Wall's  lecture,  and  in  executing  that  office,  made 
several  new  discoveries  of  great  use  in  establishing  a  ra« 
tional  practice  of  physic ;  but  on  the  breaking  out  of  the 
civil  wars,  he  retired  to  Colchester,  and  followed  the  bu- 
siness of  his  profession  with  great  repute  in  those  times  of 
public  confusion.     He  was  thus  employed  during  the  me- 


1  Rtes's  CyclopsBclia,  from  Eloy't  Diet.  Hist. 

G  L  I  S  S  O  N. 


morable  siege  and  surrender  of  that  city  to  the  rebels  iti 
1648  ;  and  resided  there  some  time  after. 

Amidst  his  practice  he  still  prosecuted  his  anatomical 
researches,  and  from  observations  iQade  in  this  way  pub- 
lished an  account  of  the  rickets  in  16^0,  in  which  he 
shewed  how  the  viscera  of  such  as  had  died  of  that  disorder 
were  affected*.  This  was  the  more  interesting,  as  the 
rickets  had  been  then  first  discovered  in  the  counties  of 
Dorset  and  Somerset,  only  about  fifteen  years  before.  In 
this  treatise  he  had  the  assistance  of  two  of  his  colleagues. 
Dr.  George  Bate,  and'  Dr.  Ahasuerus  Regemorter;  and 
these  with  other  fellows  of  the  college,  requesting  him  to 
communicate  to  the  public  some  of  his  anatomical  lectures 
which  had  been  read  before  them,  he  drew  those  up  in  a 
continued  discburse,  printed  with  the  title  *^  Anatomia 
Hepatis,''  Loud. .1654,  which  brought  him  into  the  highest 
esteem  among  the  facuhy,  and  he  was  chosen  one  of  the 
electors x)f  the  college  the  year  following,  and  was  after- 
wards president  for  several  years.  He  published  other 
pieces  besides  those  already  mentioned;  viz.  1.  ^*  De 
Lympbseductis  nuper  repertis,"  Amst.  1659,  with  the 
*^  Anatomica  prolegomena  &  Anatomia  Hepatis.'*  2,  *^  De 
naturae  substantia  energetica,.  seu  de  via  vits  nature 
ejusque  tribus  primis  facultatibus,"  &c.  Lond.  1672,  4td. 
His  last  work  was  a  ^^  Treatise  of  the  Stomach  and  Intes- 
tines,'' printed  at  Amsterdam  in  1677,  not  long  before  his 
deathj  which  happened  that  year  in  the  parish  of  St/Bride^ 
London,  in  his  eighty-first  year. 

Wood  observes,  that  he  died  much  lamented,  as  a  per- 
son to  whose  learned  lucubrations  and  deep  disquisitions 
in  physic  not  only  Great  Britain,  but  remoter  kingdoms, 
owe  a  particular  respect  and  veneration,  and  it  is  certain 
that  he  was  exceeded  in  judgment  and  accuracy  by  none  of 
the  English  anatomists,  who  followed  the  steps  of  Harvey* 
Boerhaaye  terms  him  ^^  omnium  anatomicorum  exactii^si"" 
mus,'' '  and  Haller  speaks  in  praise  of  all  his  writings.     Se- 

•  The  title  of  it  is,  "  De  Rftcbitide; 
tivemorbo  puerilt  qui  vulgo  the  Rickets 
dicitar,"  Lond.  1650.  But  though 
this  disease  was  then  modern,  yet  a 
treatise  had  been  publi^thed  before  this 
of  our  authar,  in  1645,  Svo,  by  Dr. 
Whistler,  afterwards  president  of  the 
college,  with  the  title  of  «  Ps&do- 
f|^lanchD9iteocace,"  Uom  the  Tiscera 

being  judged  to  be  the  parts  princi- 
pally affected.  In  which  opinion  he 
was  followed  by  our  author ;  but  the 
cause  and  nature  of  the  disorder  was 
belter  explained  afterwards  by  Dr. 
John  Mayow,  iu  a  small  treatise  pub- 
lished upon  it  in  16634  ^^vao,  and  agaii^ 
in  1681. 

52  GLOVER, 

i^eral  of  bis  original  cuanuscripts,  which  wei^  in  sir  Han^ 
Sloane's  possession,  are  now  in  the  British  Museum.^ 
,     GLOUCESTER.     See  ROBERT  OF. 

GLOVl^R  (Richard),  an  English  poet,  the  son  of  Ri^ 
ehard  Glover,  a  Hamburgh  merchant  in  Lobdon,  was  born 
in  St.  Martin*s-lane,  Cannon-street,  in  1712.  i  Being  pro- 
bably intended  for  trade,  he  received  no  other  education 
than  what  the  school  of  Cheam,  in  Surrey,  afforded,  which 
he  was  afterwards  induced  to  in^prove  by  an  ardent  love  of 
learning,  and  a  desire  to  cultivate  his*  poetical  tijents  ac« 
cording  to  the  purest  models.  His  poetical  efforts  were 
,very  early,  for  in  his  sixteenth  year  he  wrote  a  poem  to 
.the  memory  of  sir  Isaac  Newton,  which  was  supposed  to 
Jiave  merit  enough  to  deserve  ^  place  in  the  view  of  that 
.celebrated  author's  philosophy,  published  in  1728,  by  Dr^ 
•Henry  Pembertoo,  This  physician,  a  man  of  inueh  sci- 
jence,  and  of  some  taste,  appears  to  have  been  warmly  at* 
Jtached  to  the  interests  of  our  young  po6t,  and  at  a  time 
•when  there  were  few  regular  vehicles  of  praise  or  criticisfii, 
^ook  every  opportunity  of  encouragifig  his  efforts,  and  ap* 
prizing  the  nation  of  this  new  addition  to  its  literary  ho^« 

•  At  the  usual  period  Glover  became  engaged  in  the 
Hamburgh  trade,  but  continued  his  attachment  to  litera<^ 
ture  and  the  muses,  and  was,  says  Dr.  Warton,  one  of  the 
best  and  most  accurate  Greek  scholars  of  his  time.  It  is 
inentioned  in.  the  life  of  Green,  that  he  published  "The 
Spleen"  of  that  poet,  in  which  he  is  complimented  on  ac- 
count of  hia  study  of  the  ancient  Greek  poets,  and  bis  wish 
to  emulate  their  fam^.  Green  bad  probably  seen  some  part 
of  "  Leonidas,"  which  was  begun  when  he  was  young»j 
and  had  been  submitted  in  specimens  to  many  of  his  friend$. 
This  poem  was  first  published  in  1737,  in  a  4to  volume,  con- 
sisting of  nine  books.  Its  reception  was  highly  flattering,  for 
in  this  and  the  following  year  it  passed  through  three  edi- 
tions. It  was  dedicated  to  lord  Cobfaam,  one  of  his  early  pa- 
trons, and  whom,  it  is  supposed,  he  furnished  with  many  of 
the  inscriptions  at  Stowe,  now  erased.  It  was  also  strongly 
recommended  by  such  of  that  nobleman's  political  friends 
as  were  esteemed  the  arbiters  of  taste.  Lord  Lyttelton,  in 
the  periodical  paper  called  "  Common  Sense,*^  praised  it 

1  Gen.  Diet. — Wood's  Fasti,,  p.  238.— Aikin'sBiog.  Memoirs  of  Medieiae.— 
Cole's  MS  AtheiUB  in  Brit.  Mus. — Birch's  History  of  the  Rojtl  Society. 


ia  tbe  warmest  teraui,  not  ooly  fpr  its  poetkal  beftDties^ 
but  it3  political  tendeocy,  ^'  the  whole  plan  and  purposa 
of  it  being  to  show  the  superiority  of  freedofti  oyer  slavery ; 
sod  how  much  virtue^  public  spiriti  and  the  love  of  lii- 
berty^  are  preferable,  both  in  tiiyeir  nature  and  eiiects,.  to 
riches,  luxury,  and  the  insolence  of  power."  The  stiBi^ 
Qobbn^ati  also  addressed  verses  to  our  author,  in  which  be 
inveighs  with  much  asperity  against  the  degeneracy  of  the 
tijmesy  but,  not  very  consistently,  compares  {Ingland  to 
Greece,  and  France  to  Persia.  Other  writers,  particularly 
Fidding,  in  the  paper  called  '^Tbe  Champion,"  took  up  thft 
pen  in  favour  of  **  Leouidas,"  which  being  piiblished  JusI 
sfter  the  prince  of  Wales  had  been  driven  from  St  James's^ 
and  began  to  Jkeep  a  separate  court,  it  was  praibied  by  the 
whole  of  this  new  court,  an^  by  the  adherents  in  general 
of  opposition,  not  beyond  its  merit,  but  too  evidently  from 
a  motive  which  could  not  always  prevail,,  and  which  ceaned 
to  animate  their  zeal  in  its  favour,  when  Walpote,  the  sup^ 
posed  author  of  all  our  national  grievances,  was  compelled 
to  resign. 

Amidst  this  high  encouragement,  the  services  of  Pf. 
I^emberton  mu^t  oot  be  foigotten.  Soon  after  the  appear^ 
aace  of  <'  Leonidas,"  this  steady  frieud  eodeavoured  to  ii«s 
ihe  public  attention  on  it,  by  a  long  pamphlet,  enidtled 
f^  Observations  on  Poetry,  especially  Epic,  oc^asipned  bjr 
the  late  poem  upon  Leonida^,"  1738,  12 mo.  In  this^  with 
many  just  remarks  of  a  general  kind,  ihe  author  carries  bja 
opinion  of  Glover^s  production  beyond  all  reasonable 
bounds.  In  the  following  year.  Glover  published  ^^  Lour 
^00,  or  the  Progress  of  Comnierce,"  and  the  more  ceie« 
Wted  ballad  of  ^^  Hosier's  GhosV  both  written  with  H 
view  to  rouse  the  nation  to  reseat  the  conduct  of  the  Sp^*- 
W'dsy  and  to  promote  what  had  seldom  beei|  known,  a 
^f^ar  called  for  by  the  people,  and  opposed  by  the  miiiis** 
try«  Puring  the  same  polivicai  dissentions,  which,  as  «i^uaJ# 
?ere  warmest  in  the  ,city  of  London,  Glover  presided  at 
several  meetings  called  to  •set  aside*  or  censure  l^  oooduci; 
of  those  city  magistrates  or  members  of  parliament  who 
voted  for  tliecoui-t.  His  speeches  at  those  meetings,  if 
«e  may  trust  to  the  report  of  them  in  the  periodical  jour* 
uals  of  1739  adid  1740,  were  elegant,  spirited,  and  calcu^ 
lated  to  give  him  considerable  weight  in  the  deliberative 
si^sembliesof  iiis  £eUow-^is&ens.    The  latter  were,  indeejd. 

«9  f^y  ej^nyiucedi  of  jam  tabuu  mi4  ^fsali  M  t^  AppQiol 

24  GLOVER. 

bim  to  conduct  their  application  to  parliament^  on  the 
subject  of  the  neglect  shewn  to  their  trade  by  the  ruli-jg- 
administration.  His  services  in  this  last  affair  may  be  seen 
in  a  pamphlet  published  in  1743,  under  the  title  of  "A.* 
short  Account  of  the  late  application  to  parliament  made 
by  the  merchants  of  London  upon  the  neglect  of  their 
trade ;  with  the  substance  of  the  evidence  thereupon,  as 
summed  up  by  Mr.  Glover." 

In  1744,  he  was  offered  employment  of  a  very  different 
kind,  being  nominated  in  the  will  of  the  duchess  of  Marl- 
borough, to  write  the  duke's  life,  in  conjunction  iyith 
Mallet.  Hef  grace  bequeathed  500L  to  each  on  this  con- 
dition, but  Glover  immediately  renounced  his  share,  while 
Mallet,  who  had  no  scruples  of  any  kind  where  his  inte- 
rest was  concerned,  accepted  the  legacy,  and  continued 
to  receive  money  from  the  late  duke  of  Marlborough  on 
the  same  account,  although  after  twenty  years  of  talk  and 
boast,-  he  left  nothing  behind  him  that  could  shew  he  had 
ever  seriously  begun  the  work.  Glover's  rejection  of  tbi» 
legacy  is  the  more  honourable,  as  at  this  time  his  affairs' 
became  embarrassed^  from  what  cause  we  are  not  told.^ 
It  may  be  conjectured,  however,  that  he  had  shared  the 
usual  fate  of  .those  who  are  diverted  from  their' regular 
pursuits  by  the  dreams  of  political  patronage.  From  the 
prince  he  is  said  to  have  received  at  one  time  a  complete 
set  of'  the  classics,  elegantly  bound,  and  at  another  tiniie, 
during  his  distresses,  a  present  of  500/.  But  it  does  not 
appear  that  when  the  friends  of  "  Leonidas"  came  into' 
power;  they  made  any  permanent  provision  for  the  author. 

During  the  period  of  his  embarrassment,  he  retired 
itom  public  notice,  until  the  respect  and  gratitude  of  his 
humbler  friends  in  the  city  induced  them  to  request  that 
he  would  stand  candidate  for  the  ofHce  of  chamberlain  of 
London,  which  was  vacant  in  1751,  but  his  application 
was  unfortunately  made  when  the  majority  of  the  votes, 
had  already  been  engaged  to  sir  Thomas  Harrison.  His 
feelings  on  this  disappointment  did  him  much  honour, 
and  were  elegantly  expressed  in  the  speech  he  addressed 
to  the  livery  on  the  occasion.  In  it  he  made  an  allusion 
to  the  favour  of  the  prince  of  Wales,  which  was  probably 
well  understood  at  that  time.  By  the  death  of  that  most' 
illustrious  personage,  he  no  doubt  lost  a  powerful  patron. 

In   175S,  he  began  to  try  his  talents  in  dramatic  com- 
position, aad  produced  the  tragedy  of  ^<  Boadicea^*'  which  - 

O  L  O  V  E  H.  « 

was  performed  for  nine  nights  at  Drury-kne  theatre.  Dr, 
Pemberton,  with  his  accustomed  zeal,  wrote  a  pamphlet 
p  recommend  it,  and  among  the  inferior  critics,  it  Occa« 
sioned  a  temporary,  controversy.  Great  expectations  were 
formed  of  its  success  from  the  reputation  of  an  author 
who  had  acquired  so  much  praise  from  his  ^'  Leonidas.'* 
At  the  rehearsal,  he. read  his  <' Boadicea"  to  the  actors, 
but  his  manner  of  conveying  the  meaning  of  his  poem  was 
yery^inhappy  ;  his  voice  was  harsh,  and  his  elocution  dis- 
agreeable. Mr.  Garrick  was  vexed  to  see  him  mangle  his 
own  work,  and  politely  offered  to  relieve  him  by  reading 
an  act  or'  two  ;  but  the  author  imagining  that  he  was  the 
only  person  fit  to  unfold  his  intention  to  the  players,  per- 
listed  to  read  the  play  to  the  end,  to  the  great  mortifiea- 
tion  of  the  actors.  In  1761  he  published  bis  ^^  Medea/'  a 
tragedy,  written  on  the  Greek  model,  and  therefore  unfit 
for  the  modern  stage.  The  author,  indeed,  did  not  intend 
it  for  representation,  but  Mrs.  Yates  considered  the  ex- 
periment as  likely  to  procure  a  full  house  at  her  benefit, 
and  brought  it  forward  upon  that  occasion.  It  was  after- 
ward^  acted  a  f^vt  nights,  but  without  exciting  much  in- 

From  this  period.  Glover's  a£Fairs  took  a  more  promising 
turn,  although  in  what  way  we  are  not  told.  At  the  ac- 
cession of  his  preseat  majesty,  he  was  chosen  member  of 
parliament  for  Weymouth,  and  made  a  considerable  figure 
in  the  many  debates  to  which  the  confused  state  of  affairs 
in  India  gave  rise.  In  1772,  we  find  him  an  intelligent 
^nd  active  agent  in  adjusting  the  affairs  of  theHbank  of 
Douglas,  Heron  and  Company,  of  Scotland,  which  failed 
about  that  time ;  and  on  other  occasions,  where  the  mer- 
cantile interests  of  London  were  concerned,  he  distin- 
guisbed  hiraselfj  not  only  by  bis  eloquence,  but  by  that 
general  knowledge  of  commerce  which  inclines  to  enlarged 
and  hberal  measures.  In  1775,  the  West  India  merchants 
testified  the  sense  they  entertained  of  his  services  in  their 
affairs,  by  voting  him  a  piece  of  place  of  the  value  of  300/. 
The  speech  which  \A  delivered  in  the  house  of  commons, 
Qn  the  application  of  these  merchant^,  was  afterwards 
printed,  and  appears  to  have  been  the  last  of  his  public 

In  1770,  he  refhiblished  his  ^^  Leonidas,''  in  two  vols. 
12mo,  extended  from  nine  books  to  twelve,  and  the  atten- 
tion, noiv  bestowed  on  it|   recalling  bis  youthful  ideas^ 

t6  CLOVES. 

etrengtbened  by  tioie  and  obserratton,  probably  suggested 
*'  The  Athenatdy*'  which,  however^  he  did  not  Lhre  to  pubo* 
lish.  Soon  after  1775,  he  retired  from  public  bnsiiiess, 
but  J^ept  vp  an  intitmkcy  with  many  of  the  most  eminent 
.  scholars  of  the  day,  by  whom  be  was  highly  respected* 
After  experiencing,  for  some  time,  the  infirmities  of  age, 
be  departed  this  hte  at  his  bonse  in  Albemarle*street,  No* 
vember  25,  1785.     Glovei'  was  twice  married.   ^Uis  second 

wife  is  now  living,  atid  a  daughter,  married  to U^lseyi 


His  character  was  drawn  np  by  the  latie  Dr.  Brocklesby 
tor  the  (^ntleman^s  Magazine,  And  as  far  as  respects  bis 
^uniable  disposition,  was  confirmed  to  us  by  Dr.  Wartoo^ 
who  knew  him  well. — ^  Through  the  whole  of  his  life  Mr; 
Clover  was  by  ail  good  men  nevered^  by  the  ^ise  esteem'* 
ed,  by  the  great  sometimes  caressed  and  even  flattered^ 
and  now  his  death  is  sincerely  lamented  by  all  who  had  the 
happiness  to  contemplate  the  integrity  of  his  character. 
Mr.  Glover,  for  upwards  of  50  years  p^iist  through  every 
idicissitude  i)i  fortune,  exhibited  the  most  exemplary  sim* 
plicity  of  manners;  having  early  attained  that  perfect 
equanimity,  which  philosophy  often  recommends  in  the 
doset,  but  which  in  es^periettce  is  too  seldom  exercised  by 
other  men  in  tb^  test  of  trial.  In  Mr.  Gkwer  were  united 
a  wide  compass  of  accurate  information  in  all  mercantile 
concerns,  with  high  intellectual  powers  of  mind,  joined  to 
la  copious  flow  of  eloquence  as  an  orator  in  the  house  of 
commons.  Since  Milton  be  was  second  to  none  of  our 
English  poets,  in  his  disoriminaung  judicious  acquaintance 
with  all  ancient  as  well  as  modem  litersU^ure  ;  witness  his 
Leonidas,  Medea,  Boadicea,  and  London;  for,  having 
formed  his  own  character  upon  the  best  models  of  the 
Greek  wnters,  he  lived  as  if  he  ba^d  been  bred  a  disciple 
of  Socrates,  or  companion  of  Aristides.  Hence  his  poll* 
tical  turn  of  mind,  hence  his  unwarped  affection  and  actire 
zeal  for  the  rights  and  libeitieB  of  hia  country.  Hence  fait 
heartfelt  exultation  whenever  be  had  to  paint  the  impious 
designs  x>f  tyrants  in  ancient  times  frustrated,  or  in  modern 
defeated  in  their  nefarious  purposes  to  extirpate  liberty,  or 
ts>  trample  on  the  unalienable  rights  of  man,  however  re- 
mote in  time  or  space  from  his  immediate  presence.  In  a 
few  words,  for  thei  extent  of  hiai  various  erudition,  for  his 
unalloyed  paliriotism,  and  for  his  daily  exercise  aiid  oon« 
•jtant  practice  of  Xenophou's  phjlosophy,  in  his  private  $• 

GLOVER,  9f 


well  as  in  public  Ufe^  Mr,  Glover  has  left  tiooe  his  equal 
in  the  city,  aod  some  time,  it  is  feared,  may  elapse  before 
such  another  citizea  shall  arise,  with  eloquence,,  with 
character,  aiid  with  poetry,  like  bis,  to  assert  their  rights, 
or  to  vindicate  with  equal  powers  the  just  claims  of  free- 
bom  men.  Suffice  this  testimony  at  present,  as  the.weiU 
aarned  meed  of  this  truly  virtuous  man,  whose  conduct  wa« 
4^arefiiUy  marked,  aD;d  narrowly  watched  by  ih^  writer  of 
4be  foregoing  hasty  skecchj  for  his  extraordinary  qualities 
iiuring  the  long  period  in  human  life  of  upwards  of  40 
years  ;  artd  now  it  is  spontaneously  q&red  as  a  voluntary 
.tribute,  unsolicited  and  unpurcluvsed ;  but  as  it  ,appear3 
justly  due  to  the  memory  of  so  excellent  a  poet,  statesman^ 
^d  true  philosopher,  in  life  and  death  the  same.^' 

Glover's  ^  Leonidias^*  amply  entitles  him  to  a  distin,- 
^ished  plane  among  the  poets  of  his  country,  but  the 
|>uUic  has  not  held  it  in  uniform  estim,atipn,  From  the  time 
of  its  first  appearance  in  1737,  it  went  through  six,  if^nol 
^ven  editions ;  but  for  nearly  forty  years  there  has  not 
been  a  xlemaad  for  another,  ^Jthougb  that  published   in 
i77Q  was  highly  improved  and  enlarged.     Its  history  may 
probably  account  in  part  for  this  singular  finte,  and  public 
^aste  must  explain  the  rest.     On  its  lirst  pi^blicatioo,  it 
9ms  f«ad  and  praised  with  the  utmost  avidity.     Besides  the 
eni^ffiiuois  it  drew  from  Lyttelton  and  Pemberton,  its  fame 
^e^hed  Ireland,  where  it  was  reprinted,  and  became  as' 
much  in  fa^ion  as  it  had  been  in  England.     **  Pray  who  je 
tbAt  Mr.  Glover,^'  says  Swift  to  Pope,  in  one  of  his  letters, 
fVwho  writ  the  efuc  poem  called  Leonidas,  which  is  re- 
priiM^ng  here,    and  hath  great  vogue  ?"     UnfortunaU^y^    .''(,^>r 
Jaowever,  the  whole  of  this  tribute  of  praise  was  not  pai4    ^^sM'^ 
to  the  intrinsic  merit  of  tbe'poem.     It  became  the  adojited' 
favourite  of  the  party  in  opposition  (to  sir  Robert  Walpole) 
who  had  long  endeavoured  to  persuade  the  nation  that 
public  liberty  was  endangered  by  the  measures  of  that     x 
miokter,  an4  that  they  formed  the  chosen  band  who  occu«* 
pied  the  straits  of  Thermopyls  in  defiance  of  the  modern 
Xerxes*     Leonidas  therefore  was  recommended,  to  rouse 
an  oppressed  and  enslaved  people  to  the  vindication  of  their 
yights.     That  this  should  be  attempted  is  less  wonderful  ' 
than  that  it  should  succeed.     We  find  very  few  passages  in 
lilis  poem  which  will  apply  to  the  state  of  public  affairs  in 
England  at  that  time,  if  we  except  the  common-place  cen«- 
fttce^f^oortsaAd^caHrUersi  and  even  that  is  appropriated 

««  GLOVER. 

-with  so  strict  historical  fidelity  to  the  court  of  Xerxes,  that 
St  does  not  seem  easy  to  borrow  it  for  any  other  purpose.. 
**  Nothing  else,"  however,  Dr.  Warton  informs  us,  "  was 
read  or  talked  of  at  Leicester-house,*'  the  illustrious  owner 
of  which  extended  his  patronage  to  all  poets  who  fahfned 
the  sacred  flame  of  patriotism.     The  consequence  of  aH 
this  was,  that  Leontdas,  which  might  have  laid  claim  to  k 
considerable  rank  among  English  poems  of  th^  highet- 
order,  was  pushed  beyond  it,  and  when  the  purposes  foir 
which  it  had  been  extolled  were  either  answered,  or  n6 
longer  desirable,  it  fell  lower  than  it  deservech     This  is 
the  more  justly  to  be  regretted,  as  we  have  no  reason  to 
think  the  audior  solicited  the    injudicious  praise  of  his 
friends  and  patrons,  or  bad  any  hand  in  building  the  airj 
edifice  of  popular  fame.  He  was,  indeed,  a  lover  of  liberty, 
which  has  ever  been  the  favourite  theme  of  poets,  but  h^ 
did  not  write  for  a  temporary  purpose.    Leonidas  had  been 
the  fruit  of  very  early  ambition  to  be  known  to  posterity, 
and  when  be  had  outlived  the  party  who  pressed  his  poeni 
into  their  service,  he  corrected  and  improved  it  for  a  gene* 
ration  that  knew  nothing  of  the  partialities  which  first  er- 
tended  its  fame.     If  his  object,  however,  in  this  epopee, 
had  been  solely  to  inculcate  a  love  of  liberty,  a  love  of  our 
country,  and  a  resolute  determination  to  perish  with  its 
freedom,  he  could  not  have  chosen  a  subject,  at  least  from 
ancient  times,  so  happily  adapted   to  elevate  the  mind. 
The  example  was  unparalleled  in  history,  and  thetefore 
the  more  capable  of  admitting  the  embellishments  and  atr 
tractions  that  belong  to  the  epic  province.     Nor  does  it  ap- 
pear that  he  undertook  a  task  to  which  his  powers  were  in? 
adequate,  when  he  endeavoured  to  interest  his  readers  ia 
the  fate  of  bis  gallant  hero  and  faithful  associates.     He  is 
not  deficient  either  in  the  sublime  or  the  pathetic,  although 
in  these  essentials  he  may  not  bear  an  uniform  comparison 
with  the  great  masters  of  the  passions.     The  characters  are 
varied  with  much  knowledge  of  the  human  heart.     Each 
has  his  distinctive  properties,  and  no  one  is  raised  beyond 
the  proportion  of  virtue  or  talent  which  may  be  supposed 
to  correspond  with  the  age  he  lived  in,  or  the  station  he 

His  comparisons,  *  as  lord  Lyttelton  remarks,  are  original    ' 
and  striking,  although  sometimes  not  sufficiently  dignified. 
His  descriptions  are  minutely  faithful,  and  his  episodes  are 
in  general  so  interesting^  that  no  critical  exceptions  would 

GLOVER.  3§ 

probably  induce  the  reader  to  part  with  them,  or  to  sup^ 
pose  that  they  are  not  indispenl^able  to  the  main  actioir. 
He  has  likewise  this  peculiar  excellence,  that  neither  his 
speeches  or  descriptions  are  extended  to  such  lengths  as, 
in  some  attempts  of  the  epic  kind,  become  tiresome,  and 
are  the  strongest  indication  of  Want  of  judgment.  He 
paints  the  rapid  energies  of  a  band  of  freemen,  in  a  bar-* 
baroas  age,  struggling  for  their  country,  Strangers  to  the 
refined  deliberation  of  later  ages,  and  acqu$iinted  with  that 
eloquence  only  which  leads  to  prompt  decision. 

His  "  Athenaid"  was  published  in  1787,  exactly  as  it 
was  found  among  his  papers.  It  consists  of  the  unusual 
number  of  thirty  books,  but  evidently  was  left  without  the 
corrections  which  he  would  probably  have  bestowed  had 
he  revised  it  for  the  press.  It  is  intended  as  a  continua- 
tion, or  second  part  to  "  Leonidas,"  in  which  the  Greeks 
are  conducted  through  the  vicissitudes  of  the  war  with 
Xerxes  to  the  final  emancipation  of  their  country  from  his 
invasions.  As  an  epic  it  seems  defective  in  many  respects. 
Here  is  np  hero  in  whose  fate  the  mind  is  exclusively  en- 
gaged,  but  a  race  of  heroes  who  demand  our  admiration 
by  turns ;  the  events  of  history,  too,  are  so  closely  follow- 
ed, as  to  give  the  whole  the  air  of  a  poetical  chronicle. 

Of  his  smaller  poems,  that  on  sir  Isaac  Newton  4s  cer- 
tainly an  extraordinary  production  from  a  youth  of  sixteen^ 
but  the  theme  was  probably  given  to  him.  Such  an  ac- 
quainiance  with  the  state  of  philosophy  and  the  improve- 
ments of  our  immortal  philosopher,  could  not  have  been 
acquired  at  his  age.  "  Hosier's  Ghost"  was  long  one  of 
the  most  popular  English  ballads ;  but  bis  <^  London,"  if 
intended  for  popular  influence,  was  probably  read  and  un- 
derstood by  few.  In  poetical  merit,  however,  it  is  not 
unworthy  of  the  author  of  •'  Leonidas."  Fielding  wrote  a 
very  long  encomium  on  it  in  his  "  Champion,"  and  pre- 
dicted rather  too  rashly,  that  it  would  ever  continue  to  be 
the  delight  of  all  that  can  feel  the  exquisiPte  touch  of  poetry^ 
or  be  roused  with  the  divine  enthusiasm  of  public  spirit, 

Since  the  above  sketch  of  Glover  was  abridged  from  a 
more  full  account  drawn  up  for  another  work,  the  attention 
of  the  public  has  been  recently  called  to  his  history  by  the 
publication  of  a  diary,  or  part  of  a  diary,  written  by  him. 
This,  which  appeared  in  1813,  is  entitled  ^^  Memoirs  of  a 
distinguished  Literary  and  Political  Character,,  from  the 
resignation  of  sir  Robert  Walpole  in  1742  to  the  establish- 

so  .         Q  L  0  V  E  It. 


jneDt  of  loi'd  Cbathftm's  second  administralion  in  i^57j^ 
It .  was  immediately  followed  by  **  An  Inquiry  concerning' 
,tbe  Author  of  tbe  Letters  of  Junius,  with  reference  to  tbe 
.Memoirs  of  a  celebrated  literary  and  political  character/^ 
the  object  of  which  is  to  prove  that  Glover  was  tbe  author 
of  these  Letters ;  and  although  this  is  not  the  place  to  enter 
ioto  this  controversy,  we  are  inclhied  to  think  with  the 
author  of  this  ^^  Inquiry,*',  that  no  one  yet  named  as  the 
author  of  Junius,  and  whose  claim  has  been  at  all  supt 
ported  by  facts,  has  much  chance  to  stand  in  competitUm 
with  Glover." 

GLOVEK  (Thomas),  a  herald  and  heraldic  writer,  was 
the  son  of  Thomas  Glover,  of  Ashford  in  Kent,  the  place 
of  his  nativity.  He  was  first  made  Portcullis  Poursuivant^ 
and  afterwards  in  1571,  Somerset  herald.  Queen  Eliza«- 
betb  permitted  him  to  travel  abroad  for  improvement.,  In 
15S2,  he  attended  lord  Willougbby  with  tbe  order  of  the 
garter,  to  Frederick  II.  of  Denmark*  In  1584,  be  waited 
with  Clarenceux  on  tbe  earl  of  Derby,  with  that  order  to 
tbe  king  of  France.  No  one  was  a  greater  ornament  to  th€ 
fCoUege  than  this  gentleman ;  the  suavity  of  his  manners 
wa/s  equal  to  his  integrity  and  skill:  he  was  a  most  excellent^ 
and.  very  learned  man,  with  a  knowledge  in  his  profession 
which  has  never  been  exceeded,  perhaps  been  paralleled  ^ 
to  this,  the  best  writers  of  bis  own  and  more  recent  times 
bear  testimony.  He  left  two  treatises,  one  '^  De  Nobiii-* 
late  politica  vel  civili;"  the  other  ^^  A  Catalogue  of  Ho^ 
nour  ^"  both  of  which  were  published  by  his  nephew,  Mr« 
Thomas  Milles,  tbe  former  in  1608,  the  latter  in  1610, 
both  folio,  to  ^^  revive  the  name  and  learned  memory  of 
his  deceased  firiend  and  uncle,  whose  private  studies  for  the 
public  good  deserved  a  remembrance  beyond,  forgetful 
time.''  His  answer  to  the  bishop  of  Ross's  book,  in  which 
Mary  queen  of  Scots'  claim  to  the  crown  was  asserted,  was 
never  published.  He  made  great  collections  of  what  had 
been  written  by  preceding  heralds,  and  left  of  his  own 
labours  relative  to  arms,  visitations  of  twenty-four  counties, 
and  miscellaneous  matters  belonging  to  this  science,  all 
written  by  himself.  He  assisted  Camden  in  his  pedigrees 
for  his  Britannia ;  communicated  to  Dr.  David  Powell,  a 
copy  of  the  history  of  Cambria,  translated  by  H.  Lloyd; 
made  a  collection  of  the  inscriptions  upon  the  funeral  mo«^ 


^  JohaaoB  and  Chalmers's  Snglinh  Poets,  1310* 


GLOVER.  31 

numents  in  Kcmt;  and,  in  1584,  drew  tip  a  most  curiotis 
Mirfey  of  Herewood  castte,  in  Yorkshire.  Mr.  Tboresby 
had  his  coltection  of  the  cotinty  of  York  taken  in  1584,  and 
his  catalogue  of  northern  gentry  whose  surnannes  ended 
in  son.  He  died  in  London,  says  Stow,  April  14,  (Lant 
and  others,  10),  I58S,  aged  only  fmrty-fiTe  years,  and  was 
buried  in  St.  Gileses  church,  Cripplegate,  His  loss  was 
severely  felt  by  all  our  lovers  of  EiigUsh  antiquities.  His 
'^  Ordinary  of  Arms'*  was  augmented  and  improved  by 
Edoiondson,  who  published  it  in  the  first  volume  of  his 
Body  of  Heraldry.* 

GLUCK  (Christopher),  a  musical  composer  of  great 
originality,  was  bom  in  the  palatinate,  on  the  frontiers  of 
Bdbemia,'in  1712,  or  as  Dr.  Burney  says,  in  1716.  His 
father,  a  man  in  poor  circumstances,  removed,  during  the 
infancy  of  his  son,  into  Bohemia,  where  he  died,  leaving 
his  offspring  in  early  youth,  without  any  provision,  so  that 
bis  education  was  totally  neglected.  He  had,  however,  an 
instinctive  love  for  music,  which  is  taught  to  all  children, 
with  reading  and  writing,  in  the  Bohemian  schools.  Hav- 
ing acquired  this  knowledge,  he  travelled  about  from  town 
to  town,  supporting  himself  by  his  talents,  till  he  had 
worked  bis  way  to  Vienna,  where  he  met  with  a  nobleman 
who  became  bis  patron,  took  him  into  his  service,  and 
carried  him  into  Italy,  where  he  procured  him  lessons  in 
counterpoint,  at  Naples,  by  which  he  profited  so  well^ 
that  before  he  left  Italy  he  composed  several  dramas  for 
different  theatres.  These  acquired  him  reputation  sufficient 
to  be  recommended  to  lord  Middlesex  as  a  composer  to 
the  opera  house  in  the' Hay  market,  then  under  his  lord- 
ship^s  direction.  He  arrived  in  England  in  1745,  and,  in 
that  year  and  the  following,  produced  his  operas  of  '*  Ar^ 
tamene*'  and  ^*  La  Cadiita  de  Giganti,^'  with  indifferent 

From  London  he  returned  to  Italy,  and  composed  seve-*^^ 
ral  operas  in  the  style  of  the  times,  and  afterv^rds  en- 
gaged with  the  Italian  poet  Calsabigi,  with  whom  he 
joined  in  a  conspiracy  against  the  poetry  and  music  of  the 
melo-drama  then  in  vogue  in  Italy  and  all  over  Europe.' 
In  1764,  when  the  late  emperor  Joseph  was  crowned  king' 
of  the  Romans,  Gluck  was  the  composer,  and  Guadagni 
the  principal  singer.     It  was  in  this  year  that  a  species  of 

I  Koble's  Coll.  of  AnMt-'Gent  Mag.  LXIIL  p.  dn.-^Falhir'&  Worthies. 

se  G  L  O  C  Hi 

dramatie  music,  different  from  that  which  tten  feigned  tti 
It^ly,  was  attempted  by  Gluck  in  his  famous  opera  of' 
**  Orfeo,"  which  succeeded  so  well^  that  it  was  soon  after 
performed  in  other  parts  of  Europe^  particularly  at  Parma 
and  Paris,  Bologna,  Naples,  and  in  1770  at  London.  In 
1769  he  produced  "  Alceste^'*  a  second  opera  on  the  re- 
formed plan,  which  received  even  more  applause  than  thd 
first;  and  in  1771  "  Paride  ed  Helena;*'  but  in  1774,  his 
arrival  at  Paris  produced  a  remarkable  era  in  the  ainnals  of 
French  music,  by  his  conforming  to  the  genius  of  the 
French  language,  and  flattering  the  ancient  national  ta»te^. 
All  his  operas  proved  excellent  preparations  for  a  better 
style  of  composition  than  the  French  had  been  used  to  y 
as  the  recitative  was  more  rapid,  and  the  airs  more  marked^ 
than  in  LuUi  and  Rameau ;  there  were  likewise  more 
energy,  fire,  and  variety  of  movement,  in  his  aii's  in  gene^ 
tsAf  and  infinitely  more  force  and  effect  in  his  expression  of 
all  the  violent  passions.  His  music  was  so  truly  dramatic,* 
that  the  airs  and  scenes,  which  had  the  greatest  effect  on 
the  stage,  were  cold,  or  rudef  in  a  concert.  The  situa-' 
tion,  context,  and  interest,  gradually  etcited  in  the  au-* 
diencej  gave  them  their  force  and  energy.  He  seemed 
indeed  so  much  the  national  musician  of  France,  that  since 
the  best  days  of  Rameau,  no  dramatic  composer  had  ex- 
cited so  much  enthusiasm,  or  had  his  pieces  so  frequently 
performed,  each  of  them  two  or  three  hundred  timesw 
The  French,  who  feel  very  enthusiastically  whatever  music 
they  like,  heard  with  great  rapture  the  operas  of  Gluck^ 
which  even  the  enemies  of  his  genre  allcfwed  to  have  great 
merit  of  a  certain  kind ;  but  though  there  is  much  real* 
genius  and  intrinsic  worth  in  the  dramatic  compositions  of 
this  master,  the  congeniality  of  his  style  with  that  of  their 
old  national  favourites,  LuUi  and  Rameau,  was  no  small 
merit  with  the  friends  of  that  music.  The  almost  universal, 
cry  at  Paris  was  now,  that  he  had  recovered  the  dramatic 
music  of  the  ancient  Greeks;  that  there  was  no  other 
Worth  hearing ;  that  he  was  the  only  musician  in  Europe 
who  knew  how  to  express  tiie  passions ;  these  and  other 
encomiums  were  uttered  and  published  in  the  journals  and 
newspapers  of  Paris,  accompanied  with  constant  and  con- 
temptuous censures  of  Italian  music,  when  Piccini  arrived, 
and  all  the  friends  of  Italian  music,  of  Rousseau's  doctrines^ 
and  of  the  plan,  if  not  the  language,  of  Metastasio's  dra- 
mas, enlisted  in  his  service.     A  furious  war  brdke  out  at 

G  L  U  C  K.  Si 

Paris;  and  these  disputes,  says  Dn  Burney,  of  musical 
critics,  and  rival  artists  throughout  the  kingdom,  seem  to 
us  to  have  soured  and  diminished  the  pleasure  arising  from 
music  in  proportion  as  the  art  has  advanced  to  perfection. 
When  every  phrase  or  passage  in  a  musical  composition  is 
to  be  analysed  and  dissected  during  performance,  all  de* 
light  and  enthusiasm  vanish,  and  the  whole  becomes  a  piece 
of  cold  mechanism. 

The  chevalier  Gluck,  after  returning  to  Vienna  from 
Paris,  and  being  rendered  incapable  of  writing  by  a  para- 
lytic stroke  in  1784,  only  lingered  in  a  debilitated  state 
till  the  autumn  of  1 7  87,  when  he  died  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
three.  Gluck  had  great  merit  as  a  bold,  daring,  nervous 
composer;  and  as  such,  in  his  French  operas,  he  was  un- 
rivalled. But  he  was  not  so  universal  as  to  be  exclusively 
admired  and  praised  at  the  expence  of  all  other  composers 
ancient  and  modern.  His  style  was  peculiarly  convenient 
to  France,  where  there  were  no  good  singers,  and  where 
no  good  singing  was  expegted  or  understood  by  the  public 
in  general ;  and  where  the  poetry  was  set  up  against  music, 
without  allowing  equality,  or  even  an  opportunity  of  mani- 
festing her  most  captivating  vocal  powers.^ 

GLYCAS  (Michael),  was  one  of  the  Byzantine  histori- 
ans, but  biographers  are  not  agreed  as  to  the  period  when 
he  lived.  Some  years  ago,  professor  Walchius  published 
in  the  Gottingen  Transactions  an  inquiry  into  this  subject, 
but  was  obliged  to  confess  that  he  could  arrive  at  no  pro- 
bable conclusion^  Some  place  Glycas  in  the  twelfth,  and 
some  in  the  fifteenth  century.  No  ancient  record  or  writer 
mentions  even  his  name,  and  all  that  is  known  of  him  has 
been  gleaned  from  his  works.  It  appears  that  he  was  a 
native  of  Constantinople ;  but  passed  a  great  part  of  bis 
life  in  Sicily.  Some  have  thought  he  was  a  monk,  but  this 
is  uncertain,  nor.  do  we  know  whether  he  lived  in  public 
life,  or  in  retirement.  His  letters,  however,  show  that  be 
was  a  grammarian,  and  was  acquainted  with  theology,  his- 
tory sacrQjJ  and  profane,  and  other  branches  of  know- 
ledge ;  and  such  was  his  reputation  that  he  was  frequently 
consulted  by  monks,  bishops,  and  the  most  celebrated 
doctors  of  his  time.  His  '^  Annals/'  by  which  only  he  is 
Dow  known,  codtain  an  account  of  the  patriarchs,  kiugs, 
and  emperors,  and,  in  a  word,  a  sort  of  history  of  the 

1  Rces^s  Cyclopaedia,  by  Dr.  Burney.       ^ 

Vol.  XVL  D 

S4  <j  L  y  C  A  s. 

world  as  far  as  the  emperor  Alexis  Comnenus,  who  died  in 
1118,  including  many  remarks  on  divinity,  philosophy, 
physic,  astronomy,  &c.  Leunclavius  first  translated  this 
work  into  Latin,  and  the  whole  was  published  by  Father 
Labbe,  Paris,  1660,  fol.  Some  of  his  letters  have  been 
published  in  the  **  Delicise  eruditorum/*  Florence,  l^SS^ 
and  other  collections.  ^ 

GMELIN  (John  George),  a  physician  and  eminent 
botanist,  was  born  at  Tubingen  August  12,  1709.  He  was 
distinguished  by  his  diligence  and  early  attainments  at  the 
school  and  university  of  Tubingen,  and  in  1727,  took  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  and  went  to  Petersburgh, 
where,  in  1729,  he  was  elected  one  of  the  members  of  the 
academy,  and  in  1731  was  appointed  professor  of  chemis- 
try and  natural  history.  In  1733  he  was  selected  for  the 
department  of  natural  history,  in  a  commission  formed  by 
the  Rnssiati  government,  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  the 
boundaries  of  Siberia;  and  set  out  on  the  19th  of  August^ 
with  G.  F.  Muller,  and*  Louis  de  I'lsle  de  la  Croyere,  and 
a  party  of  twenty-eight  persons,  consisting  of  draughtsmen, 
miners,  hunters,  land  surveyors,  and  twelve  soldiers,  with 
a  Serjeant  and  drummer.  On  his  return  to  Petersburgh  in 
1743,  he  resumed  the  offices  which  he  had  before  filled. 
In  the  year  1749  he  entered  upon  a  new  professorship,  to 
which  he  had  been  appointed,  while  on  a  visit  to  Tubin- 
gen, but  died  of  a  fever  in  May,  1755.  He  published, 
**  Flora  Siberica,  seu  Historia  Plantarum  Siberise,*'  Peters* 
burgb,  1747,  1749,  in  four  parts,  4to,  with  plates:  and^ 
in  German,  **  Travels  through  Siberia  between  the  years 
1733  and  1743/*  Gottingen,  1751,  1752,  in  four  parts,  8vo, 
with  plates.  ^ 

GMELIN  (Samcel  Gottlieb),  nephew  to  the  preced- 
ing, was  born  at  Tubingen  in  1743;  where  he  was  edu- 
cated, atid  took  his  medical  degree  in  1763.  He  gave 
early  proofs  of  genius,  and  during  his  travels  in  France  and 
Holland  distinguished  himself  so  much  by  his  knowledge  of 
natural  history,  that  he  was  appointed  professor  in  the 
academy  of  sciences  at  Petersburgh.  Like  his  uncle,  he 
spent  several  years  in  travelling  through  the  distant  pro* 
vinces  of  the  Russian  empire,  for  the  purposes  of  scieutific 
investigation,  but  ultimately  with  a  less  fortunate  result. 
Recommenced  his  travels  in  June  1768,  and  having  tra- 

^  Moreri.-— Sa»i  OBOViant^  •  Di«t.  Hist. — Rett's  Cyclopedia. 

M  E  L  I  N.  M 


▼ened  the  proviBces  of  Moicow,  Vorouetz, '^ew  Ruma, 
Azof,  Casan,  and  AstracaD,  he  vbitedy  in  1770  and  1771, 
the  differeet  harbours  of  the  Caspian ;  and  examined  with 
peculiar  attention  those  parts  of  the  Persian  provinces  which 
border  upon  that  sea^  of  which  he  hasT  given  a  circumstan- 
tial account  in  his  travels.  Actuated  by  a  seal  for  extendi 
ing  his  observations,  he  attempted  to  pass  through  the  west- 
em  provinces  of  Persia,  which  were  in  a  state  of  perpetual 
warfare,  and  infested  by  oumerous  banditti.  Upon  this 
expedition  he  quitted,  in  April  1772,  Einzillee,  a  small 
tniding  place  in  Ghilan»  vpon  the  southern  shore  of  the 
Caspian ;  a|id,  on  account  of  many  difficulties  add  dangers, 
jdid  not,  until  Dec.  2,  1773,  reach  SaJHian,  a  town  situated 
.  upon  the  mouth  of  the  river  Koor.  Thence  he  proceeded 
to  Baku  and  Cuba,  in  the  province  of  Sbirvan,  where  he 
met  with  a  friendly  reception  frooft  Ali  Feth  Khan,  the 
jK)vere%n  of  that  district.  After  be  bad  bi^en  joined  by 
twenty  Uralian  Cossacs,  and  when  he  was  only  four  days 
journey  from  the  Russian  fortress  Kislar,  he  and  his  com^ 
paoions  were,  on  Feb.  5,  1774»  arrested  by  order  of  Usmei 
Khan,  a  petty  Tartar  prince,  through  who$e  territories  he 
was  obliged  to  pass.  (Jsmei  urged  as  a  pretence  for  this 
arrest,  that,  thirty  years  before,  several  families  had  escaped 
from  his  dominions,  and  had  found  an  asylum  in  the 
Russian  territories;  adding,  that  Gmelin  should  not  he 
released  until  these  families  were  restored.  As  all  arguing 
was  in  vain  with  this  savage,  Gmelin  was  removed  from 
prison  to  prison,*  and  at  length,  wearied  out  with  confine- 
ment and  harsh  usage,  expired  July  27,  at  Acbmet-Kent, 
a  village  of  Mount  Caucasus.  Some  of  his  papers  had 
been  sent  to  Kislar  during  bis  confinement,  and  the  others 
were  not  without  great  difficulty  rescued  from  the  hands 
of  the  barbarians.  The  empress  -Catherine,  would  have 
rescued  him  by  force,  but  this  was  rendered  impossible  at 
that  time,  by  the  rebellion  of  Pugatchef.  She,  however, 
expressed  her  regret  and  esteem  for  Gmelin  by  giving  a 
gratification  to  his  widow,  of  one  yearns  pay  of  the  salary 
idle  had  assigned  to  her  husband  during  bis  travels,  amount- 
ing to  1600  rubles. 

His  works  are :  1.  ^^  Historia  Fucprum,"  Petersburgh,  in 
1768^  4to.;  a  subject  to  which  botanisu  had  paid  little  at- 
tention before  him.  2.  *^  Travels  through  Russia,  for  the 
purpose  of  exploring  the  three  kingdoms  of  nature,^'  three 
parts  of  which  were  published  in  his  life-time.     A  fourth 

0  2 

56  G  M  E  L  I  N. 

was  edited  after  the  author^s  death,  by  profetsor  Pallas. 
3.  *^  Journey  from  Astracan  to  Czarizyn  :*'  and  also  a' 
"Second  Persian  Journey,*'  1772 — 74;  ibid.  1786.  Pallas 
prefixed  GineUn*s  Life  to  the  fourth  part  of  his  travels. ' 

GMELIN  (John*  Frederick),  of  the  same  family,^!- 
though  what  relation  to  the  preceding  is  not  mentioned, 
was  born  at  Tubingen  in  1 748.  He  was  the  author  of  se* 
veral  performances  on  vegetable  physiology,  and  the  clas- 
sification of  plants;  and  likewise  published  numerous  works 
on  the  materia  medica,  and  chemistry,  mineralogy,  and 
every  part  of  natural  history.  One  of  the  most  celebrated 
is  his  edition  of  the  "  System  of  Nature  of  Li<fM>8eus.'*  He, 
however,  is  said  to  have  introduced  great  disorder  into  the 
science,  by  multiplying  the  species.  He  was  also  the  au- 
thor of  a  "  History  of  Chemistry,"  forming  a  part  of  the 
history  of  arts  and  sciences  undertaken  by  the  professors 
of  Gottingen.  The  world  is  indebted  to  him  for  the  dis* 
covery  of  several  excellent  dyes,  extracted  from  vegetable 
and  mineral  substances*     He  died  in  1805. ' 

GOAD  (John),  an  eminent  classical  teacher,  the  son  of 
John  Goad,  of  Bishopsgate- street,  was  born  th^re  Feb. 
1 5,  1 6 1 5.  He  was  educated  at  Merchant  Taylors^  school, 
and  elected  thence  a  scholar  of  St.  John^s  college,  Oxford, 
in  1632.  He  afterwards  received  his  master*s  degree,  be- 
came fellow  of  hii^  college,  and  took  orders.  In  1643  he 
was  made  vicar  of  St.  Giles's,  Oxford,  and  continued  to 
perform  his  parochial  duties,  although  at  the  risk  of  his 
life,  during '  the  siege  of  the  city  by  the  parliamentary 
forces.  In  June  1646  he  was  presented  by  the  university 
to  the  vicarage  of  Yarnton,  and  the  year  following  was 
created  B.  D.  When  the  loyalists  were  turned  out  by  th^ 
parliamentary  commissioners,  Mr.  Goad  shared  their  fate  ; 
and  although  Dr.  Cbeynel,  who  was  one  of  the  parlia- 
mentary visitors,  gave  him  an  invitation  to  return  to  his 
college,  he  refused  it  upon  the  terms  offered.  Yet  he  ap- 
pears to  have  been '  so  far  connived  at,  as  to  be  able  to 
keep  his  living  at  Yarnton  until  the  restoration.  He  also 
taught  at  Tunbridge  school  until  July  1661,  when  he  was 
made  bead  master  of  Merchant  Taylors'  school.  Over  this 
seminary  he  presided  for  nearly  twenty  years,  with  great 
success  and  approbation,  and  trained  for  the  college  many 

1  Diet.  Hist.— Coxe's  Trarelf  in  Itastia«-<-Tooke*s  View  of  the  Russian  Empire. 
«  Diet.  Hist, 

GOAD.  37 

youths  who  did  honour  to  their  teacher  and  to  their  coun« 
tiy;  but  in  1681  a  suspicion  was  entertained  that  be  in- 
clined towards  popery;  and  it  was  said  that  the  comment 
which  be  made  on  the  Church  Catechism  savoured  strongly 
of  popish  tenets.  Some  particular  passages  having  been 
selected  from  it,  and  laid  before  the  grand  jury  of  London, 
they  on  March  4  of  the  above  year,  presented  a  complaint 
to  the  Merchant  Taylors'  company,  respecting  the  cate- 
chism taught  in  their  school.  After  be  had  been  heard  in 
his  own  defence,  it  was  decided  that  he  was  *^  popishly 
and  erroneously  affected,*'  and  immediately  was  discharged 
from  his  office ;  but  such  was  the;ir  sense  of  his  past  services, 
that  they  voted  him  a  gratuity  of  70/.  It  soon  appeared 
that  the  court  of  th^  company  had  not  been  deceived  in 
their  opinion  of  his  principles.  After  being  dismissed,  he 
taught  a  school  in  Piccadilly,  and  in  1686,  the  reign  of  James 
II.  openly  professed  himself  a  Roman  catholic ;  which, 
Wood  says,  he  had  long  been  covertly.  He  died  Oct.  28, 
1689,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  Great  St.  Helen's, 
Bishopsgate-street,  his  memory  being  honoured  by  various 
elegies.  He  published,  besides  some  single  sermons,  1. 
"  Genealogicon  Latinum,'*  a  sinall  dictionary  for  the  use 
of  Merchant  Taylors' school,  8vo,  1676,  second  edit.  2. 
**  Declamation,  whether  Monarchy  be  the  best  form  oif 
government  ?"  printed  at  the  end  of  Richards's  .  **  English 
Orator,"  1680,  8vo.  3.  "  Astro- Meteorologica,  or  apho- 
risms and  discourses  of  4he  Bodies  Celestial,  their  natures 
and  influences,  &c."  1686,  fol.  This  gained  him  great 
reputation.  The  subject  of  it  is  a  kind  of  astrology, 
founded,  for  the  most  part,  pn  reason  and  experiment,  as 
will  appear  by  comparing  it  with  Boyle's  "  History  of  the 
Air,"  and  Dr.  Mead's  book  "  De  Imperio  Solis  et  Lunae." 
4.  "  Autodidactica,  or  a  practical  vocabulary,  &c."  1690, 
8vo.  Aft^r  his  death  was  published  *^  Astro-meteorologia 
sana,  &c."  1690,  4to.' 

GOAR  (James),  a  learned  French  Dominican,  was  born 
at  Paris,  of  a  reputable  family,  in  160J,  and  after  a  clas- 
sical education,  took  the  habit  of  bis  order  in  1619.  He 
then  employed  six  years  in  the  study  of  philosophy  and 
theology,  after  which  b^  was  sent  to  Toul  to  instruct  the 
young  men  of  his  order  in  these  sciences.     In  the  mean 

»  Alh.  0«.  tqI.  II.T-Podd*8  Church  History.-r^Srang cr.— rWilwn'i  HiiU  ^f 
Merchant  Taylors' School. 

38  G  O  A  R. 

time  hi^  extreme  partiality  to  the  Greek,  and  his  extensire 
reading  in  Greek  literature,  inspired  him  with  a  great  de-^ 
sire  to  visit  the  country  of  the  modern  Greeks,  and  inquires 
into  their  sentiments  and  customs;  and  having  obtained 
leave  of  his  superiors,  he  set  out  in  1631,  as  an  apostolic 
missionary,  and  was  for  the  sake  of  local  convenience,  made 
prior  of  the  convent  of  St.  Sebastian,  in  the  island  of  Chios. 
Here  he  resided  eight  years,  conversing  with  the  ablest 
of  the  natives,  *and  inquiring  into  their  history,  religion^ 
and  manners.  Before  returning  to  France  he  went  to 
Rome  in  1640,  where  he  was  appointed  prior  of  the  con«^ 
vent  of  St.  Sixtus,  and  being  arrived  at  Paris,  was  maile 
master  of  the  novices,  and  began  to  employ  his  time  iii 
preparing  his  works  for  the  press.  This  was  an  object  sO 
much  at  neart^  that  when  elected  in"  1652  vicar-general  of 
his  order,  he  accepted  it  with  great  reluctance,  as  likely  to 
interrupt  his  labours.  It  is  supposed,  indeed,  that  his 
intense  application^  and  the  various  duties  of  this  office, 
impaired  his  health,  and  brought  on  a  slow  fever,  which 
proved  fatal  Sept.  23, 1653.  His  principal  work  wa$  his 
collection  of  Greek  liturgies,  published  under  the  title  of 
*^  Euchologion,  sive  rituale  Graecorum,"  Paris,  1647,  fol. 
a  very  curious  and  rare  work.  There  is,  however,  a  se- 
cond edition  printed  at  Venice  in  1730.  Gear  also  trans- 
lated some  of  the  Byzantine  historians  for  the  collection 
printed  at  the  Louvre.  * 

GOBIEN  (Charles  le),  a  learned  Jesuit,  and  secretary 
to  the  Chinese  missionaries,  was  born  at  St.  Malo  in  1653| 
f^nd  having  been  educated  in  the  academies  belonging  to 
his  order,  was  made  professor  of  philosophy  and  classics, 
^bich  he  taught  for  eight  years  with  reputation.  He  then 
ipame  to  Paris,  where  he  was  appointed  secretary  and  pro- 
curator to  the  Chinese  missionaries.  He  died  May  1709. 
He  wrote  many  tracts  on  the  progress  of  religion  in  China, 
and  entered  warmly  into  the  disputes  between  the  mis- 
sionaries on  the  worship  of  Confucius.  The  best  known  of 
his  works  are,  his  ^  Lettres  sur  les  Progrds  de  la  Religion  k 
la  Chine,'*  16d7,  8vo ;  his  "  Hist,  de  TEdit  de  1*  empereur 
de  la  Chine  en  faveur  de  la  religion  Cbretienne,*'  1698, 
12mo,  which  makes  the  third  volume  of  le  Comte's  Memoirs 
of  China;  his  '*  Hist,  des  Isles  Mariannes,**   1700,  12mo; 

*  Niceron,  toI.  XUC.<— Moreri. — ^Usher's  Life  and  Leitersi  p.  606.— Saxii 

G  O  B  I  E  N.  39 

and  eight  parks  or  volumes  of  the  ^'  Lettres  edifiantes  et 
curieuses^''  writtea  by  the  Chinese  missiooaries.  Of  these 
letters  there  was  afterwards  a  collection  made,  extending 
to  34  vols.  12mo;  and  in  1780,  the  abbe  de  Querbeuf  pub- 
lished a  new  edition  in  26  vols.  They  are  still  consulted 
as  affording  information  respecting  the  natural  history, 
geography,  and  politics  of  the  countries  which  the  Jesuits 
had  explored,  although  they  are  not  unfrequently  miMd 
with  improbable  tales. ' 

GOCLENIUS  (Cot^RAD),  a  learned  philologist,  was 
born  in  1485,  in  Westphalia.  He  acquired  a  high  reputa- 
tion for  learning,  and  taught  for  a  considerable  time  at  the 
college  of  Bois-le-Duc  in  Louvain,  where  he  died  Jan. 
25,  1539..  Erasmus,  who  was  his  intims^te  friend,  highly 
valued  his  character,  and  respected  his  erudition.  He 
.wrote  notes  on  Cicero's  0£Bces«  edited  a  new  edition  of 
Lucan,  and  published  a  Latin  translation  of  Lucian's  **  H^- 
motinus,''  a  dialogue  on  the  sects  of  philosophers.' 

QODDARD   (Jonathan),   an   English  physician  and 
chemist,  and  promoter  of  the  royal  society,  was  the  son  of 
a  rich  ship-bqilder  at  Deptford,  and  born  at  Greenwich 
about  1617.     Bfeing  industrious  apd  of  good  parts,  he  made 
a  quick  progress  in  grammar-learning,  and  was  entered  ^ 
commoner  at  Magdalen -hall,  Oxford,  in  1632,     He  staid 
at  the  university  about  four  years,   implying  himself  tp 
physic ;  and  then  left  it,  without  taking  a  degree,  to  travel 
abroad,  as  was  at  that  time  the  custom,  for  farther  im- 
provement in  his  faculty.     At  his  return,  not  being  quali- 
fied, according  to  the  statutes,  to  proceed   in  physic  at 
Oxford,  he  went  to  Cambridge,  and  took  the  degree  of 
bachelor  in  the  faculty,  as  a  member  of  Christ  college,  in 
1638  ;  after  which,  intending  to  settle  in  London,  without 
waiting  for  another  degree,  he  engaged  in  a  formal  pro- 
mise to  obey  the  laws  and  statutes  of  the  college  of  physi- 
cians there,  Nov.  1$40.     Having  by  this  means  obtained  a 
proper  permission,  he  entered  into  practice;   but  being 
still  sensible  of  the  advantage  of  election  into  the  college, 
he  took  the  first  opportunity  of  applying  for  bis  doctor^s 
degree  at  Cambridge,  which  he  obtained,  as  a  me^nber  of 
Catherine^hali,  in   1643 ;  and  was  chosen  fellow  of  the 
college  of  physicians  in  164Q.     In  the  mean  time,  he  had 
the  preceding  year  engaged  in  another  society,  for  im- 

1  MorerL— »Diet.  Hist.  *  Foppen  BibU  Bel.— ^xii  Onomast. 


proving  and  cultivating  experimental  philosophy.    This 
society  usually  met  at  or  near  his  lodgings' in  Wood-street, 
for  the  convenience  of  making  experiments ;  in  which  h& 
was  very  assiduous,  as  the  reformation  and  improvement  of 
physic  was  one  principal  branch  of  this  design.     In  1647, 
he  was  appointed  lecturer  in  anatomy  at  the  college ;  and 
it  was  from  these  lectures  that  his  reputation  took  its  rise. 
As  he,  with  the  rest  of  the  assembly  which  met  at  his  lodg- 
ings, had  all  along  sided  with  the  parliament,  he  was  made 
head-physician  in  the  army,  and  was  taken,  in  that  station, 
by  Cromwell,  first  to  Ireland  in  1649,  and  then  to  Scot- 
land  the  following  year;  and  returned  thence   with  his 
-master;  who,  after  the  battle  of  Worcester,  rode  into  Lon- 
don in  triumph,  Sept.  12,  1651.    He  was  appointed  warden 
of  Merton^college,  Oxon,    Dec.  9th  following",  and  was 
incorporated  Mv  D.  of  the  university,  Jan.  14th  the  same 
year.     Cromwell  was   the  chancellor ;  and  returning  to 
Scotland,  in  order  to  incorporate  that  kingdom  into  one 
commonwealth  with  England,  he  appointed  our  warden, 
together  with  Dr.  Wilkins,  warden  of  Wadham,  Dr.  Good- 
win, president  of  Magdalen,  Dr.  Owen,  dean  of  Christ 
Church,  and  Cromwell's  brother-in-law,  Peter  French,  a 
canon  of  Christ  Church,  to  act  as  hrs  delegates  in  all  mat- 
ters relating  to  grants  or  dispensations  that  required  his 
assent.     This   instrument  -hote  date  Oct.  16,  1652.     His 
powerful  patron  dissolving  the  long  parliament,  called  a 
new  one,  named  the  Little  Parliament,  in  1653,  in  which 
the  warden  of  Merton  sat  sole  representative  of  the  univer- 
sity, and  was  appointed  one  of  the  council  of  state  the 
same  year. 

A  series  of  honours  and  favours  bestowed  by  the  usurper, 
whose  interest  he  constantly  promoted,  naturally  incurred 
the  displeasure  of  Charles  II.  who  removed  him  from  his 
wardenship,  by  a  letter  dated  July  S,  1660;  and  claiming 
the  right  of  nomination,  during  the  vacancy  of  the  see  of 
Canterbury,  appointed  another  warden  in  a  manner  the 
most  mortifying  to  our  aruthor.  The  new  warden  was  Dr. 
£dw.  Reynolds,  then  kiog^s  chaplain,  and  ^oon  after  bishop 
of  Norwich,  who  was  appointed  successor  to  si^  Nathaniel 
Brent,  without  the  least  notice  being  taken  of  Dr.  6od- 
dard*.     He  then  removed  to  Gresham  college,  where  he 

*  Our  author,  it  is  true,  was  strong-  resentment  upon  him ;  otherwiie».  it 
ly  attached  to  Cromwell  ^ ,  which,  no  was  not  desftnred  by  bis'behinrioQr  in 
flioubt,  brought  thi«  mark  oif  the  king's     the  collie.    For  this  we  have  tht  tos- 

O  O  D  D  A  R  D.  41 

had  been  cbotien  professor  of  physic  on  Nov.  7,  1655,  and 
continued  to  frequent  those  meetings  which  gave  birth  to 
the  royal  society ;  and,  upon  their  establishment  by  char* 
xerin  1663,  was  nominated  one  of  the  first  council.    This 
honour  they  were  induced  to  confer  upon  him,  both  in 
regard  to  his  merit  in  general  as  a  scholar,  and  to  his  par- 
ticular zeal  and  abilities  in  promoting  the  design  of  their 
institution,  of  which  there  is  full  proof  in  the  '<  Memoin^* 
of  that  society  by  Dr.  Birch,  where  there  is  scarcely  a  meet- 
ing mentioned,  in  which  his  name  does  not  occur  for  some 
experiment  or  observation  made  by  him.    At  the  same  time 
^he  carried  on  his  business  as  a  physician,  being  continued 
a  fellow  of  the  college  by  their  new  charter  in  1 663.  Upon 
the  conflagration  in  1666,  which  consumed  the  old  Ex* 
•change,  our  professor,  with  the  rest  of  his  brethren,  re- 
moved from  Gresham,  to  make  room  for  the  merchants  to 
carry  on  the  public  affairs  of  the  city  ;  which,  however,  did 
not  hinder  him  from  going  on  with  pursuits  in  natural  phi- 
losophy and  physic.     In  this  last  he  was  not  only  an  able 
but  a  conscientious  practitioner ;  for  which  reason  he  con- 
tinued still  to  prepare  his  own  medicines.     He  was  so  fully 
persuaded  that,  this,  no  less  than  prescribing  them,  was 
the  physician's  duty,  that  in  1668,  whatever  offence  it 
might  give  the  apothecaries,  he  was  not  afraid  to  publish 
a  treatise,  recommending  it  to  general  use.     This  treatise 
was  received  with  applause ;  but  as  he  found  the  proposal 
in  it  attended  with  such  di6iculties  and  discouragements  as 
were  likeJy  to  defeat  it,  he  pursued  that  subject  the  follow* 
ing  year,  in  <^  A  Discourse,  setting  forth  the  unhappy  con- 
dition of  the  practice  of  Physic  in  London,*'   1669,  4to. 
Bot  this  availed  nothing,  and  when  an  attempt  was  made 
by  the  college  of  physicians,  with  the  same  view,  thirty 
years  afterwards,  it  met  with  no  better  success.     In  1671 
he  returned  to  bis  lodgings  at  Gresham  college,  where  he 
continued  prosecutingMmprovements  in  philosophy  till  his 
death,  which  was  very  suddens     He  used  to  meet  a  select 
number  of  friends  at  the  Crown-tavern  in  Bloomsbury, 
where  they  discoursed  on  philosophical  subjects,  and  in  his 
return  theooe  in  the  evening  of  March  24,  1674,  he  was 

timony  of  Wood,  who  wai  bred  at  Mer*  poblisbed  io  1659,  and  wwtfL  it  bim  to 

toD^  aod  alwayt  mentions  I)r.   God-  London,  bound  in  blue  Turiiey,  with 

dardy  a<  warden,  in  terms,  of  kindness  gilt  leaves  ;  as  we  Qnd  it  carefully  nti 

'and  respect     He  was;  indeed,  tbe  first  down   io  tbe  bistory  of  his  own  \\^ 

patran  to  that  antiquary ;  who,  as  such,  publifibed  by  Mr.  Heame. 
dadiealod  hU  brother's  sermons  to  him, 

42  G  O  P  D  A  R  D. 

seized  with  an  apoplectic  fit  in  Cheapside^  and  dropped 

down  dead. 

His  memory  was  long  preserved  by  certais  drops,  wbich 
were  his  inventioo^  and  bore  his  name ;  but  whidi,  like 
all  such  nostrums)  are  now  forgotten.  His  receipts  **  Ar- 
cana Goddardiana,"  were  published  at  the  end  .of  the 
5^  Pharmacopoeia  Bateana,''  1691.  He  bad  several  learned 
treatises  dedicated  to  him  as  a  patron  of  learning,  made  by 
persons  well  acquainted  with  him,  such  as  Dr.. Edmund 
Pickinson  and  Dr.  Wallis,  who  highly  praise  his  extensive 
learning,  his  skill  in  his  profession,  knowledge  of  public 
affairs,  and  generous  disposition,  his  candour,  affability^ 
and  benevolence  to  all  good  and  learned  ipen.  Of  tlua 
last  there  is  one  instance  worth  presenting ;  and  that  is,  his 
ticking  into  his  apartment,  at  Gresham,  Dn  Worthington, 
who  lodged  with  him  for  the  conveniency  of  preparing  for 
the  press  the  woirks  of  Mr.  Joseph  Mede,  which  be  finished 
and  published  in  1664.  According  to  Dr.  Seth  Ward^ 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  be  was  the  first  EngUshman  who 
made  that  noble  astronomical  instrument  the  telescope. ' 

GODEAU  (Anthony),  a  learned  French  bishop  and 
writer,  was  descended  from  a  good  family  at  Dreux,  and 
born  in  1605.  Being  inclined  to  poetry  from  his  youtb^ 
he  applied  himself  to  it,  an4  so  cultivated  his  genius,  that 
be  made  his  fortune  by  it*  His  first  essay  was  a  paraphrase 
in  verse  of  the  Benedmie,  which  was  much  commended. 
He  was  but  twenty -four  wben  be  became  a  member  of  that 
society  which  met  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Conrart^  to  con- 
fer upon  subjects  of  polite  learning,  and  to  comiaunieate 
their  performances.  From  this  society  cardinal.  Richlieu 
took  the  hint,  and  formed  the  resolution,  of  establishing 
the  French  academy  .for  belles  lettres ;  and  our  author  in  a 
few  years  obtained  the  patronage  of  that  powerful  eccle- 
siastic. The  bishopric  of  Grasse  becoming  vacant  in  16S6, 
cardinal  Richelieu  recommended  him  to  the  king,  who  im- 
mediately conferred  it  upon  him ;  and  as  soon  as  the  cerfe* 
mony  of  consecration  was  over,  be  repaired  to  his  dioces^ 
and  applied  himself  to  the  functions  of  his  office.  ,  He^  held  , 
several  synods,  composed  a  great  number  of  pastoral  ini- 
structions  for  the  use  of  his  clergy,  and  restored  eccle- 
siastical discipline,  which  had  been  almost  entirely  neg- 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Ward's  Gresham  Profeuors.— Birch's  Hist.  aT  the  Royal  So^ 
clety.— Ath.  Ox,  toK  1L 

G  O  D  E  A  U.  4} 

tected.     He  obtained  from  pope  Innocent  X.  a  bull  for 
uniting  the  bishopric  of  Venoe  to  that  of  Grasse,  as  hitf 
predecessor  Wtliiani  le  Blore  liad  before  obtained  from 
Clement  YIII.     This  arrangement,  considering  the  pro* 
piaquity  of  the  two  dioceses,  and  the  small  income  of  both 
together  (about  450/.)  was  not  unreasonable;  but  when 
Godeau  found  the  people  and  clergy  averse  to  it,  he  gav€l 
up  his  pretensions,  and  contented  himself  with  the  bishopric 
of  Vence  onlj.     He  assisted  in  3everal  general  assemblies 
ef  the  clergy,  held  in  1645  and  1655 ;  in  which  he  vigor* 
ously  maintained  the  dignity  of  the  episcopal  order^  and 
the  system  of  pure  morality,  against  those  who  opposed 
both.     One  of  his  best  pieces  upon  this  subject,  was  pub^ 
lifthed  in  1 709,  with  the  title  of  *^  Christian  Morals  for  thft 
Instruction  of  die  Clergy  of  the  Diocese  of  Vence :"  and 
Was  afterwards  translated  into  English,  by  Basil  Kennet; 
These  necessaty  absences  excepted,  he  constantly  resided 
upon  his  didc^e,  where  he  was  perpetually  employed  in 
visitations,  preaching,  rending,  writing,  or  attending  uport 
the  ecclesiastical  or  temporal  affairs  of  his  bishopric^  till 
Easter-day,  April  17,  1671;  when  he  was  seized  with  a 
fit  of  an  apoplexy,  of  whfeb  he  died  the  21st. 

He  was  a  very  voluminous  author,  both  in  prose  and 
verse.     Moreri,    after  giving  a  list  of  fifty'  works,  adds 
many  fugitive  pieces  of  devotional  poetry.     One  of  his 
principal  workd  is  bis  *^  Ecclesiastical  History,*'  intended 
to  be  comprized  in  3  vols  fol.     The  first  appeared  in  1658^ 
containing  the  "  History  of  the  first  eight  centuries ;"  but 
as  he  did  not  finish  the  other  two,  they  remained  in  manu- 
script.    He  was,  however,  the  first  person  who   gave  a 
/*  Church  History**  in  the  French  language.     He  was  the 
author  also  of  a  '<  Translation  of  the  Psalms  into  French 
verse,**  which  were  so  well  approved,  that  those  of  the 
reformed  religion  have  not  scrupled  to  use  them  at  home 
in  tlieir  families,  instead  of  the  version  of  Marot,  which  h 
adapted  and  consecrated  to  the  public  service.     Of  this 
work  Basil  Kennet  has  given  a  criticism  in  the  preface  to 
"An  Essay  towards  a  Paraphrase  on  the  Psalms,**  1709, 
8vo.     The  Jesuit,  Vavassor,  wrote  a  piece  on  purpose  to 
prove  that  our  author  had  no  true  taste  for  poetry ;  and 
BoUeau  remarks  several  defects  in  his  poetical  perform* 


>  BupiU.«i4riecr0S,  wit.  XVIII.  aad-XX.— MokrI; 





GODEFBOI  (Denys),  an  eminent  lawyer,  and  one  of 
the  most  learned  men  of  his  age,  was  born  October  17^ 
1549,  at  Paris.     He  was  the  son  of  Leon  Godefroi,  coun* 
sellor  to  the  Cb&telet   He  had  acquired  a  great  reputation 
in  the  parliament,  but  embracing  the  reformed  religion, 
was  obliged    to  retire   to  Geneva,    and  taught  law  both 
there  and  in  some  German  universities.     In  1618  be  was 
sent  by  the  elector  palatine  to  Louis  XHL  who,  among 
other  marks  of  favour,  presented  him  with  his  picture,  and 
a  gold  medal.     But  being  again  obliged  to  quit  the  pala- 
tinate, during   war,    be   went  to    Strasburgb,    where    he 
died  September  7,   1622,  leaving  a  great  number  of  va- 
luable works ;  the  principal  of  which  are,  1.  ^'  NotsB  in 
quatuor  Libros  institutionum.*'    2.  ^^  Opuscula  varia  juris.** 
3.  "  Corpus  juris  civilis,    cum  notis.**     These  notes,  are 
fsxcellent :  the  best  editions  are  those  by  Vitr6,  1626,  and 
by  Elzevir,  .1683,    2  vols.  fol.      4.   "  Praxis  civilis,    et 
antiquis  et  recentioribus  scriptoribus.'*     5.  *^  Index  Cfaro- 
nologicus  legum  et  novellarum  k   Justiniano  imperatore 
compositarum.*'     6.  ^<  Consuetudines  Civitatum  et  Pro- 
yinciarum  Gallice,  cum  notis,*'  foL     7.  **  Qusestionels  po- 
litico ex  jure  communi  in  Historia  desumptas.''     S.  *^  Dis- 
sertatio  de  nobilitate.'*      9.'  ^'  Statuta  regni  Gallise  cum 
jure  communi  collata,**  fol.      10.  ^*  Synopsis  statutorum 
municipalium,*'    an    edition,    Greek    and    Latin,    of  the 
**  Promptuarium  juris"  of  Harmenopules.     **  Conjectures,** 
and  several  ^^  Lectures  upon  Seneca,*'  with  a  defence  of 
these  Conjectures,  which  bad  been  attacked  by  Gruten 
*'  A  Collection  of  the  ancient  Latin  Grammarians,*'  &c. 
The  following  works  are  also  ascribed  to  Denis  Godefroi : 
**  Avis  pour  reduire  les  Monnoies  a  leur  juste  Prix  et  Va- 
leur,"  8vo:     ^^  Maintenue  et  Defense  des  Empereurs,  Rois, 
Princes,  Etats,  et  Republiques ;  contra  les  Censures  Mo- 
nitoires,  et  Excommunications  des  Papes,"  4to..    ^*  Frag- 
menta  duodecim  Tabularum  suis  nunc  primum  Tabulis 
restituta,"  1616,  4to.     His  '<  Opuscula"  have  been  col- 
lected and  printed  in  Holland,  foL^ 

GODEFROI  (Th£ODORE),  eldest  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  July  17,  1580,  at  Geneva,  and  went  to  Paris  in 
1602,  where  he  turned  Catholic,  was  appointed  counsellor 
of  state  1643,  and  died  Octobers,  1649,  at  Munster,  in 
which  city  he  then  resided  as  counsellor  and  secretary  to 

>  Morari.— Kicerom  ▼•!.  XVII.— Diet  Hiit 

G  O  D  E  F  R  O  I.  4$ 

the  French  eqibassy  for  the  general  peace.     He  left  many 
excellent  works  on  law,  history,  the  titles  of  the  kingdom^ 
Slc,  the  principal  of  which  are,    I.  '^  Le  Ceremonial  de 
France,^'  4to,  a  work  much  valued ;  reprinted  in   2  vols, 
fol.  by  his  son   Denvs  Godefroi ;  but  this  is  unfinished} 
and  the  4to  edition  must  be  referred  to  for  the  funeral  ct^ 
remontes.      2.    <*  Genealogie  des  Rois  de  Portugal  issua 
en  Ligne  directe  masculine  de  la  Maison  de  France  qui 
regne  aujourd'huis,"  4to.     3.  "  Mem.  concernant  la  Pre* 
seance  des  Rois  de  France  sur  les  Rois  d'Espagne,  4to« 
4.  ^^  Entreveue  de  Charles  IV.  Empereur,  et  Charles  V. 
Roi  de  France ;  plus  TEntreveue  de  Charles  VII.  Roi  de 
France,  et  de  Ferdinand,  Roi  de  Arragon."  &c.  4to.     5* 
''  Hist,  de  Charles.  VI.  par  Jean  Juvenal  des  Ursins ;  de 
Louis  XII.  par  Seyssell,  et  par  d'Auton,  &c. ;  de  Cha. 
VIII.  par  Saligny,  et  autres;  du  Chevalier  Bayard,  avec 
le  Supplement,  par  Expilly,'*  1651,  8vo.     €.  *^  De  Jean^ 
le  Meingre,   dit  Boucicaut,    Marechal  de  France,'*  4tD. 
7.  "  D'Artus   III.  Due  de  Bretagne,''    4to.      8.    "  De 
Guillaume  Marescot,''  4to.     9.  ^^  De  la  veritable  Origine 
de  la  Msuson  d'AutricheV  4to.      10.   **  Genealogie  des 
Dues  de  Lorrain,*'  4to.     11.^^  L'Ordre  et'les  Ceremonies 
observers    aux  Manages  de  France  et  d'Espagne,"   4to. 
12.  **  G^n£alogie  des  Comptes  et  Dues  de  Bar,"  4to.     13. 
*^  Traite   touchant  les  Droits  du  Roi  tres  Chretien,    sur 
plusieurs   Etats   et   Seigneuries,    poss^des   par   plusieurs 
Princes  Voisins,-'  fol.  under  the  name  of. Pierre  Dupuy.* 

GODEFROI  (James),  younger  brother  of  the  preceding, 
born  in  1 587,  at  Geneva,  was  also  a  very  learned  lawyer, 
and  rose  to  the  highest  posts  in  that  republic.  He  was 
five  times  syndic,  and  died  there  1652.  He  left  several 
works  much  esteemed;  the  following  are  the  principal 
ones:  1.  <<  Opuscula  varia,  juridica,  politica,  bistorica, 
critica,'*  4to.  2.  ^^  Pontes  Juris  civilis  ;  de  diversis  Re* 
gulis  Juris,''  1653,  4to.  3.  ^^  De  famosis  latronibus  in« 
vestigandis ;  de  jure  praecedentias ;  de  Salario ;  animad- 
versiones  Juris  civilis.  De  suburbicariis  Regippibus  ;  de 
statu  Paganorum  sub  Imperatoribus  Christianis.  Frag- 
menta  Legum  Julice  et  Papis  collecta,  et  notis  illustrata. 
Codex  Theodosianus,"  1665,  4  vols.  fol.  4.  "  Veteris 
orbis  descriptio  Grsci  Scriptoris,  sub  Constantio  et  Con« 
stante  Imperantibus,  Gr.  et  Lat.  cum  notis,''  4to.     5.  <<  De 

»  Moreri.-— Niceron,  vol.  XVII. 

46  G  O  D  E  F  R  O  I. 

CenotapUio ;  de  Dominio  sen  imperio  maris  et  jure  mtth- 
fcagii  coUigendi.'*  6.  Cooimentaries  and  Notes  on  several 
Orations  of  Libanius.  7.  ^*  L'Htst.  Ecclesiastiqiie  de  Phi<- 
lostorge,  avec  un  Appendix.^'  8.  ^<  Les  Merctire  Jesuite, 
ou  Recueil  des  pieces  concernant  les  Jesnites/*  1631,  ^ 

GODEFROI  (Denys),  son  of  Theodore,  was  born  Au^ 
gust  24)  1615,  at  Paris.  He  made  use  of  Ms  father's  Me^- 
moirs,  and  like  him  studied  the  History  of  France.  Louis 
XIV.  appointed  him  keeper  and  director  of  the  chamber  df 
accounts  at  Lisle,  in  wbi^h  city  he  died  June  9,  1681.  '  He 
published  ^  Le  C4r6monial  de  France,^'  written  by  his 
father ;  and  the  History  of  Charles  VI.  and  Charles  VIL 
printed  at  the  Louvre,  each  in  1  vol.  folio  \  that  of  th6 
Crown  Officers,  from  the  time  at  which  thitt  of  John  le 
Feron  ends;  <^  Memoires  et  Instructions  pour  servir  dans 
les  Negociations  et  les  Affaires  concernant  les  Droits  du 
Roi,^'  1665,  fol.  which  had  been  attributed  to  chancellor 
Seguier,  &c.'  He  left  sev^al  children  who  were  eminent ; 
among  them, 

GODEFROI  (DekVs),  Ae  third  of  that  name,  honorary 
auditor  and  keeper  of  the  books  in  the  chambre  des  comptes 
at  Paris,  died  1719,  and  left  Remarks  on  the  Addition  to 
lii43  History  of  Louis  XI.  by  Naud£;  an  edition  of  the 
^*  Satire  Menip^e,''  1 709,  3  vols.  8vo ;  and  other  works. 
John  GoD£FROi,  director  of  the  chambre  des  comptes  at 
Lisle,  was  another  son  of  the  second  Denys,  who  pub*- 
lished  in  1706  an  elegant  edition  of  the  '^Memoires  de 
Philippe  de  Commines  ;*^  and  in  1711  a  new  edition  of 
the  ^'  Satyre  Menip^e.''  He  also  left  the  ^^  Journal  de 
Henri  III;**  witli  notes,  and  some  new  pieces,  2  vols.  8vo ; 
a  very  curious  book  against  that  by  Pere  Guyard,  a  Ja- 
cobin, entitled  *^  La  Fatalitd  de  St.  Cloud ;"  **  Mem.  de 
la  Reine  Marguerite,"  8vo,  &c.  No  author  has  given  so  clear 
an  account  of  the  league,  nor  published  so  many  curious 
pieces  respecting  the  parties  engaged  in  it.  He  died  in 
February,  1732.' 


GODFREY  of  VITERBO,  the  author  of  an  ancient 
elironicle,  is  supposed  to  have  been  born  in  the  twelfth 
century,  at  Viterbb,  in  Italy,  and  educated  in  his  youth, 
at  least,  at  Bamberg.     He  was  afterwards  chaplain  and 

>  Moieri.--Di€t.  Hist.  3  ibid.  3  ibid. 

G  O  1>  F  R  E  Y.  \  47 


secretary  to  king  Conrad  III.  the  emperor  Frederick,  and 
his  son  Henry  VI.     He  informs  os  that  he  spent  forty  years 
in  searching  among  the  manascripts  of  the  Greeks,  Latins, 
Jews,  Chaldeans,  and  barbarians,  for  materials  proper  for 
bis  Chronicle,  had  made  himself  acquainted  with  all  these 
languages,  and  performed  many  voyages  and  travels  in  the 
same  pursuit     This  Chronicle,  which  does  not,  however^ 
gratify  all  the  expectations  that  might  be  formed  from  such 
learning  and  industry,  begins  with  the  creation  of  the 
world,  and  ends  with  11S6.     It  is  written  in  Latin  pros^ 
and  verse,  and  entitled  '*  Pantheon.'*     It  was  first  printed 
at  Basil,   by  Basilius  John   Herold,    1559,    reprinted  at 
Francfort  in  1584,  and  at  Hanover  in  1613,  in  Pistorius's 
collection  of  German  writers ;  and  Mnratori ,  has  inserted 
in  his   great  <x)Ueotion,    that  part  which  respects  Italyv 
Lambecius  speaks  of  another  work  by  Godfrey,    which 
exists  in  MS.  in  the  imperial  library  at  Vienna,  entitled 
*^  Speculum  regium,  sive  de  genealogia  regum  et  impera* 
torum  a  dikivii  tempore  ad  Henricum  VI.  imperatorem.*^ 
Godfrey  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  leari)ing  and  ob- 
servation, and  is  thought  to 'deserve  credit  as  to  hisrela* 
tion  of  the  events  which  occurred  in  his  own  time,  and 
with  which  his  situation  at  court  enabled  him  to  be  ac-  - 

GODOLPUIN  (John),  an  eminent  civilian,  the  third 
son  of  John  Godolpbin,  esq.  was  descended  from  an  ancient 
family  of  his  name  in  Cornwall,  and  born  Nov.  29,  1617, 
at  Godolphin,  in  the  island  of  Sctlly.     He  was  sent  to 
Oxford,  and  entered  a  commoner  of  Gloucester-hall,  in 
1632  ;  and  having  laid  a  good  foundation  of  logic  and  phi-^ 
losopfay,  he  applied  himself  particularly  to  the  study  of 
the  civil  law,  which  he  chose  for  his  profession  ;  atid  ac- 
cordingly took  his  degrees  in  that  faculty,  that  of  bachelor 
in  1636,  and  of  doctor  in  1642-S.     He  has  usually  been 
ranked  among  puritans  for  having  written  two  treatises 
published  by  him  in   1650  and^l651,  entitled,   1.  ^' The 
Holy  Limbec,  or  an  extraction  of  the  spirit  from  the' Let ^ 
ter  of  certain  eminent  places  in  the  Holy  Scripture."  Other 
copies  were  printed  with  this  title,  '^  The  Holy  Limbec, 
or  a  Semicentury  of  Spiritual  Extractions,**  &c.     2.  ^*  The 
Holy  Harbour,  containing  the  whole  body  of  divinity,  or 
the  sum  and  substance  of  the  Christian  Religion."     But 

1  Moreri. — Voitiai  de  Hist.  Lat.— S»xii  OiMttast. 

ii/  G  O  D  O  L  P  H  I  N. 

whatever  may  be  the  principles  maiDtaioed  in  these  wor^ 
which  we  have  not  seen>  it  is  certain*  that  when  he  went  to 
London  afterwards,  he  sided  with  the  anti-monarchical 
party ;  and,  taking  the  oath  called  the  Engagement,  was 
by  an  act  passed  in  Cromweirs  convention,  or  short  par* 
liament,  July  1€53,  constituted  judge  of  the  admiralty 
jointly  with  William  Clarke,  LL.  X).  and  .dharles  George 
Cock,  esq.  In  July  1659,  upon  the  death  of  Clarke,  be 
and  Cock  received  a  new  commission  to  the  same  placp^ 
to  continue  in  force  no  longer  than  December,  following.    - 

Notwithstanding  these  compliances  with  the  powers  then 
in  beipg,  he  was  much  esteemed  for  his  knowledge  in  the 
civil  law,  which  obtained  him  the  post  of  king's  advocate 
at  the  restoration :  after  which,  he  published  several  books 
in  his  own  faculty  then  in  good  esteem,  as  '^  A  View  of 
the  Admiral's  Jurisdiction/'  1661,  8vo,  in  which  is  printed 
a  translation  by  him,  of  Grasias,  or  Ferrand's  ^'  Extract  of 
the  ancient  Laws  of  Oleron ;"  *'  The  Orphan's  Legacy, 
&c.  treating  of  last  wills  and  testaments,"  1674,  4to.  And 
'^  Repertorium  Canonicum,"  &c.  1678,  4to.  In  this  last- 
piece  he  strenuously  and  learnedly  asserts  the  king's  sii* 
premacy,  as  a  power  vested  in  the^crown,  before  the 
Pope  invaded  the  right  and  authority,  or  jurisdiction.  He 
died  April  4^  1678,  and  was  interred  in  St.  James's  church, 
Cierkenwell.  ^ 

GODOLPHIN  (Sidney),  earl  of  .Godolphin,  and  lord 
high  treasurer  of  England,  descended  from  a  very  ancient 
family  in  Cornwall,  was  the^  third  son  of  Francis  Godolphin^ 
K.  B.  by  Dorothy,  second  daughter  of  sir  Henry  Berkley, 
of  Yarlington  in  Somersetshire.  He  had  great  natund 
abilities,  was  liberally  educated,  and  inheriting  the  un- 
shaken loyalty  of  his  family,  entered  early  into  the  service 
of  Charles  II.  who  after  his  restoration  made  him  one  of 
the  grooms  of  his  bed- chamber.  In  166S,  when  attending 
his  majesty  to  the  university  of  Oxford,  he  had  the  degree 
of  M.  A.  conferred  upon  him.  In  1678,  ,he  was  twice  sent 
envoy  to  Holland,  upon  affairs  of  the  greatest  importance ; 
and  die  next  year  was  made  one  of  the  commissioners  of  the 
treasury,  which  trust  he  discharged  with^  integrity,  and 
being  cbnsidered  as  a  man  of  great  abilities,  was  sworn  of 
the  privy  council.  In  1680  he  openly  declared  for  th^ 
bill  of  exclusion  of  the  duke  of  York  ;  and  in  the  debate 

1  Ath.  Ox^Yol.  n.-^Ceo.  Diet.— Coote'i  CaUlogue  of  Civiliaiitf. 

G  O  X>  O  L  P  H  I  N.  49 

in  eoonoil^  wb^tbisr  tbe  4uke  abpiiUL  return  to  Scotlai^ 
before  the  parliwDent  ael^  he  jgin^d  in  th^  ^vice  for.  bis 
goingiaivny ;  and  though  the  re^t  pf  the  council  were  of  the 
iamtTBty  ofrinioQ^  yet  the  king  acquiesced  in  his  ^nd  lord 
Sundevland's 'reasons.  In  April  1664  be  was  i^ppointed 
oneof  |;1»  secretaries  of  state,  which  he  soon  res^gi^ed  for 
ittm  office  of  first  commissianer  of  tbe  treasury,  and  was 
xaKated  baron  Godolpbtn  of  Cornwall.  H0  had 
hkhertaaat  in  the  house  of  commons  as  representative  fpr 
Helston  and  for  8t.  Mawe*s. 

iOn  the  accession  .of  James  II.  be  wm  appoint  lord 
chamberlain  to  the  queen,  and  on  tbe  removal  of  the  earl 
<tf  Rochester,  was  again  made  one  of  the  commissioners  of 
the  treasury.  On  the  landing  9f  tbe  prince  of  Qrange,  he 
iras  one  of  the  commissioners  sent  by  king  Jao^es  to  treat 
with  that  prince,  which  employment  be  discharged  with 
great  address  and  prudence.  In  tbe  debate  concerning  the 
vacancy  of  tbe  throne,  after  the  abdication  of  king  James, 
his  lordship,  out  of  a  regard  to  tbe  succession,  voted  for  a 
regency;  yet  when  king  William  was  advanced  to  tbe 
throne,  his  majesty  appointed  him  ione  qf  the  lords  com- 
missioiiers  of  >tfae  treasury,  aad  a  privy-councillor,  and  in 
16SK)  he  was  appointed  first  lord  of  the  treasury.  In  1695, 
he  was  one  of  tbe  seven  lords  justices  for  .the  administration 
of  the  government,  during  the  king's  absence,  as  he  was 
likewise  the  j^ear. folio  wing,  and  again  in  1701,  when  he 
•was  restored  to  the  place  of  first  commissioner  of  tbe  trea- 
aury^f com  .which  he  had  been  removed  in  16.1>7.  On  tbe 
iiceessi4Mi  of  Ijtteen  Anne,  he  was  constituted  lord  high 
tveasurer,  jwhich  post  he  had  long  refused  to  accept,  tUt 
tbeieari  of  Maclborough  pnessed  him  in  so  positive  a  man- 
ner, that  hedfioianed,  he  eoqld  not^  the  continent  to 
ceoNnaad.tiie  aoaiiea,  unless  tbe  treasury  was  put  into  his 
h«ids ;  for  xhcu  be  was  sure  that  remittances  would  be 
punctually  -made,  to  him.  Under  bis  Jordsbip^s  administra- 
tion of  this  high  office,  tbe  public  credit  was  raised,  the 
war carriedon  with  success,  and  tbe  nation  satisfied  with 
his  prudent  management.  He  omitted  nothing  that  could 
engine  the  subject  to  bear  tbe.  burthen  of  tbe  war  wiUi 
eheiirfukiesa;  and  it  was  owing  to  hia  advice,  thf^t  tim 
qaeen.coo^ihuted  ope  haodred  thousand  pounds  out  of 
htfc  civil  list  towacdfl:i(.  .  He  jvas  aW  oae  of  those  faithful 
'and'abie  connseUors,  who  advised  her  majesty  to  declare 
4d  couiiciLagainst  tbe  sellkig  of  offices  and  places  in  hei^ 

V01.XVL  E 

50  G  O  D  O  L  P  H  I  N. 

household  and  family,  as  highly  dishonourable  to  herselfi 
prejudicial  to  her  service,  and  a  discouragement  to  virtue 
and  true  merit,  which  alone  ought  and  should  recommend 
persons  to  her  royal  approbation.  And  so  true  a  frieod 
was  his  lordship  to  the  established  church,  that  considering 
how  meanly  great  numbers  of  the  clergy  were  provided 
for,  he  prevailed  upon  her  majesty  to  settle  her  revenue 
of  xht  first-fruits  and  tenths  for  the  augmentation  of  tlie 
small  vicarages.  In  July  1704  he  was  made  knight  of  the 
garter;  and  in  Deceinber  1706,  advanced  to  the  dignity 
of  earl  of  Oodolphin  and  viscount  Rialton.  But  notwith- 
standing all  his  great  services  to  the  public,  on  the  8tb  of 
August  1710,  he  was  removed  from  his  post  of  lord  high 

He  died  at  St.  Alban*s  of  the  stone,  on  the  15th  of  Sep- 
tember 1712,  and  was  interred  in  Westminster-abbey.    Bj 
>  his  lady,  Margaret^  daughter  of  Thomas  Blague,  esq.  be 
bad  is'due  Francis,  second  earl  of  Godolpbin,  on   wnose 
death  the  title  becanie  extinct. 

Bishop  Burnet  says,  ^  that  be  was  the  silentest  and  mo- 
destest  man,  whb  was  perhaps  ever  bred  in  a  court.     He 
bad  a  clear  apprebensioR,  and  dispatched  business  with 
'  great  n[)ethod^  and  with  so  much  temper,  that  he  had  no 
'personal  enemies.     But  his  silence  begot  a  jealousy,  which 
•hung  long  upon  him.     His  notions  were  for  the  court; 
but  his  incorrupt  and  sincere  way  of  mouiaging  the  con- 
cerns of  the  treasury  created  in  all  people  a  very  high 

*  esteeda  for  him;.     He  had  true  principles  of  religion  and 
virtue^  and  never  heaped  iurp  wealth*     So  that,  all  things 

'  being  laid  together,  he  was  one  of  the  worthiest  and  wisest 
men,  who  was  employed  in  that  4tge.''  In  another  place 
the  same  historian  obftierves,  ^  that  he  was  a  man  of  the 
clearest  head,  the  calmest  temper,  and  the  most  incorrupt 
of  dl  the  ministers  he  hod  ever  known ;  and  that  afjter  hav- 
ing been  thirty  yeaiis  in  the  treasury,  and  daring  nine  of 
those  lord -treasurer,  as  he;  was  nevet*  once  inspected  of 
corruption^  tpr  of  suffering  his  servants  to  grow  rich  under 
^im^  so  in  all  that  time  his  estate  was  not  increased  by  hiin 

*  tO'the*  value  of  four  thousand  pounds.*'  It  is  also  said,  ^hat 
'he  had  a  penetrating  contemplative- genius,  a  slow,  but 
unerring  apprehensioti^  and  an  exquisite  judgment,;  wkh 

'few  words,  though  always  to  the  purpose. :  He  was  tern- 

'operate  in  his  diet.     His  superior  wisdom  and  spirit  riaade 

kitn  despis^^  the  low  arts  of  vain^glorit6us  courtiers;  for :be 

6  6  D  O  L  P  H  t  N.  li 

fiever  kept  sailors  unprofitably  in  suspense^  nor  promised 
any  thing,  that  he  was  not  resolved  to  perform ;  but  as  he 
accounted  dissimulation  the  worst  of  lying,  so  on  the  other 
hand  bis  denials  were  softened  by  frankness  and  conde- 
scension to  those  whom  he  could  not  gratify.  His  great 
abilities  and  consummate  experience  qualified  him  for  a 
prime  minister ;  and .  his  exact  knowledge  of  all  the 
branches  of  the  revenue  particularly  fitted  him  for  the 
management  of  the  treasury.  He  was  thrifty  without  the 
least  tincture  of  avaricci  being  as  good  an  ceconomist  of 
the  public  wealth,  as  he  was  of  his  private  fortune.  He 
bad  a  clear  conception  of  the  whole  government,  both  in 
church  and  state ;  and  perfectly  knew  the  temper,  genius, 
and  disposition  of  the  English  nation.  And  though  his 
stern  gravity  appearied  a  little  ungracious,  yet  bis  steady 
and  impartial  justice  recommended  him  to  the  esteem  of 
almost  every  person  ;  so  that  no  man,  in  so  many  different 
public  stations,  and  so  great  a  variety  of  business,  ever 
bad  more  friends,  or  fewer  enemies.  Dean  Swift's  charac- 
ter of  him  is  not  so  favourable,  and  in  our  references  may 
be  found  many  other  opposite  oj^inions  of  his  merit  and 
abilities.  He  had  a  brother  of  some  poetical  talent,  noticed 
by  Mr.  Ellis.* 

GODWIN  (Mary),  better  known  by  the  name  of 
WooLLSTON£CRAFT,  a  lady  of  very  extraordinary  genius, 
but  whose  history  and  opinions  are  unhappily  calculated  to 
excite  a  mixture  of  admiration,  pity,  and  scorn,  was  born 
in  or  near  Loudon,  April  27,  1759,  of  poor  parents,  who 
then  resided  at  Epping,  but  afterwards  removed  to  a  farm 
near  Beverley  in  Yorkshire,  where  this  daughter  frequented 
a  day-*school  in  the  neighbourhood.  From  this  place  her 
father  again  removed  to  Hoxton  near  London,  and  after- 
wards to  Walworth.  During  all  this  time,  and  until  Miss 
Woollstonecraft ,  arrived  at  her  twenty-fourth  year,  there 
appears  little  that  is  interesting,  or  extraordinary  in  her 
history,  unless  it  may  be  considered  as  such  that  she  early 
affected  an  original  way  of  thinking,  acc6mpanied  with 
correspondent  actions,  and  entertained  a  high  and  romantic 
sense  of  friendship,  which  seems  greatly  to  have  prevailed 
over  filial  affection.  In  her  twenty-fourth  year,  she  formed 
the  plan  of  Conducting  a  scbiool  at  Islington,  in  conjun^-> 

I  Birch'f  LiveLHrRapin's  Koglan^t   Contmuati.on.— Swift's  Works;    ite  ht* 


52  G  o  D  wan. 

tioa  with  her  skters,  whir.h  iii  the  cpur^  of  H  ^few  fdonthii 
she  removed ^to  Newington-^grreeii)  where  sbe^as  hdnonfed 
by  the  friendship  of  Dr.  Price.  Of  her  opitiiotiB  on  reli- 
gious subjects  at  this  tune,  weh«ve  the  following  singuhir 
account  from  her  biographer :  ^  Her  religtoti  was^  iHi 
reality,  litUe  allied  to  any  system  of  forms,  aiid'Wtfs  rather 
founded  in  taste,  than  in  the  niceties  of  .poiemictd  discus- 
sion. Her  mind  constitutionally  attached  itself  to  -the 
sublime  and  amiable.  She  found  an  inexpretoible  delight 
in  the  beauties  of  nature,  and  in  the  splendid  reveries  of 
ihe  imagination.  But  nature  itself,  she  thought^  would  be 
no  better  than  a  vast  blank,  if  the  mind  of  the  observer 
did  not  supply  it  with  an  animating  soul.  When  she 
Walked  amidst  the  wonders  of  nature,  she  was  accustomed 
to  eonveirse  with  her  God.  To  her  mind  be  was  pictured 
as  not  less  amiable,  generous,  and  kind,  than  great,  wise, 
'and  exaUed.  In  feet  she  had  received  few  lessons  of  reli"« 
gion  in  her  youth,  and  her  religion  wad  almost  entirely  of 
her  own  creation.  But  she  was  not  on  that  account  the 
less  attached  to  it,  or  the  less  scrupulous  in  discharging 
what  she  considered  as  its  duties.  She  could  itot  recollect 
the  time  when  she  bad  believed  the  doctrine  o(  future 
punishments,'^  &c. 

In  1785,  a  Mrs.  Skeggs,  with  wbbm  she  had  contracted 
an  ardent  friendship,  and  who  resided  at  Lisbon,  being 
pregnant.  Miss  \^oollstonecraft,  shocked  with  the  ideatbat 
she  might  die  in  childbed  dt  a  distance  froih  her  friends, 
passed  over  to  Lisbon  to  attend  her,  leaving  the  schot^ 
under  the  management  of  her  sisters ;  an  exeirtion  of  friends- 
ship  the  more  entitled  to  prmse  that  it  prored  hurtful  to 
her  school,  which  soon  after  her  return  she  was  compelled 
to  abandon.  Perhaps,  however,  this  was  not  wholly,  ^a 
matter  of  compulsion,  for  we  are  told  that  *^  she  had  a 
rooted  aversion  to  that  sort  of  cbbabitation  ^ith  her  sisters, 
which  the  project  of  thet  school  impoised."  She  now  ap- 
pears to  have  meditated  literary  employment  as  a  source  of 
profit,  and  exhibited  a  specimen  of  her  talems  in  a  l2mo 
pamphlet,  entitled  ^^  Thoughts  on  the  Education  of  0augh«- 
ters,"  for  the  cdpy-right  of  which  she  obtained  the  sum  of 
ten  guineas  from  the  late  Mr.  Johnson,  booksellery  of  St* 
Paors  church-yard,  who  afterwards  proved  one  of  her  most 
liberal  patrons.  After  this  she  was  employed  for  somo; 
months,  as  a  govenieeis,  in  the  family  of  an  Irish  noble- 
nan,  at  the  end  of  which  she  returned  again  to  literary 


pofBiisti^  and  fitom  1787^  wheti  she  cayni^  tQ.  reside  in  Lou- 
doo,  pfodiioed  <<  Mary^  a  Fktiqthy^  <^ Origind  Stories 
from  real  Kfe,"  made  sQUie  tranalatioof  ftom  the  Fren<;by 
and  compiled  <^  The  Female  Reader/'  oo  the  model  of 
Dr.  Enfidd's  **  SpeaJ^er/*  She  wrote  aUo  some  article*, 
in  the  '^  Analytieal  Review^'*  which  was  established  by  h&e 
puUiaber)  in  178& 

In  the  Frenoh  revidlation  which  took  place,  in  the  follow- 
ing year,  and  which  let  loose  all  l(inds  of  principles  and 
opinions  eascept  what  had  stood  the  test  of  experience, 
M»8  Woollstonecraft  found  much  that  ws;$  congenial  with 
her  own  ways  of  thinkings  and  much  which  it  will  appear 
soon  she  determined  to  introduce  in  her  conduct     She  therefore  among  the  first  who  attempted  to  answer  Mr.^ 
Borke's  celebrated/'  Reflections  on  the  Frepch  Revolution,'' 
and  displayed  a  share,  of  ability  which  made  her  reputation 
more  general  than  it  had  yet  been.     This  was  followed  by 
her  '^  Viisdication  of  the  Rights  of  Woman,"  in  whi^b  she 
unfolded  many  a  wild  tbecnry  on  the  duties  and  character  of 
her  sex.     How  well  she  was  qualified  to  guide  them  ap- 
peared  now  in  the  practical  use  of  her  own  precepts,  of 
which  the  first  specimen  was  the  formation  of  a  violent  at- 
tachment for  a  veiy  eminent  artist,  which  is  thus  embel- 
lished by  her  biographer :  ''  She  saw  Mr.  Fuseli  frequency; 
he  amused,  delighted,  and  instructed  her.    As  a  painter,, 
it  was  imposBible  she  should  not  wish  to  see  bis  works,  and 
consequently  to  frequent  his  house.     She  visited  him ;  her 
visits  were  returned.     Notwithstanding  the  inequality  of 
their  years,  Mary  was  not  of  a  temper  to  live  upon  term^ 
of  so  much  intimacy  with  a  man  of  merit  and  genius,  with- 
out loving  khfL    The  delight  she  eojoyed  in  his  society, 
she  transferred  by  association  to  his  persim.     What  she  ex- 
perienced in  this  respect^  was>  no  doubt  heightened,  by  the 
slate  of  celibacy  and  reslraini  in  which  she  had  hitherto 
Kved,  and  to  which  the  rules  of  polished  society  condetim 
an  onmarriedi woman.     She  conceived. a  personal  and  ar-r 
dent  affection  for  him^     Mr.  Fuseli  was  a  married  man,  and 
his  wife  the  acquaintance  of  Mary.     She  readily  perceived 
the  restrictions  which  this  circumstance  seemed  to  impose 
upon  her,  bnt  she  made  light  of  any  diificulty  that  might 
arise  out  of  them;"     Notwithstanding  this  contempt  for 
difficulties,  Mr.  Fuseli  was  not  to  be  won,  and  in  order  to 
get  rid  of  a  passion  which  he  would  not  indulge,  she  went 
9ver  to  France  in  1792.     Here  within  a  few  months  she 

fi4  GODWIN. 

found  a  cure  in  that  "  species  of  connection,"  says  her 
fiiographer,  ^^  for  which  her  heart  secretly  panted,  and 
which  had  the  effect  of  diffusing  an  immediate  tranquillity 
and  cheerfulness  over  her  manners."     This  was  an  illicit 
connection  with  a  Mr.  Imlay,  an  American;  and  we  are 
gravely  told,  thfit  ^'  she  was  now  arrived  at  the  situation^ 
which,  for  two  or  three  preceding  years,  her  reaso7ihsA 
pointed  out  to  her  as  affording  the  most  substantial  pro- 
spect of  happiness."     Her  reason,  however,  unfortunately 
pointed  wrong  in  this  instance,  as  she  was  afterwards  most 
basely  and  cruelly  abandoned  by  the  object  of  her  affec* 
tions,  whose  conduct  cannot  be  mentioned  in  terms  of  in- 
dignation too  strong.     She  now  made  two  attempts  at  sui- 
cide, on  which  we  shall  only  remark  that  they  were  totally 
inconsistent  with  the  character  given  of  heir  by  her  biogra- 
pher,'as  possessing  "a  firmness  of  mind,  an  unconquerable 
greatness  of  soul,  by  which,  after  a  short  internal  struggle^ 
she  was  accustomed  to  rise  above  difficulties  and  suffering.^'. 
Having  overcdme  two  ardent  passions,  she  formed   a 
thirdy  of  which  her  biographpr,  Mr.  William  Godwin,  was 
the  object.     A  period  only  of  six  months  intervened  in 
this  case  ;  but,  says  Mr.  Godwin,  with  a  curious  felicity  of 
calculation,  although  ^^  it  was  only  six  months  since  she 
had  resolutely  banished  every  thought  of  Mr.  Iralay  (the 
former  lover),  it  was  at  least  eighteen  that  he  oM^Af  to  have 
been  banished,  and  would  have  been  banished,  had  it  not 
been  for  her  scrupulous  pertinacity  in  determining  to  leave 
no  measure  untried   to   regain  him.**     This   connection, 
likewise,  was  begun  without  the  nuptial  ceremonies ;  but, 
after  some  months,  the  marriage  took  place ;  the  principal 
reason  was  that  she  was  pregnant,  and  ^<  unwilling  to  in- 
cur that  seclusion  from  the  society  of  many  valuable  and 
excellent  individuals,  which  custom  awards  in  cases  of  this 
sort.*'     But  it  did  not  produce  the  desired  effect.     Some 
who  visited  her,  or  were  visited  by  her,  and  who  regarded 
her  as  the  injured  object  of  Mr.  Imlay's  indifference,  were 
not  pleased  to  bestow  their  countenance  on  one  who  was 
^o  eager  to  run  into  the  arms  of  another  man,  and  alike 
info^rmally.     Mr.  Godwin  takes  this  opportunity  of  cen- 
suring the  prudery  of  these  nice  people  in  terms  of  severity 
—with  what  justice  our  readers  may  determine.     The  hap- 
piness of  this  connection,  however,  was  transient.     In  Au- 
gust 1797,  she  was  delivered  of  a  daughter,  and  died  Sept. 
iO,  of  the  same  year.     From  the  account  given  of  her,  by 

GODWIN.  55, 

lier  biographer,  in  which  we  must  condemn  the  laboured, 
vindication  of  principles  inconsistent  with  the  delicacy  of 
the  fem^e  sez,  and  the  welfare  of  society,  Mrs.  Godwin 
appears  to  have  been  a  woman  of  strong  intellect,  which 
might  have  elevated  her  to  the  highest  rank  of  English  fe- 
male writers,  had  not  her  genius  run  wild  for  want  of  cul- 
tivation. Her  passions  were  consequently  ungovernable, 
and  she  accustomed  herself  to  yield  to  them  without  scru- 
ple, treating  female  honour  and  delicacy  as  vulgar  preju- 
dices. She  was  therefore  a  voluptuary  and  sensualist, 
without  that  refinement  for  which  she  seemed  tp  contend 
on  other  subjects.  Her  history  indeed  forms  entirely. a 
warning,  and  in, no  part  an  example.  Singular  she  was,  it 
must  be  allowed,  for  it  is  not  easily  to  be  conceived  that 
such  another  heroine  will  ever  appear,  unless  in  a  novel, 
where  a  latitude  is  given  to  that  extravagance  of  character 
which  she  attempted  to  bring  into  real  life. 

Besides  the  works  already  noticed,  she  published  ^^  A 
moral  and  historical  view  of  the  French  Revolution,"  of 
which  one  volume  only  was  published,  and  ^'  Letters  from 
Norway.^'  The  latter  contains  nxuch  elegant  description 
and  just  rem^.rk.  The  former  could  be  noticed  only  at  the 
time  of  its  publication.  The  gay  illusions  of  the  French 
Cieyolution  soon  disappeared.  After  her  death  some  mis- 
cellanies, letters,  and  an  unfinished  novel,  were  published' 
by  her  husband,  in  4  vols,.  12mo,  with  a  Life  of  the  au- 
thoress. Much  of  both  had  better  been  suppressed,  as  ill 
calculated  to  excite  sympathy  for  one  who  seems  to  have 
rioted  in  sentiments  alike  repugnant  to  religion,  sejise,  and 

GODWIN  ^Thomas),  an  English  prelate,  was  born  in 
1517  at  Oakingham  in  Berkshire;  and  being  put  to  the 
gramnuir-school  there,  quickly  made  such  a  progress  as 
discovered  him  to  be  endowed  with  excellent  parts.  But 
his  parents  being  low  in  circumstances,  he  must  have  lost 
the  advantage  of  improving  them  by  a  suitable  education, 
had  they  not  been  noticed  by  Dr.  Richard  Lay  ton,  arch- 
deacon of  Bucks,  a  zealous  promoter  of  the  reformation, 
who,  taking  him  into  his  house,  and  instructing  him  in 
classical  learning,  sent  him  to  Oxford,  where  he  was  en- 
.tered  of  Magdalen  college  about  1538.  Not  long  after, 
be  lost  his  worthy  patron  ;  but  his  merit,  now  become  con- 

^  lL\f%  9S  abOTe.---]Vlonthly  and  Critical  K^viewis. — British  Critic  for  1*798. 

$6  O  O  D  W  1  N, 

spiciious  in  the  tniversity,  Ikkd  procured  him  other  friends ; 
so  that  he  was  enabled  to  take  the  degree  of  fr.  A.  Jtily  \^^ 
1543.  The  same  merit  released  his  friends  from  any  far* 
ther  expence,  by  obtaining  him,  the  year  ensuing,  a  fellow- 
ship of  bis  college ;  and  he  proceeded  Mk  A.  in  r547.  But 
be  did  not  long  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  merit  in  a  college 
life ;  his  patron,  the  archdeacon,  had  taken  csire  to  breed 
up  Godwin  in  the  principles  of  the  reformation^  and  tins 
irritating  some  popish  members  of  the  college^  they  made 
his  situation  so  uneasy,  that,  the  free-school  at  Brackley  in 
Northamptonshire  becoming  vacant  in  1549,  and  being  in 
trhe  gift  of  the  college,  he  resigned  his  fellowship,  and  ac- 
cepted it.  In  this  station,  he  married  the  daughter  of 
Nicholas  Purefoy,  of  Shalston,  in  the  county  of  Bucks,  and 
lived  without  any  new  disturbance  as  long  as  Edward  VI. 
was  at  the  helm  :  but,  upon  the  accession  of  Mary,  bis  re- 
ligion exposed  him  to  a  fresh  persecution,  and  he  was  ob- 
liged to  quit  his  s<:bool.  In  this  exigence,  although  the 
church  was  his  original  intention,  and  he  had  read  muchr 
with  that  view,  yet  now  it  became  i^ore  safe  to  apply  to 
the  study  of  physic;  and  being  admitted  to  his  bacbelor^s 
degree  in  that  faculty,  at  Oxford,  July  1555,  be  practised 
in  it  for  a  support  till  EHzabeth  succeeded  to  the  throne, 
when  he  resolved  to  enter  into  the  church.  In  this  he  was 
encouraged  by  Bullingham,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  who  gave 
)iim  orders,  and  made  him  his  chaplain;  his  lordship  also 
introduced  hini  to  the  queeuy  and  obtained  him  the  ft^vour 
6f  preaching  before  her  majesty  ;  who  was  so  much  pleased 
with  the  propriety  of  his  manner,  and  the  grave  turn  of 
hi^  oratory,  that  she  appointed  him  one  of  her  Lent- 
preachers.  }le  h^d  discharged  this  duty  by  an  annual  ap- 
pointqoent,  with  much  satisfaction  to  her  majesty,  for  a 
series  of  eighteen  year£^.  In  1565,  on  the  depriyation  of 
Sampson,  be  was  made  dean  of  Christ  church,  Oxford, 
and  had  also  the  prebend  of  Milton-ecclesia  in  the  church 
of  Lincoln  conferred  on  him  by  his  patron  bishop  Bulling- 
ham. This  year  also  he  took  his  degrees  of  B.  and  D.  D. 
at  Oxford.  In  1566,  he  was  promoted  to  the  deanery  of 
Canterbury,  being  the  second  dean  of  that  church  :  and 
queen  Elizabeth  making  a  visit  to  Oxford  the  same  year, 
be  attended  her  majesty,  and  among  others  kept  an  exer- 
t^ise  in  divinity  against  Dr.  Lawrence  Humphries,  the  pro- 
fessor ;  in  which  the  famous  Dr.  Jewel,  bishop  of  Salis- 
l^ury,  was  moderator. 

6  O  B  W  I  ^  II 

In  June  (olbofmag  he  was  appcnnteati  by  arefaiii8bop>  Piar<* 
ker,  oiie  of  his  commissioners  to  visit  the  diocese  of  Nor« 
wtch ;  and  that  primate  having  established  a  benefaotioa 
for  a  sermon  on-  Rogation  Sunday  ait  Tfaetford  in  Norfolk 
and  other  places^,  the  dean,  white  engaged  in  this  commi»^ 
sion,  preached  the  first  sermon  of  that  foundation,  on^  Sun* 
day  Booming  J^ily  20,  1567,  in  the  Geeen*-yard  adjoin^^ 
to  the  bishop'^  palace  at  Nopwick  In  157$  he  quitted  his 
pn^nd  of  Miiton-ecclesia,  oif  being  presented  by  Coopeiv 
then  bishop  of  Lincohi^  to  tfadt  of  Leigbton^Bosand, .  the 
endowment  of  which  is^  considered  the  b^t  in  the  church  of 
Lincoln.  In  1576  he  was  one  of  the  ecclesiasticab  c6m«« 
missioners,  empowered  by  the  queen-  to  take  cognizknics 
of  aH  olienced  against  the  peace  and  good  ordof  of  the 
dhnreb,  and-  to  fmme  such  statutes  as  miglit  conduce  toata 

The  see  of  Balfa  and  Wells  had  in  1584  been  vaicaht 
since  the  death  of  Dr.  Gilbert  Berkley  in  Nov.  1 53 1.  To 
this  bishopric  the  queen  now  nominated^  dean  Godwin,  who 
aeGo^di^g'^y.was  cotisecrated  Sept.  13,  13841,  |le  immo'* 
diately  resigned  the  deanery  of  Canterbary ;  and  as  he  ar-*^ 
rited  at  the  epfsoopal  dignity  ^as  well  qualified,^'  says  his 
conten^porary^sif  John  Harrington,  ^^for  a  bishop  a^  might 
be,  unreproveabie,  withmu  simony,  gin^n  tO' good  hospi* 
tality,  quiet,  kind,  and  afiabte,**  it  is  to  be  lamented  that 
be  was  unjustly  opposed  in  the  enjoyment  of  what  he  de* 
served.  At  the  time  of  bfs  promotion  tbiere  .prevailed 
smong  the  Qoortrets  no  small  dislike  to  the  bishops; 
prompted  by  a  desire  to  spoil  them  of  their  revenues.  To 
eover  tbeir  unjust  proceedings,  they  did  not  want  plausi-* 
ble  pretences,  the  eflP^tets  of  which  Godwin  too  severely 
experienced.  He  was  a  widower,  drawing  towards  se-* 
veiity,  and  much  enfeebled  by  the  gout,  when  he  came 
to  the  see  ;  but  in  order  to  the  management  of  his  family, 
aud  that  be  might  devot^  his  whole  time  to  the  discharge 
of  his  high  office,  he  married  a  second  wife,  a  widow,  of 
years  suitable  to  his  own.  An  illiberal  misrepresentation^ 
however,  of  this  sdfFair  was  but  too  readily  believed  by  the 
queen,  who  had  a  rooted  aversion  to  the  marriages  of  tlie 
clergy,  and  the  crafty  slanderers  gratified  their  aim  in  the 
disgrace  of  the  aged  prelate,  and  in  obtaining  paft  of  bis 
property^.    This  unfortunate   aifair,^   which  affected  his 

*  A  part  of  their  slanders  was  that     girl  of  tweaty.    The  earl   of  Bedford 
the  old  bishop  had  married  a  young     happened  to  be  at  court  when  thii 

*S  GO  D  W  I  N. 

public  obaimcter  as  well  as  his  private  happiness,  coniri* 
buted  not  a  little  to  increase  his  infirmities.  He  continued^ 
however,  attentive  to  the  duties  of  bis  function,  and  fre* 
^uently.  gave  proof  that  neither  his  diligence  nor  his  obr 
^rvation  were  inconsiderable.  During  the  two  last  years 
of  bis  life,  his  health  more  rapidly  declined,  and  he  was 
also  attacked  with  a  quartan  ague.  He  was  now  recom-i 
mended  by  his  physicians  to  try  the  benefit  of  his  native 
Hir;  Accordingly  he  came  to  Oakingham  with  this  inten* 
tion,  but  breathed  his  last  there,  Nov.  19,  1590.  He  was> 
buried  in  the  chancel  of  Oakingham  church,  where  is  a. 
adodest  inscription  to  his  memory,  written  by  his  son,  the 
subject  of  the  next  article. 

The  memory  of  bishop  Godwin  will  ever  be  respected.. 
His  own  merit  brought  him  into  public  notice,  and  when 
he  rose  in  the  church  he  adorned  it  by  his  amiable  qualities. 
Though  he  was  a  distinguished  scholar,  yet  he  did  not 
publish  any  of  his  labours.  Among  the  Parker  MSS.  in 
Bene't  ^college,  Cambridge,  is  a  sermon  which  he  preached 
before  the  queen  at  Greenwich  in  1566,  concerning  the 
authority  of  the  councils  and  fathers.  ^ 

GODWIN  (Francis),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Havington  in  Northamptonshire,  1561;  and,  after  a  good 
foundation  of  grammar-learning,  wa9  sent  to  Christ  Church 
college,  Oxford,  where  he  was  elected  a  student  in  1678, 
while  his  father  was  dean.  He  proceeded  B.  A.  in  1580, 
and  M.  A.  in  1583  ;  about  which  time  he  wrote  an  enter* 
taining  piece  upon  a  philosophical  subject,  where  ima- 
gination, judgment,  and  knowledge,  keep  an  equal 
pace ;  but  this,  as  it  contradicted  certain  received  notions 
of  bis  times,  be  never  published.  It  c^ame  out  about  five 
years  after  bis  death,  under  the  title  of  ^^  The  Man  in  the 
Moon ;  or,  a  discourse  of  a  voyage  thither  ;*'  by  Domingo 
Gonsales,  1638,  8vo.  It  has  been  several  times  printed, 
and  shews  that  he  had  a  creative  genius.  Domingo  Gon- 
sales, a  little  Spaniard,  is  supposed  to  be  shipwrecked  on 
an  uninhabited  island,  where  he  taught  seversd  ganzas,  or 
wild  geese,  to  fly  with  a  light  machine,  and  to  fetch  and 
carry  things ''for  his  conveniency.     He,  ajfter  some  time^ 

Ktory  was  told,  and  said  to  the  queen,     woman  is  above  twenty,  but  I  know  a 
'*  Madam,  I  know  not  how  much  the     son  of  hers  is  but  little  under  forty." 

1  Oodwin  de  Prssulibus. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. — Biog.  Brit — ^Todd's  Deans  of 
Canterbury.«-Strype*s  Life  of  Parker,  p.  SBi,  f 44,  and  of  Wbitgift,  p.  315.*^ 
Harrington's  Brief  Vjem— Faller's  Worthies. 

G  O  D  W  I  Nt  n» 

Yentared  to  put  himself  into  the  machine^  and  they  carried, 
liim  with  great  ease.  He  happened  to  be  in  this  aisrial 
chariot  at  the  time  of  the  year  when  these  ganzas,  which 
were  birds  of  passage,  took  their  flight  to  the  moon,  and  waa 
directly  carried  to  that  planet.  He  has  giyen  a  very  inge-^ 
nious  description  of  what  occurred  to  him  on  his  way,  and 
the  wonderf u  1  things  which  he  saw  there.  Dr.  Swift  seem^ 
to  have  borrowed  several  hints  from  this  novel,  in  his  Yoy*^ 
age  to.Laputa;  but  it  is  more  to  Dr.  Gk)dwin?s  praise  that 
he  appears  to  have  been  well  acquainted  with  the  Coper* 
mean  system.  He  suppressed  areo  another  of.  bis  inven* 
tions  at  that  time,  which  he  called  '^  Nuncius  inanimatus,^^ 
or  the  ''  Inanimate  Messenger.'^  The  design  was  to  com*> 
municate  various  methods  of  conveyii^  intelligence  se* 
cretly,  speedily,  and  safely  ;  but  although  he  asserts  that 
by  an  agreement  settled  between  two  parties,  a  message 
may  be  conveyed  from  the  one  to  the  other,  at  the  distance 
of  many  miles,  with  an  incredible  swiftness,  yet  he  does 
not  reveal  the  secret.  It  appears,  however,  to  have  given 
rise  .  to  bishop  Wilkins^s  >*  Mercury,  or  secret  and.  swift 
Messenger.'^  It  is  said  that  he  afterwards  comniunicated 
the  secret  to  his  majesty,  but  why  it  was  not  acted  upon  is 
not  mentioned  by  his  biographers.  The  pamphlet  was 
published  in  1629,  and  afterwards,  in  1657,  was  translated 
by  the  learned  Dr.  Thomas  Smith,  and  published  witi^ 
^^  The  Man  in  the  Moon.** 

He  had  probably  been  sometime  master  of  arts,  when  he 
entered  into  orders,  and  became  in  a  short  time  rector  of 
Samford  Orcais,  in  Somersetshire,  a  prebendary  in .  the 
church  of  Wilts,  canon  residentiary  there,  and  vicar  of 
Weston  in  Zoylaad,  in  the  same  county ;  he  was  also  coU 
lated  to  the  sub-deanery  of  Exeter,  in  1587.  In  the  mean 
time,  turning  bis  studies  to  the  subject  of  the  antiquities  of 
his  own  country,  he  becan^e  acquainted  with  Camden; 
and  accompanied  him  in  bis  travels  to  Walos,  in  1590,  in 
the  search  of  curiosities.  He  took  great  delight  in  these 
inquiries,  in  which  he  spent  his  leisure  hours  for  several 
years;  but  at  length  he  con6ned  himself  to  ecclesiastical 
antiquities  and  liistory.  After  some  time,  finding,  with 
regard  to  these,  that  he  could  add  little  or  nothing  to  Fox*8 
work  on  that  subject,  he  restrained  his  inquiries  to  persons; 
and  here  he  spared  no  pains,  so  that  he  bad  enough  to 
make  a  considerable  volume  in  1594. 

He  became  B.  D.  in  1593,  and  D.  D.  in  1595;  in  whick 

#0  aoBwrMi 

if^i  fetigtoingtl^a  ifiem%%  of  Weiton»  he wm a^poiofead 
aeclbr  of  Btsb6p7s  Liddiard^  id  the  same  coui^.  He 
aItU  coptiooed  aMtduoua  in  pursuing  eeelesiasticai  bio«« 
gsi^y ;  and^  hiudog  made  an  handsoine  additimi  to  bii 
foroier  eqUeotiona,  pubHshed  the  whole  in  1601,  4tci, 
toder  tbe  title^  <'  A  Catalogiie  of  the  Bisbi^s  of  Eng*- 
laod^  sifioe  the  firat  plantiiig  of  the  Ghristiaa  reUgioo  ii» 
thia  isbu!^';  together  wiA  a  brief  hiatory  df  their  Kycs  and 
aomnorabl^  action^  so  near  as  can  be  gat;bered  of  ai^ 

£dty/*  It  apipeta^  by  ti^  dedica^o'n  to  lovd  Buckfaaral^ 
at  our  author  was  at  this  tme  chaplain  to  this  nobleooab^ 
#hOy  being  in  hi|^  credit  with  queen  EUzahetfa,  imme- 
diateiy  procured  hi'm^  the  bisrhopvio  of  Llaiuiaff.  This  waa 
said  to  be  a  royal  reward  for  his^  Catdogue^  and  thia  suc^ 
cess  of  it  encouraged  him  to  proceed.  The  dengii  vi^s  so 
aradi  iqpprored;  that  aftervwarda  hef6und  a  patron  in  Jamei 
Ik  ;^  aad  sir  John  HarrifKgtoni  a  favourite  of  prince  Ytevtry^ 
mote  a  treatise  by  way  of  supplement  to  i^  for  thaa 
pdnce's  use.  This  was.  drawn  purely  for  that  purpose^ 
wiithotit  any  intentioo  to  publish  it ;  but  it  appeared  after^ 
wards  with  the  title  of  ^^  AbrieE  view  of  the  state  of  the 
Church  of  Englandl*'  It  is  carried  on  only  to  the  yea^ 
1608  (4)vben  it  was  written)  from  the  close  of  our  autbor^s 
^orkis.  Our  author  therefbre  devoted  all  the  time  he  could 
spare  from  the  dudes  of  his  function  towards  completing 
and  perfecting  this  Catalogue ;  and  ptibli^ed  another  edi«i 
tion  in  161 5,  with  great  additions  and  aiteratfiDhs.  But/ 
this  being  very  erroneously  printed,  by  reason  of  his  dia* 
tance  from  tbe  press,  he  resolved  to  turn  that  misfortane 
into  an  advantage ;  and  accordingly  sent  itabrosudtheyear 
after,  in  a  new  elegant  Latin  dress  ;  partly  for  the  use  of 
foreigners,  but  more  perhaps  to  please  the  king^  to  whom 
k  was  dedicated,  and  who  in  return  gave  him  the  bishop* 
ric  of  Hereford)  to  which  he  was  translated  rn  1617.  His 
work  has  since  been  reprinted,  with  a  continuation  to  the 
time  of  publication,  1743,  by  Dr.  Richardson,  in  an  ele* 
gant  folio  volume,  with  a  fine  portrait  of  Godwin,  and 
other  embelliabments. 

In  1616  he  published  in  Latin,  ^'  Rerum  Anglioarum 
Henrico  VIIL  &c."  which  was  translated  and  puUcshed  by 
'  bis  son,  Morgan  Godwin,  under  the  title  of  ^-  Annales  of 
England,  containing  tbe  reigns  of  Henry  VIIL  Edward  VL 
and  queen  Mary,"  fol.  These,  as  well  as  his  lives  of  the 
bishops,  are  written  in  elegant  Latin,  and  with  much  im* 


jMUrliidi^.  lo  I6S0»  he  published  a  smatt  tmlwe,  ^M- 
titled  '^  A  compotation  of  ike  mdlie  of  Ae  itOmaii  Setteree 
Md  Akl^.T^au^'  After  ibis  be  fell  into  a  low  and  laii^ 
gnidiiDg  dUordef,  and  died  in  April  1633.  He  znnlmedy 
urben  a  young  iMUiy  ^  diuighter  of  WoHtod,  bidiopof 
fizeter,  by  iiMboin  be 'bad^nyany  obHdfen.  He  appeaw  to 
bave  been  a  man  of  gnealrleamiag  and  penoaal  Ms^h,  and 
a  aealons  obampion  for  tbe  dinrdb  of  England.  His  son, 
fir.  Morgan  Goamn,  was  arcbdeacon  of  SiMHopriiiirey  and 
Uanslated,  as  we  bare  noticed.  If  is  fadier^s  ^  Anoales/' 
He  was  gected  by  tlie  parliamentary  comniissioners,  and 
his  family  reduced  to  distress:  be  died  in  1645,  leaving 
a  son  of  his  own  names,  wbo  was  edoeated  at  Oxford,  and 
afterwards  became  a  minister  in  Virginia,  under  ^the  go- 
Temment  of  sir  William  Berkeley,  but  was  at  last  beneficed 
near  London.  When  be  died  is  not  mentioned.  He  wtote 
some  pamphlets,  while  in  Virginia,  on  the  state  of  reli- 
gion there,  and  die  education  of  the  negroes.  The  late 
vev.  ObaclcB  Godwin,  an  antiquary,  and  benefiictortofialiol 
college,  Oxford,  who  died  in  1 77*0,  appears  to  have  been 
a  soft  of  Charles  Godwin,  of  Monmouth,  another  son  of 
bbhop  Francis  Godwin.  * 

GODWIN  (Dr.  Thomas),  a  learned  English  writer,  and 
te  excellent  schoolmaster,  was  bom  in  Somersetshire,  in 
1587 ;  and,  after  a  suitable  edacation  in  grammar- learn* 
ing,  was  sent  to  Oxford.  He  was  entered  of  Magdalen- 
*batl  in  1602 ;  and  took  tbe  two  degrees  -in  arts  1606  and 
1609.  This  last  yeair  he  removed  to  Abingdon  in  Berk- 
.^re,  baling  obtained  the  place  gf  chief  master  of  the  free- 
school  there ;  and  in  this  employ  distinguished  himself  by 
his  industry  and  abilities  so  .much,  that  he  brought  the 
school  into  a  very  flourishing  condition ;  and  bred  up  many 
youths  who  proved  ornaments  to .  their  country,  both  in 
church  and  state.  To  attain  this  oonunencfaible  end  he 
wrote  his  <<  Roman®  Historiee  Anthologia,''  an  English 
exposition  of  the  Roman  antiquities,  &c«  and  printed  it  at 
Oxiord  in  1613,  4to.  The  second  edition  was  published 
in  1623,  with  considerable  additions.  He  also  printed  for 
the  use  of  his  school,  a  ^  Florilegium  Phrasicon,  or  a  sur- 
vey of  the  Latin  Tongue.''  However,  his  inclinations 
leading  him  to  divinity,  he  entered  into  orders,  and  be<- 
oajne  chaplain  to  Montague  bishops  of  Bath  and  Welfe^ 

1  Geo,  l>iet**»Bios.^Brit.— Harrington'i  Brief  Vi«w.*->Atii.  Oir.  vol.  I. 


>  He  proceeded  B.  D..  in  1616,  in  which  year  he  puiblisbed 

'  at  Oxford,  '<  Synopsis  Antiquitatum  Hebraicaruin;  &c."  d 
collection  of  Hebrew  antiquities,  iii  thr'^e  books,  4to.    This 

. lie  dedicated  to  his  patron;,  and,  obtaining  sotne  time  af- 
ter  from  him  the  rectory  of  Brightweil  in  Berkshire,  he 

•  resigned  his  school^  the  fatigue  of  which  had  long  been  too 
great  for  him.  Amidst  his  parochial  diities,  he  prosecuted 
the  subject  of  the  Jewish  antiquities ;  and,  in  1625,  priated 
in  4to,  *^  Moses  and  Aaron^  &c.*'  which  was  long-esteemed 

\]|B  usefiil  book  for  explaining  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
rites  of  the  Hebrews.  He  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  in  1637, 
but  did  not  enjoy  that  honour  many  years ;  dying  upon  his 
parsonage  in  1642-3,  and  leaving  a  wife,  whom  be  had 
married  while  he  taught  school  at  Abingdon. 

Besides  the  pieces  already  mentioned,  h.e  published 
^*  Three  Arguments  to  prove  Election  upon  Foresight  by 
f^dth  ;^'  which  coming  into  tbe  hands  of  Dr.  William 
Twisse,  of  Newbury  in  Berkshire,  occasioned  a  contro- 
rersy  between  them,  in  which  our  author  is  said  not  to  bave^ 
appeared  to  advantage.  ^ 

GOERE'E  (William),  an  eminent  and  learned  book- 
seller,  was  born  Dec.  11,  1635,  at  Middleburg.  Losing 
his  father  early  in  life,  he  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  have  a 
harsh  father-in-law,  who,  being  no  scholar  himself,  would 
not  permit  the  young  man  to  devote  his  time  to  study,  but 
forced  him  to  choose  some  business.  Goer^e  fixed  on  that 
of  a  bookseller,  as  one  which  would  not  wholly  ekclud^ 
him  from  the  conversation  of  the  learned,  nor  from  the 
pursuit  of  bis  studies ;  and  he  accordingly  found  tim^ 
enough,  notwithstanding  his  necessary  occupations,  to  cul- 
tivate his  genius,  and  even  to  write  several  valuable  books^ 
in  Flemish,  on  architecture,  sculpture,  painting,  engrav- 
ing, botany,  physic,  and  antiquities.  He  died  May  3, 
171),  at  Amsterdam.  His  principal  works  are,  ^^  Jewish 
Antiquities,*'  2  vols.fol.;  *^  History  of  the  Jewish  Church, 
taken  from  the  Writings  of  Moses,"  4  vols.  fol. ;  "  Sacred 
and  Propbane  History,'*  4to ;  ^^  Introduction  to  the  prac- 
tice of  universal  Painting,"  8vo ;  **  Of  the  Knowledge  of 
Man  with  respect  to  his  Nature,  and  Painting,"  8vo; 
••  Universal  Architecture,"  &c.* 

GO£TZ£  (George^  Henry),  a  learned  and  zealous 
I^utberan,  was  bom  at  Leipsic  in  1668,  studied  at  Wit* 

<  A<b.  Ox.  to).  lI.^OeD.  Diet.  «  M orerL—Dict.  Hilt. 

G  O  E  T  Z  E.  «5 

'  iemberg  suid  Jeoa^  and  exercised  his  fiinctioDs  as  a  minis* 
ter  in  various  parts  of  Germany.  He  was  the  author  of 
many  very  singular  works  in  Latin  and  German,  of  which 
Moreri  gives  a  list  of  152,  but  the  greater  part  of  these  aro 
dissertations;  or  theses,  on  various  subjects  of  divinity,  sa* 
cred  criticism,  and  ecclesiastical  history.  He  was  lastly 
superintendant  of  the  churches  at  Lubec,  and  died  in  that 
city,  March  25,  1729.  The  most  distinguished  among  his 
Latin  works  are^  ^  Selecta  ex  Historia  Litteraria,"  Lu- 
becsB,  1709,  4to ;  ^'  Meletemata  Annebergensia,*'  Lubecse, 
1709,  3  vols.  12mo,  containing  several  dissertations,  which 
have  appeared  separately.  ^ 

QOEZ  (Damian  De),  a  Portuguese  writer  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  was  born  at  Alanquar  near  Lisbon,  of  a 
noble  family,  in  1501,  and  brought  up  as  a  domestic  in 
the  court  of  king  Emanuel,  where  he  was  considered  both 
as  a  rnaii  of  letters  and  of  business.  Having  a  strong  pas- 
sion for  travelling,  he  contrived  to  get  a  public  commission; 
and  travelled  through  almost  all  the  countries  of  Europe, 
contracting'  as  He  went  an  acquaintance  with  all  the  learn* 
ed.  At  Dantzic  he  became  intimate  with  the  brothers 
John  and  Oiaus  Magnus;  and  he  spent  five  months  at  Fri- 
burg  with  Erasmus.  He  afterwards  went  to  Padua,  in 
1534,  where  he  resided  four  years,  studying  under  Laza- 
rus Bonamicus ;  nut,  however,  without  making  frequent 
excursions  ii^td  different  parts  of  Italy.  Here;  he  obtained 
(be  esteem  of  Peter,  afterwards  cardinal  Bembus,  of  Chris- 
topher Madruciuts,  cardini^l  of  Trent,  and  of  James  Sado- 
Jet.  On  hid  return  to  Louvain  in  1538,  he  had  recourse 
to  Conrad  Goclenius  and  Peter  Nannius,  whose  instruc- 
tions were  of  great  use  to  him,  and  applied  himself  to 

'music  and  poetry;  in  the  former  of  which  he  made  so 
happy  a  progress,  that  he 'was  qualified  to  compose  for  the 
f;hurches.  He  married  at  Louvain,  and  his  design  was  to 
settle  in  this  city,  in  order  to  enjoy  a  little  repose  after 
fourteen  years  travelling ;  but  a  war  breaking  out  between 
Charles  V.  and  Hent'y  II.'  of  France,  Louvain  was  besieged 
in  1542,  and  Goez,  who  has  written  the  history  of  this 
liege,  put  himself  at  the  head  of  the  soldiers,  and  contri- 
buted much  to  the  diefence  of  the  town  against  the  French, 
when  the  other  officers  had  abandoned  it.  When  he  was 
old,  Jphn  XIL  of  Portugal,  recalled  him  into  his  country, 

1  Moreri— Niceron,  toL  XX1II» 

J4  fy^O  E  Z. 

in  Older  i;o  «rnte  |the*hMt!i>ry  pf  it:;  buM>  it  l^jecme  fiiiit 
tieeeisairy  4»o  lunvkDge  the  Ai^i^esof  the  kM^dpi^^  ^hnah 
be  found  mtbe  gmalee^  oonfpsiqny  be  had  little  leis^^  io 
ftooomidisb  bi«  work.  The  faypuvs  al^o  which  tt^eking 
bestowed  tipon  him  created  him  00  fnucb  envy,  that  his 
tiaaquillity  was  ai  an  end,  aud  he  <(ame  to  be  i^ccoaed ; 
aodf  though  he  cleared  himself  from  all  iipputatiaos,  was 
conBued  to  the  town  of  Lisbon.  Here,  it  is  said  that  he 
was  one  day  found  dead  in  hi9  own  house ;  and  in  such  a 
,  manner  as  to  make^i^  doubted  whether  he  was  strangled  by 
his  enemies,  or  died  of  an  apoplexy ;  but  other  accounts 
inform  us,  with  more  probability,  that  he  fell  into  the  fire 
in  a  fit,  and  was  dead  before  the  accident  was  discovered. 
Tliis  happened  in  15^0,  and  he  was  interred  in  tbecburoh 
of  Notre  Dame,  at  Alanquar.  He  wrote  ^^  Fides,  Religio, 
Moresque  ^thiopum;''  *^  De  Imperio  et  Rebus  Lusita* 
norum  ;''  ^^Hiapania;'*  ^^Urbis  PUssiponensisDescriptio;** 
^<  Chronica  do  Rey  Dom  Emanuel ;"'  <*  Historia  do  Prin- 
CHpe Dom  Juab-/'  and  other  works,  which  have  been  often 
priiited,  and  are  much  esteemed.  Antonio  says,  that, 
though  be  is  an  exact  writer,  yet  he  has  not  written  the 
Portuguese  language  in  its  purity;  which,  howeirer,  is  opt 
to  be  wondered  at,  considering  bow  much  time  he  spent » 
out  of  his  own  country. ' 

COFF  (Thomas),  a  divine  and  dramatic  writer,  was 
born  in  £ssex,  about  1592,  and  was  educated  at  West- 
minster-sehoel,  frgm  which,  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  h^ 
entered  as  a  student  of  Christ  Church  college)  Oxford. 
Here  be  completed  his  studies,  and,  by  dint  of  i^)plica- 
lion  and  industry,  became  a  veiy  ai^le  scholar*  pbtaioed 
the  character  of  a  good  poet>  and,-  being  endpw^d  wiih 
the  powers  of  oratoiy,  was,  after  his  taking  orders,  esteeoHKl 
ao  e^eelleat  pceaeher.  He  had  the  degree  of  B.  D.  con- 
ferred on  him  before  he  quitted  the  university,  and,  in 
1623,  was  preiierred  to  the  living  of  East  Clandpn,  in 
Surrey.  Here,  notwithstanding  that  he  had  long  been  a 
professed  enemy  to  tfa^  female  sex,  and  even  by  some 
esteemed  a  wpman-bate^  ^e  unfortunately  tied  himself  to 
a  wife,  the  widow  of  his  predecessor,  who  was  a  Xantippe, 
and  he  being  naturally  -  of  a  mild  disposition,  became  at 
last  unable  to  cope  with  so  turbulent  a. spirit,  backed  as 

1  Antonio  Bibl.  iIisp,«i«>01eoiMit  Bibl.  CantnSC^-^baufepie.—NicereBj  rol. 

G  O  F  F.  «l 

Ae  wvs  by  the  cUidrta  Ae  had  by  ter  former  husband.  It 
was  bdieved  by  many,  that  the  uneasiness  be  met  with  in 
dooiestic  life  shortened  bis  days.  He  died  in  July  1629/ 
being  then  only  thirty •ftre  years  of  age,  and  was  buried  on 
the  27th  of  the  same  month  at  bis  own  parish  church.  He 
wrote  several  pieces  on  different  subjects,  among  which 
are.  five  tragedies ;  none  of  which  were  published  till  some 
yeairs  after  his  death.  Philips  and  Winstanley  have  as<* 
oribed  a  comedy  to  this  author,  called  **  Cupid's  Whirli^ 
gig  ;'*  but  with  no  appearance  of  probability ;  since  the 
gravi^  of  his  temper  was  such,  that  he  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  capable  of  a  performance  so  ludicrous.  In  the 
latter  part  of  his  life  he  forsook  the  stage  for  the  pulpit^ 
and  wrote  sermons,  some  of  which  appeared  the  year  he 
died.  With  the  quaintness  common  to  the  sermoiis  of 
James  Ist's  time,  they  have  a  portion  of  fancy  and  vivacrity 
peculiar  to  himself.  To  these  works  may  be  added,  his 
^  Latin  Oration  at  the  Funeral  of  sir  Henry  Savile/'  spo- 
ken and  (printed  at  Oxford  in  1622 ;  another  in  Christ 
Church  cathedral,  at  the  funeral  of  Dr.  Godwin,  canon  of 
that  church,  printed  in  London,  1627.^    - 

GOGUET  (Antpny-Yves),  an  ingenious  French  writei^ 
was  born  at  Paris  in  1716,  where  bis  father  was  an  advo^ 
cate,  and  himself  became  a  counsellor  to  the  parliament. 
By  close  study,  and  by  great  assiduity  in  his  pursuits,  be 
produced  in  175S  a  work  that  obtained  a  temporary  repu-^ 
tation,  and  was  translated  into  English,  entitled  ^'Origine 
des  Loix,  des  Arts,  des  Sciences,  et  de  leur  Progres  che2 
les'  aneiens  Peuples,''  3^ols.  4to;  reprinted  in  1778,  in 
six  volumes  12mo.  This  work  treats  of  the  origin  and  pro«- 
gress  of  human  knowledge,  fi^om  the  creation  to  the  age  of 
Cyrus,  but  displays  more  genius  than  erudition,  and  is 
rather  an  agreeable  than  a  profound  work.  He  died  of 
die  small-pox.  May  2,  1758,  immediately  after  the  public- 
cation  of  his  work;  leaving  his  MSS.  and  library  to  his 
friend,  Alexander  Conrad  Fugere,  who  died  only  three^ 
days  after  him,  in  consequence  of'  being  deeply  affected 
by  the  death  of  Goguet,  who  was  a  man  4>f  much  personal 
wordi.  Goguet  had  begun  another  work  on  the  origiti 
«nd  progress  of  the  laws,  arts,  sciences,  &c.  in  France, 
from  the  commencement  of  the  monarchy,  the  l68s  of 
which  the  admirers  of  his  first  production  much  regretted.' 

t  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  I—Biog.  I>rain.--<Q«>t  Mag.  Tol.  UCVIIL  p.  518.   •  Diet  Hirt. 

Vol.  XVi.  F 

Ǥ  G  O  L  D  A  g  T. 

GOLDAST   (Meixhior    HaiminsfeLi:)),   a    labatioxtm 
writer  in  civil  law  and  history,  was  born  at  Bischoffsel  in 
Switzerland,  ii^  1576,  and  was  a  protestant  of  the  coofe8« 
sion  of  Geneva.   '  He  studied  the  civil  law  at  Akofff  under 
Conrade  Rittersbusiusy  witb  whom  be  boarded ;  amd  re«* 
tiKQfed  in  1598  to  BiscbofFsel,  where  for  some  time  he  had 
no  other  subsistence  43ut  wba|;  he  acquired  by  writingp 
books,  of  which,  at  the  time  of  publication  he  used,  to  send 
copies  to  the  magistrates  aud  people  of  rank,  from  whom 
he  received  something  more  than  the  real  value;  and  some 
of  his  friends  imagined  th^y  did  him  service  in  promoting 
this  miserable  traffic.     In  1599  he  lived  at  St.  Gal,  in  the 
bouse  of  a  Mr.  Schobinger,  who  declared  himself  his  pa- 
tron ;  but  the  same  year  he  went  to  Geneva,  and  lived  at 
the  bouse  of  processor  Lectius,  with  the  sons  of  Vassan, 
wly)se  preceptor  he  was.     In  1602  he  went  to  Lausanne^ 
from  a  notion  that  he  could  live  cheaper  there  than  at  Gre,* 
neva.     His  patron  Schobinger,  while  be  advised  him  to 
this  step^  cautioned  him  at  the  same  time  from  such  fre^ 
quent  removals  as  made  him  suspected  of  an  unsettled 
temper.     But,  notwithstanding  Schobinger^s  cattftion,  he 
;returned  soon  after  to  Geneva  j  and,  upon  the  recommen'- 
dation  of  Lectius,  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  duke  of 
Bouillon,  which  place  he  quitted  with  his  usual  precipita* 
tion,  and  was  at  Francfort  in  1603,  and  had  a  settlement 
at  Forsteg  in  .1604.    In  1605  he  lived  at  Bischoffsel;  where 
be  complained  of  not  being  safe  on  the  score  of  his  reli- 
gion, which  rendered  him  odious  even  to  his  relations.   He 
was  at  Francfort  in  1606,  where  he  married,  and  continued 
till  1610,  in  very  bad  circumstances.    Little  more  is  known 
of  his  history,  unless  that  he  lost  his  wife  in  1630,  and 
died  himself  Aug.  11,   1635.     He  appears  to  have  been 
a  man  of  capricious  temper,  and  some  have  attributed  ta 
bim  a  want  of  integrity.     The  greatest  part  of  the  writingis 
published  by  Goldast  are  compilations  arranged  in  form,  or 
published  from  MSS.  in  libraries ;  and  by  their  number  be 
may  be  pronounced  a  man  of  indefatigable  labour.    Conrin^ 
gius  says  he  has  deserved  so  well  of  his  country  by  publishing 
the  ancient  monuments  of  Germany,  that  undoubtedly  the 
Athenians  would  have  maintained  him  in  the  Prytaneum, 
if  he  had  lived  in  those  times ;  and  adds,  that  he  neither 
bad,  nor  perhaps  ever  will  have,  an  equal  in  illustrating 
the  affairs  of  Germanyi  and  the  public  law  of  the  empire. 

G  0  L  D  A  S  T.  6» 

The  following  are  €he  most  considerable  anlong  his  va- 
rious works :  A  collection  of  different  tracts  on  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  entitled  <<  Monarcbia  Sancti  Ro- 
mani  Imperii/'  &c.  161 1^  1613,  and  1614,  3  vols.  fol. ; 
'^Alamaniae  Scriptores,"  1730,  .5  vols,  fol.;  '^  Scriptores 
aliquot  rerum  Suevicarum,*'  1605,  4to;  ^' Commeittarius 
de  Bohemise  regno,''  4to ;  *^  Informatio  de  statu  Bobeoiin 
quoad  jus,"  4to  ;  **  Sybilla  Francica,*'  4to  ;  which  is  a  col- 
lection of  pieces  relating  to  the  Maid  of  Orleans :  ^^  Parae^ 
nettcorum  veterum  pars  prima,"  1604,  4to*  A  curious 
collection  of  letters  was  published  in  1688,  under  the  title 
<'  Virorura  clarissimorum  ad  Melchior  Goldastum  Epis- 
tolae,"  4to,  Francfort* 

GOLDING  (Arthur),  a  man  of  some  poetical  turn, 
but  principally  known  as  a  translator,  in  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, was  a  native  of  London.  In  1563  we  find  him  living 
with  secretary  Cecil  at  his  house  in  the  Strand,  and  iu 
1577  in  the  parish  of  AUhaliows,  London  Wall.  Amongst 
his  patrons,  as  we  may  collect  Arom  his  dedications,  were, 
sir  Walter  Mildmay,  William  lord  Cobham,  Henry  earl  of 
Huntingdon,  lord  Leicester,  sir  Christopher  Hatton,  lord 
Oxford,  and  Robert  earl  of  Essex.  He  was  connected 
with  sir  Pliilip  Sydney,  for  he  finished  an  English  transla- 
tion of  Philip  AAomay's  treatise  in  French,  on  the  '^  Truth 
of  Christianity,"  which  had  been  begun  by  Sydney,  and 
was  published  in  1587.  His  religious  turn  appears  afso 
from  his  translating  many  of  the  works  of  the  early  refor- 
mers and  protestant  writers,  particularly  Calvin,  Cbytraeus, 
Beza,  Marlorat,  Hemingius,  &c.  He  also  enlarged  our 
treasures  of  antiquity,  by  publishing  translations  of  Justin 
in  1564;  and  of  CsBsar  in  1565.  Of  this  last,  a  translation 
as  far  as  the  middle  of  the  fifth  book  by  John  Brend^ 
had  been  put  into  his  hands,  and  he  therefore  began  at 
that  place,  but  afterwards,  for  uniformity^  re-translated  the 
whole  himself.  He  also  published  translations  of  Seneca's 
Benefits,  in  1577;  of  the  Geography  of  Pomponius  Mela; 
the  Polyhistory  of  Solinus,  1587,  and  of  many  modern 
Latin  writers,  which  were  then  useful,  and  suited  to  the 
wants  of  the  times.  Warton  thinks  his  only  original  work 
is  a  '<  Discourse  of  the  Earthquake  that  happened  in  Eng- 
land aud  other  places  in  1580,"  12mo  ;  and  of  his  original 

poetry,  nothing  more  appears  than  an  encomiastic  copy  of 

-•    .         •      , 

>  Gen.  Diet.— Moreyl-«»Niceroo,  toI.  XXIX*— Clement  Bibh  Cttricuse.<«M 
Sftiii  Ononast. 

F  2 

6»  G  O  L  i)  I  N  G. 

verses  prefixed  toBafet^s  "Alvearie"  in  1580.  His  chief 
poetical  translation  is  of  **  Ovid's  Metamorphoses,'*  the 
first  four  books  of  which  he  published  in  1565,  and  the 
tvbde  in  1567.  Pape,  who  read  much  in  old  English 
translations,  used  to  say  "  it  was  a  pretty  good  one  consi- 
tlering  tfhe  time  when  it  was  written."  The  style  is  cer- 
tdnly  poetical  and  spirited,  and  his  versification  clear ;  his  " 
Ttiahn^r  ornamental  and  diffuse ;  yet  with  a  sufficient  ob- 
*servance  of  the  original.  He  has  obtained  a  niche  in  thfe 
**  Bidgraphia  th-amatica"  for  having  translated  a  drama  of 
Beza's,  called  "  Abraham's  Sacrifice,"  1577,  ISmo.* 

GOLI>MAN  (Nicholas),  a  mathematician,  was  born 
at  Breslaw,  in  Silesia,  in  1623„  and  died  at  Leyden  ih 
166S.  The  woAs  by  which  he  is  generally  kftown  a^e 
*«Elemerita  Architecturae  Militaris,'''  1643,  8vo;  "  De 
Uso  Ptoportionarii  Circuli ;"  "  De  Stylometricis,'*  I'eeS  ; 
itnd'anothertreatise  "  On  Architecture,"  published  in  1696, 
T>y 'Christopher' Sturm,  with  numerous  engravings,  and  the 
life  of  the  author.  He  had  also  improved  the  description 
<rf  Solomon's  Temple  by  Villapatid'us,  but  this  was  never 

'GOLDONI  (Charles),  an  eminent  modern  Italian  dra- 
matist, was  born  at  Venice  in  1707.    In  his  infancy  the 
'drama  was  his  darling  amusemenj:,  and  all  his  time  was 
devotied  to  -the  perusing  comic  writers,  among  whom  wa^ 
Cicogntni,  a  Florentine,  little  known  in  the  dramatic  com* 
monwealth.     After  having  well  studied  these,  he  ventured 
to  sketch  but  the  plan  of  a  comedy,  even  before  he  went 
'to  school.     When  be  had  finished  his  grammatical  studies 
at  Venice,  and  his  rhetorical  studies  at  the  Jesuits'  college 
in  Perugia,  he  was  sent  to  a  bbardihg-schoolat  Rimini,  to 
*  study  philosophy,  but  be  paid  far  more  attention  to  the 
theatres,    entered  into  a  familiar  acquaintance  with  the 
actors,  and  when  they  werQ  to  remove  to  ChiOzza,  made 
his  escape  in  their  company.    This  was  the  first  fault  he 
committed)  which,  according  to  his  own  confession,  dreW 
a  great  many  others  after  it.     His  father  had  intended  him 
to  be  a  physician,  like  himself:  the  young  man,  however, 
was  wholly  averse  to  the  study.     He  proposed  a;fterwards 
to  malLe  him  an  advocate,  and  sent  him  to  be  a  practitioner 
in  Modena ;  but  a  horrid  ceremony  of  ecclesiastical  juris- 

*  Warton's  Hist,  of  Poetry.— Phillip»»»  Theatrum,  edit,  by  sir  E.  Brydges.«» 
^pence's  An^edbtes,  MS.  *  toorari. 

G  O  L  D  O  N  I.  6» 

dictioDy  at  which  he  was  present^  mspiced  him  with  a  me* 
lancholy  turq,  and  he  determined  to  become  a  Capuchin, 
Of  this,  however,  he  was  cured  by  a  visit  to  Venice,  where 
he  indulged  in  all  the  fashionable  dissipation  of  the  place. 
He  was  afterwards  prevailed  upon  by  bis  mother,  after  the 
death  of  \\\^  father,  to  exercise  the  profession  of  a  lawyer 
in  Veaice>  but  by  a  sudden  reverse  of  fortune  he  was  com- 
pelled to  quit  at  once  both  the  bar  and  Venice.  He  then 
went  to  Milan,  >ybere  he  was  employed  by  the  resident  of 
Venice  in  the  capacity  of  secretary,  and  becoming  ac- 
quainted with  the  manager  of  the  theatre,  he  wrote  a  farce 
entitled  **  II  Gondoliere  Veneziano,"  the  Venetian  Gon- 
dolier ;  which  was  the  first  comic  production  of  bis  that 
was  performed  and  printed.  Some  time  after,  Goidoni 
quitted  the  Venetian  resident,  and  removed  to  Verona^ 
where  he  got  introduced  to  the  manager  of  the  theatre,  for 
which  he  composed  several  pieces.  Having  removed  along 
with  the  players  to  Genoa,  he  was  for  the  first  time  seized 
with  an  ardent  passion  for  a  lady,  who. soon  afterwards  be- 
came his  wife.  He  then  returned  with  the  company  to 
VenicCi  where  he  displayed,  for  the  first  time,  the  powera 
of  his  genius,  and  executed  his  plan  of  reforming  the  Ita- 
lian stage,  He  wrote  the  *^  Momolo,^'  '^  Courtisan,"  the 
*^  Squanderer,"  and  other  pieces,  which  obtained  upiver- 
sal  admiration.  Feeling  a  strong  inclination  to  reside  some 
time  in  Tuscany,  he  repaired  to  Florence  and  Pisa,  wher^ 
he  wrote  "The  Footman  of  two  Masters,"  and  "The  Son  of 
Harlequin  lost  and  found  again."  He  returned  to  Venice^ 
and  set  about  executing  more  and  more  his  favourite 
scheme  of  reforp.  He  was  now  attached  to  the  theatre  of 
S.  Angelo,  and  employed  himself  in  writing  both  for  the 
company,  and  for  his  own  purposes.  The  constant  toils 
he  underwent  in  these  engagements  impaired  bis  health* 
He  wrote,  in  the  course  of  twelve  mouths,  sixteen  new 
comedies,  besides  forty >two  pieces  for  the  theatre ;  among 
these  many  are  considered  as  the  best  of  bis  productions. 
The  first  edition  of  his  works  was  publishigfl  in  1753,  in  10 
vols.  8yo.  As  he  wrote  afterwards  a  great  numher  of  new 
pieces  JPor  the  theatre  of  S.  Luca,  a  separate  edition  of  these 
was  publisjiieds  undjer  the  title  of  "  The  New  Comic 
Theatre  :"  among  thepe  was  the  "  Terence,'*  called  by  the 
author  his^v^z^n/!^,  and  judged  to  be  the  master-piece  of 
bis  works.  He  made  another  journey  to  Parma,  on  the 
invitation  of  duke  Philip,  and  frpm  thence  he  passed  to 

70  G  O  L  D  O  N  r. 

Rome.  He  bad  composed  59  other  pieces  so  late  as  17^1, 
five  of  which  were  designed  for  the  particular  use  of  Mar- 
que Albergati  Capacelli^  and  consequently  adapted  to  the 
theatre  of  a  private  company.  Here  ends  the  literary  life 
of  Goldoni  in  Italy,  after  which  he  accepted  of  an  engage- 
ment of  two  years  in  Paris,  where  he  found  a  select  and 
numerous  company  of  excellent  performers  in  the  Italian 
theatre.  They  were,  however,  chargeable  with  the  same 
faults  which  he  had  corrected  in  Italy ;  and  the  French 
supported,  and  even  applauded  in  the  Italians,  what  they 
would  have  reprobated  on  their  own  stage.  Goldoni  wished 
to  extend,  even  to  that  country,  his  plan  of  reforma- 
tion, without  considering  the  extreme  difficulty  of  the  un- 
dertaking. His  first  attempt  was  the  pi^ce  called  **  The 
Father  for  Love  ;*'  and  its  bad  success  was  a  sufficient 
warning  to  him  to  desist  from  his  undertaking.  He  con- 
tinued, during  the  remainder  of  his  engagement,  to  pro- 
duce pieces  agreeable  to  the  general  taste,  and  published 
twenty-four  comedies ;  among  which  **  The  Love  of  Ze- 
linda  and  Lindor"  is  reputed  the  best  The  term  of  two 
years  being  expired,  Goldoni  was  preparing  to  return  to 
Italy,  when  a  lady,  reader  to  the  dauphiness,  mother  to 
the  late  king,  introduced  him  at  court,  in  the  capacity  of 
Italian  master  to  the  princesses,  aunts  to  the  king.  He 
did  not  live  in  the  court,  but  resorted  there,  at  each  sum- 
inons,  in  a  post-chaise,  sent  to  him  for  the  purpose.  These 
journeys  were  the  cause  of  a  disorder  in  the  eyes,  which 
afflicted  him  the  rest  of  his  life ;  for  being  accustomed  to 
read  while  in  the  chaise,  he  lost  his  sight  on  a  sudden, 
and  in  spite  of  the  most  potent  remedies,  could  never  af- 
terwards recover  it  entirely.  For  iibout  six  months  lodg- 
ings were  provided  him  in  the  chateau  of  Versailles.  The 
death,  however,  of  the  dauphin,  changed  the  face  of  af- 
fairs. Goldoni  lost  bis  lodgings,  and  only,  at  the  end  of 
three  years,  received  a  bounty  of  100  Louis  in  a  golci  box, 
and  the  grant  of  a  pension  of  four  thousand  livres  a  year. 
This  settlement  would  not  have  been  sufficient  for  him,  if 
he  had  not  gained,  by  other  means,  farther  sums.  He 
wrote  now  and  then  comedies  for  the  theatres  of  Italy  %nd 
Portugal ;  and^  during  these  occupations,  was  desirous  to 
shew  to  the  French  that  he  merited  a  high  rank  among 
their  dramatic  writers.  For  this  purpose,  he  neglected 
nothio|;  which  CQald  be  of  u^e  to  render  himself  master  of 

Q  O  L  D  O  N  I.  »l 

^e  French  language.  He  beardj^  spolre,  and  conTersed 
so  much  in  it,  that,  in  his  6 2d  year,  he  ventured  to  write  a 
comedy  in  French,  and  to  have  it  represented  in  the  court 
theatre,  on  the  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  the  king«  This 
piece  was  the  ^^Bourru  Bienfaisant;^'  and  it  met  with  so 
^reat  success,  that  the  author  received  a  bounty  of  150 
Louis  from  the  king,  another  gratification  from  the  per- 
formers, and  considerable  sums  from  the  booksellers  who 
published  it.  He  published  soon  after,  another  comedy  in 
French,  called  <*  L^Avare  Fastueux.'*  After  the  death  of 
Lewis  XV.  Goidt)ni  was  appointed  Italian  teacher  to  the 
princess  Clotilde,  and  after  her  marriage,  he  attended  the 
late  unfortunate  princess  Elizabeth  in  the  same  capacity. 
His  last  work  was  the  '^  Volponi,"  written  after  he  bad  re- 
tired from  court.  It  was  his  misfortune  to  live  to  «ee 
his  pension  taken  away  by  the  revolution,  and,  like  thou- 
sands 4n  a  similar  situation,  he  was  obliged  to  pass  his  old 
age  in  poverty  and  distress.  He  died  in  the  beginning  of 
1793.  As  a  comic  poet,  Goldoniis  reckoned  among  the 
best  of  the  age  in  which  he  flourished.  His  works  were 
printed  at  Leghorn  in  1788—91,  in  31  vols.  8vo.  He  baa 
been  reckoned  the  Moliere  of  Italy,  and  he  is  styled  by 
Voltaire  "  The  Painter  of  Nature.'*  Dr.  Burney  says  that 
he  is,  perhaps,  the  only  author  of  comic  operas  in  Italy 
who  has  given  them  a  little  common  sense,  by  a  natural 
plot,  and  natural  characters ;  and  his  celebrated  comic 
opera  of  the  "  Buona  Figliuola,'*  set  by  Picctni,  and  first 
performed  in  London  Dec.  'dth,  1766,  rendered  both  the 
poet  and  composer,  whose  names  had  scarcely  penetrated 
into  this  country  before,  dear  to  every  lover  of  the  Itaiian 
language  and  music,  in  the  nation.^ 

GOLDSMITH  (Oliver),  an  eminent  poet  and  miscel- 
laneous writer,  was  born  on  Nov.  29,  1728,  at  a  place 
called  Pallas,  in  the  parish  of  Forney  and  county  of  Long«- 
ford  in  Ireland.  His  father,  the  rev.  Charles  Goldsmith^ 
a  native  of  the  county  of  Roscommon,  was  a  clergyman  of 
the  established  church,  and  had  been  educated  at  Dublin 
college.  He  afterwards  held  the  living  of  Kilkenny  W^at 
in^tbe  county  of  Westmeath.  By  bi«  wife,  Anne,  the 
daughter  of  the  rev.  Oliver  Jones,  master  of  the  diocesaa 
ichool  of  Elphin,  he  had  five  sons,  an4  two  daughters* 

^  Sketch  by  Mr.  Damiaoi. — Rees's  Cyclop8edia.«*Life  of  Qoldont,   trans* 
Uted  by  Mr.  Black,  publUhed  in  18U>  2  tols.  8yo* 


His  eldest  son,  Henry,  went  into  the  church)  and  b  the 
gentleman  to  whom  our  poet  dedicated  his  "  TravellcnV 
Oliver  w^.  the  second  son,  and  is  supposed  to  have  faith«. 
fully  represented  his  father  in  the  character  of  the  Village 
Preacher  in  the  "  Deserted  Village,*'  Oliver  was  origi- 
nally intended  for  some  mercantile  employment^  as  bis 
father  found  his  income  too  scanty  for  the  expences  of  the 
literary  education  which  he  had  bestowed  on  bis  eldest  son. 
With  this  view  he  was  instructed  in  readingt  writing,  and 
arithmetic,  at  a  common  school,  the  master  of  which  was  a^ 
old  soldier,  of  a  romantic  turn,  who  entertained  his  pupil 
with  marvellous  stories  of  his  travels  and  feats,  and  is  ^up<^ 
posed  to  have  imparted  somewhat  of  that  wandering  and 
unsettled  turn  which  so  much  appeared  in  his  pupil's  fu-* 
ture  life.  It  ig  ^^ertain  that  Oliver  had  not  been  long  at 
this  humble  school  before  be  proved  that  he  was  ^^  no  vuU 
gar  boy."  He  made  some  attempts  in  poetry  when  he  wai 
scarcely  eight  years  old,  and  by  the  inequalities  of  hi« 
temper  and  conduct,  betrayed  a  disposition  more  fayou|r« 
able  to  the  Rights  of  genius  than  the  regiularity  of  business* 
This  after  some  time  became  so  obvious,  that  his  friendsj 
who  had  at  first  pleaded  for  his  being  seni;  to  the  univer** 
aity,  now  determined  to  contribute  towards  the  expeuce^ 
and  by  their  assistance,  he  was  placed  at  a  school  of  repu- 
lation^  where  he  might  be  qualified  to  enter  the  college 
with  the  advantages  of  preparatory  learning. 

in  June  1744,  when  in  his  fifteenth  year,  he  was  sent 
to  Dublin  college,,  and  entered  as  a  sijser,  under  the  rev« 
Mr.  Wilder,  one  of  the  fellows,  but  a  man  of  harsh  temper 
and  violent  passions,  and  consequently  extremely  uiifit  to 
win  the  affections  and  guide  the  disposition  of  a  youth 
aimpley  ingenuous,  thoughtless,  and  unguarded.  His  pupil, 
however,  made  some  progress,  although  slow,  in  academic 
cal  studies.  In  1747,  he  was  elected  one  of  the  exhibi-* 
tioners  on  the  foundation  of  Erasmus  Smyth ;  and  in  1749» 
^wo  years  after  the  regular  time,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  bachelor  of  arts.  His  indolence  and  irregularis 
ties  may  in  part  account  for  this  tardy  advancement  to  the 
reputation  of  a  sdiolar,  but  much  may  likewise  be  attri- 
buted to  the  unfeeling  neglect  of  his  tutor,  who  contended 
only  for  the  preservation  ^  certain  rules  qf  discipline,  whilo 
he  gave  himself  little  trouble  with  the  cultivation  of  the 
mind.  On  one  occasion  he  thought  proper  to  chastise 
Oliver  before  apar^  of  young  friends  of  both  sexes,  wbomt 


wUb  hia  i^usj  imprudence,  be  was  entertainiog.  with  a 
99pp^  and  dance  in  his  rooms.  Oliver  immediately  dis^ 
posed  of  bis  books  and  cloaths,  left  college,  and  com« 
meoced  a  wanderer^  without  any  prospect^  without  friends, 
a^d  without  money.  At  length,  after  suffering  such  eic- 
Iremity  of  hunger,  that  a,  handful  of  gray  peas  which  a  girl 
gave  him  at  a  wake,  appeared  a  Tuxurious  meal,  he  con- 
trived to  acquaint  his  brother  with  bis  situation,  who  im- 
Qiediately  clothed  bim,  and  carried  h^m  back  to  college, 
(effecting  at  tbe  same  time  a  reconciliation  between  him 
and  his  tutor^  which,  it  may  be  supposed,  was  more  convey 
oient  than  cordial  on  either  side. 

Soon  after  this  event,  bis  father  died,  and  his  friends 
wished  bim  to  prepare  for  holy  orders ;  but  to  this  he  de« 
clared  bis  dislike ;  and  finding  himself  equally  uncomfort- 
able as  tutor  in  a  private  family,  to  which  he  had  been  re- 
isompiended,  be  again  left  the  country  with  about  thirty 
pounds  in  bis  pocket.  After  an  absence  of  six  weeks,  be 
reti^rned  to  his  mother^s  bouse,  without  a  penny,  having 
expended  the  whole  in  a  series  of  whimsical  adventures,  of 
which  the  reader  will  find  a  very  ei\tertaining  account  in 
the  Life  prefixed  to  his  Works.  His  mother  and  friends 
l^iiig  reconciled  to  him,  bis  uncle  the  rev.  Thomas  Con- 
tariae,  resolved  to  send  bim  to  the  Temple  to  study  law ; 
hsk^  in  bi9  way  to  London,  he  met  at  Dublin  with  a  sharper 
who  tempted  him  to  play,  and  stript  him  of  fifty  pounds, 
with  which  fa^  bad  been  furnished  for  his  voyage  and  jour- 
ney. His  youth  must  furnish  the  only  apology  that  can  be 
ipade  for  this  insensibility  to  the  kindness  of  bis  friends, 
who  could  ill  afford  the  money  thus  wantonly  lost.  Again, 
however,  they  received  him  into  favour,  and  it  being  now 
decided  that  he  should  study  physic,  he  was  sent  to  Edin^ 
burgb,  for  that  purpose,  about  1752  or  1753,  but  still  big 
itkougbtle^s  and  eccentric  disposition  betrayed  him  into 
many  ludicrous  situationik  He  formally,  indeed,  attended 
^e.  lectures  of  the  medical  professors,  but  his  studies  were 
^either  reguW  nor  profound.  There  was  always  some- 
itog  he  hk^  better  than  stated  application.  Among  his 
£eUpw-9t9d«Qt4»  he  wished  to  recommend  himself,  and  he 
was  not  unsucces^fvil,  by  his  stories  and  songs,  as  a  social 
i99mjfVoiQUf  and  a  m^n  of  humour ;  and  this  ambition  to 
Aiw  in  compKny  by  such  means,  never  wholly  left  him 
iffa^  hfe  came  to  iassociale  with  men  who  sur^  not  charmed 


After  be  had  gone  through  the  usual  course  of  lectures^ 
his  uncle,  who  appears'  to  have  borne  the  principal  ex* 
pences  of  bis  education^  equipped  him   for  the  medical 
school  of  Leyden,  at  which,  however,  he  did  not  arrive 
without  meeting  with  some  of  those  incidents  which  have 
given  an  air  of  romance  to  his  history.     At  Leyden  he  stu« 
died  chemistry  and  anatomy  for  about  a  year ;  but  a  taste 
for  gaming,  which  he  appears  to  have  caught  very  early, 
frequently  plunged  him  into  difficulties,  without  any  of 
the  benefits  of  experience.     Even  the  money  which  he  was 
Compelled  to  borrow,  in  order  to  enable  him  to  leave  Hol- 
land, was  expended  on  some  costly  flowers  which  he  bought 
of  a  Dutch  florist,  as  a  present  to  his  uncle ;  and  when  he 
iset  out  on  his  travels,  he  ^  had  only  one  clean  shirt,  and 
no  money  in  his  pocket/*     In  such  a  plight  any  other  man 
would  have  laid  his  account  with  starving ;  but  Goldsmith 
bad  *^  2L  Icnack  at  hoping,*'  and  however  miserably  provided, 
determined  to  make  the  tour  of  Europe  on  foot.     In  what 
manner  he  performed  this  singular  undertaking,  he  is  sup- 
posed to  have  informed  us  in  ^^  The  History  of  a  Philosophic 
Vagabond,"  in  chap.  xx.  of  the  "Vicar  of  Wakefield.*' 
He  had  some  knowledge  of  music,  and  charmed  the  pea« 
6ants  so  much  as  to  procure  a  lodging  and  a  subsistence. 
He  also  entered  the  foreign  universities  and  convents,  where^ 
upon  certain  days,  theses  are  maintained  against  any  ad* 
ventitious  disputant,  for  which,  if  the  champion  opposes 
with  some  dexterity,  he  may  claim  a  gratuity  in  money,  a 
dinner,  and  a  bed  for  the  night.     At  one  time,  he  is  said 
to  have  accompanied  a  young  Englishman  as  a  tutor ;  bat 
his  biographer  doubts  whether  this  part  of  the  Philosophic 
Vagabond's  story  was  not  a  fiction.     It  is  certain,  however, 
that  in  the  manner  above  related,  and  with  some  assistance 
from  his  uncle,  he  contrived  to  travel  through  Flanders, 
and  part  of  France,  Germany,  Switzerland,  and  Italy.     It 
wasr  probably  at  Padua  that  he  took  a  medical  degree,  as 
he  remained  here  about  six  months,  but  one  of  his  earliest 
biographers  thinks  he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  medi- 
cine at  Louvaine.     His  generous  uncle  dying  while  he  was 
in  Italy,  he  was  obliged  to  travel  through  France  to  Eng- 
land on  foot,  and  landed  at  Dover  in  1756. 

He  arrived  in  London  in  the  extremity  of  distress,  aqd 
first  tried  to  be  admitted  as  an  usher  in  a  school  or  academy^ 
and  having  with  some  difficulty  obtained  that  situation,  he 
remained  for  some  time  in  it,  submitting  to  mortifications. 



of  ^hich  he  has  given^  probably,  an  exaggerated  account 
in  the  story  of  the  philosophic  vagabond.  He  tiext  pro- 
cured a  situation  in  the  shop  of  a  chemist,  and  while  here» 
was  found  out  by  Dr.  Sleigh,  one  of  his  fellow-students  at 
Edinburgh,  who  liberally  shared  his  purse  with  him,  and 
encouraged  him  to  commence  practitioner.  With  this  view, 
he  settled^  if  any  measure  of  our  poet  deserves  that  epi- 
thety  in  Bankside,  Southwark ;  and  afterwards  removed  to 
the  Temple  or  its  neighbourhood.  In  either  place  his 
success  as  a  physician  is  not  much  known  ;  his  own  account 
was,  that  he  had  plenty  of  patients,  but  got  no  fees. 

About  this  time,  however,  he  appears  to  have  had  recourse 
to  his  pen.  His  first  attempt  was  a  tragedy,  which  he 
probably  never  finished.  In  175S  he  obtained,  by  means 
of  Dr.  Milner,  a  dissenting  minister,  who  kept  a  school  at 
Peckham,  which  our  author  superintende J  during  the  doc- 
tor's illness,  the  appointment  to  be  physician  to  one  of  our 
factories  in  India.  In  order  to  procure  the  necessary  ex«* 
pences  for  the  voyage,  he  issued  proposals  for  printing  by 
subscription  *^  The  present  state  of  Polite  Literature  in 
Europe,**  with  what  success  we  are  not  told,  nor  why  he 
gave  up  his  appointment  in  India.  In  the  same  year,  how- 
ever, he  wrote  what  he  very  properly  calls  a  catch-penny 
^^  Life  of  Voltaire,"  and  engaged  with  Mr.  GrifEtbs  as  a 
critic  in  the  Monthly  Review.  The  terms  of  this  engage- 
ment were  his  board,  lodging,  and  a  handsome  salary,  all 
secured  by  a  written  agreement.  Goldsmith  declared  he 
usually  wrote  for  his  employer  every  day  from  nine  o'clock 
till  two.  But  at  the  end  of  seven  or  eight  months  it  was 
dissolved  by  mutual  consent,  and  our  poet  took  lodgings 
in  Green  Arbour  court,  in  the  Old  Bailey,  amidst  the  dwel- 
lings of  indigence,  where  be  completed  his  **  Present  State 
of  Polite  Literature,"  printed  for  Dodsley,  1755,  12mo. 

He  afterwards  removed  to  more  decent  lodgings  in 
Wine  OflSce-court,  Fleet-street,  where  he  wrote  his  ad- 
mirable noyel,  "  The  Vicar  of  Wakefield,"  attended  with 
the  affecting:  circumstance  of  his  beino:  under  arrest.  When 
the  knowledge  of  his  situation  was  communicated  to  Dr. 
Johnson,  he  disposed  of  his  manuscript  for  sixty  pounds, 
to  Mr.  Newbery,  and  procured  his  enlargement.  Although 
the  money  was  then  paid,  the  book  was  not  published  until 
some  time  after,  when  bis  excellent  poem  **  The  Travel- 
ler^' had  established  his  fame.  His  connection  with  Mr. 
Newbery  was  a  source  of  regular  supply,  as  he  employed 

ifr  O  O  L  D  S  M  I  T  H 

bim  in  coitBpiUng  or  revising  many  of  bis  pablicaXions,  paif« 
ticularly,  "  The  Art  of  Poetry/'  2  vols.  12010;  a  "  Life 
of  Beau  Nasl^,"  and  ^'  Letters  on  the  History  of  England/* 
2  vols.  12mo9  which  have  been  attributed  to  Lord  LytteU 
t;oDg  the  earl  of  Orrery,  and  other  noblemen,  but  were 
really  written  by  Pr.  Goldsmith.  He  bad  before  this  beea 
eosployed  by  Wilkie,  the  bookseller,  in  conducting  a 
^^  Lady's  Magazine/'  and  published  with  him,  a  volume 
of  assays,  entiled  "  The  Bee."  To  the  Public  Ledger,  a 
xiewspaper,  of  which  Kelly  was  at  that  time  the  editor,  he 
contributed  those  letters  which  have  since  been  published 
under  the  title  of  "  The  Citizen  of  the  World.'* 

In  1765  be  published  "  The  Traveller,"  which  at  once 
established  his  fame/  The  outline  of  this  he  formed  when 
in  Switzerland,  but  polished  it«with  great  care,  before  he 
submitted  it  to  the  public.  It  soon  made  him  kpown  and 
admired,  but  bis  roving  disposition  had  not  yet  ieft  him*, 
fie  had  for  some  time  been  musing  on  a  design  of  pene-i 
trating  into  the  interior  parts  of  Asia,  and  investigating 
the  remains  of  ancient  grandeur,  learning,  and  manners. 
When  he  yv^^s  told  of  lord  Bute's  liberality  to  men  off 
genius,  he  applied  to  that  nobleman  for  a  salary  to  enable 
bim  to  execute  his  favourite  plan,  but  his  application  was 
Vnnoticed,  as  his  name  had  not  th^Q  been  mad^  known  by 
bis  Traveller.  This  poem,  however,  having  procured  bim 
the  unsolicited  friendship  of  lord  Nugent^  afterwards  earl 
of  Clare,  he  obtained  an  introduction  to  the  earl  of 
^Northumberland,  then  lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland,  who  in-* 
vited  our  poet  to  an  interview.  Goldsmith  prepared  a 
complimentary  address  for  bis  excellency,  which,  by  mis- 
take, he  delivered  to  the  groom  of  the  chambers,  and 
when  the  lord  lieutenant  appeared,  was  so  confused  that 
he  came  away  without  being  able  to  e;isplaio  the  object  of 
his  wishes.  Sir  John  Hawkiuis  relates,  that  when  the  lord 
lieutenant  said  he  should  be  glad  to  do  bim  any  kindness, 
Goldsmith  answered,  that  ^'  he  had  a  brother  in  Ireland,  a 
clergyman,  that  stood  in  need  of  help;  as  for  himself,  he 
bad  no  dependence  on  the  promises  of  great  men;  be 
looked  to  the  booksellers ;  they  Vi^re  his  best  friepds,  and 
be  was  npt  inclined  to  for«ake  them  for  others.'* — ^This  was 
Yery  characteristic  of  Goldsmith,  who,  as  sir  John  Haw- 
kins adds,  was  ^^  an  ideot  in  the  affairs  of  the  world,"  but 
yet  his  affectionate  remembrance  of  his  brother  on  such  an 
occasion  merits  a  less  barsb  epithet.    Goldsmith  was  grater 


ful  for  the  kindness  be  had  received  from  this  brother,  and 
nothing  probably  would  have  given  him  greater  pleasure 
than  if  he  had  succeeded  in  transferring  tne  earl's  patron- 
age to  him.  From  this  time,  however,  although  be  some* 
times  talked  about  it,  he  appears  to  have  i^eiinquished  the 
project  of  going  to  Asia.  "  Of  all  men,'*  said  Dr.  Johnson, 
'<  Goldsmith  is  the  most  unfit  to  go  out  upon  such  an  in- 
quiry ;  for  be  is  utterly  ignorant  of  such  arts  as  we  already 
possess,  and  consequently  could  not  know  what  would  be 
accessions  to  our  present  stock  of  mechanical  knowledge. 
He  woald  bring  home  a  grinding  barrow,  and  think. that 
be  had  furnished  a  wonderful  improvement." 

In  1^64,  Goldsmith  fixed  his  abode  in  the  Temple,  and 
resided,  first  in  the  library  staircase,  aftef wards  in  the 
King^s-bench  walk,  and  ultimately  at  No.  2,  in  Brick- 
court,  where  he  had  chambers  on  the  first  floor  elegantly 
furnished;  and  where  he  was  visited  by  literary  friends  of 
the  most  distinguished  merit.  When  Dr.  Johnson^s  Lite^ 
rary  club  was  founded,  he  was  one  of  the  first  members, 
and  his  associates  were  those  whose  conversations  .have 
given  such  interest  to.Bosweirs  JLife  of  Johnson. 

Having  now  acquired  considerable  fame  as  a  critic,  a 
tiovelist,  and  a  descriptive  poet,  he  was  induced  to  court 
the  dramatic  Muse.     His  first  attempt  was  the  comedy  of 
the  **  Godd-natured  Man,*'    which  Garrick,   after  much 
delay,  declined,  and  it  was  produced  at  Covent-garden  the- 
atre, in  1768,  and  kept  possession  of  the  stage  for  nine 
nights,  but  did  not  obtain  the  applause  which  his  friends 
thought  it  merited.     Between  this  period  and  the  appear- 
ance of  his  next  celebrated  poem,  he  compiled  "  The  Ro- 
man History,**  in  2  vols.  8vo,  and  afterwards  an  abridge- 
ment of  it,  and  "  The  History  of  England,*'  in  4  vols.  8vo, 
both  elegantly  written,  and  highly  calculated  to  attract  and 
interest  young  readers,  although  it  owned,  he  is 
frequently  superficial  and  inaccurate.     His  pen  was  also 
occasionally  employed  on  introductions  and  prefaces  to 
tK>oks  compiled  by  other  persons ;  as  "  Guthrie's  History 
•of  the  World,**   and  Dr.  Brooks's  "System  of  Natural 
History/'     In  this  last  preface,  he  so  far  excelled  his  au- 
thor in  the  graces  of  a  captivating  style,  that  the  booksel- 
'lers  engaged  him  to  write  a  *'  History  of  the  Earth  aad 
Animated  Nature,"  which  he  executed  with  much  ele- 
^nce,  but  with  no  very  deep  knowledge  of  the  subject. 
•He  idso  drcfw  up  a  "  Life  of  Dr.  Parnell,"  prefixed  to  fin 


edition  of  his  poems,  which  afforded  Dr«  Johnson  an  op« 
portunity  of  paying  an  affectionate  tribute  to  his  memory, 
when  he  came  to  write  the  life  ofParnell  for  the  English 
Poets.  He  wrote  also  a  ^*  Life  of  Bolingbroke,"  origin^ 
ally  prefixed  to  the  *^  Dissertation  on  Parties,"  and  after*^ 
wards  to  Bolingbroke's  works.  In  one  of  his  compilations 
he  was  peculiarly  unfortunate.  Being  desired  by  Griffin^ 
the  bookseller,  to  make  a  selection  of  elegant  poems  from 
our  best  English  classics,  for  the  use  of  boarding-schools, 
he  carelessly  marked  for  the  printer  one  of  the  most  inder 
cent  tales  of  Prior.  His  biographer  adds  '^  without  read- 
ing it,^'  but  this  was  not  the  case,  as  he  introduces  it  with 
a  criticism.  These  various  publications  have  not  been 
noticed  in  their  regular  order,  but  their  dates  are  not  con* 
nected  with  any  particulars  in  our  author's  history. 

In  1769  he  produced  his  admirable  poem  '^  The  De- 
serted Village,"  which  he  touched  and  re*touched  with 
the  greatest  care  before  publication.  How  much  it  added 
to  his  reputation,  it  is  unnecessary  to  mention.  No  poem 
since  the  days  of  Pope  has  been  so  repeatedly  read,  ad- 
mired, and  quoted. 

At  the  establishment  of  the  royal  academy  of  painting 
in  1770,  his  friend  sir  Joshua  Reynolds  procured  forjiim 
the  appointment  of  professor  of  ancient  history,  a  com- 
plimentary distinction  attended  neither  with  emolument 
nor  trouble,  but  which  entitled  him  to  a  seat  at  some  of 
the  meetings  of  the  society.  His  situation  in  life  was  now 
comfortable,  at  least ;  and  might  have  been  independent, 
had  be  mixed  a  little  prudence  with  his  general  conduct ; 
but  although  this  was  not  always  the  case,  it  is  much  to 
his  honour  that  his  errors  were  generally  on  the  right  side. 
He  was  kind  and  benevolent,  wherever  he  had  it  in  his 
power,  and  although  frequently  duped  by  artful  men,  his 
^eart  was  never  hardened  against  the  applications  of  the 
unhappy.  And  such  was  the  celebrity  of  his  writings,  that 
be  was  even  looked  up  to,  as  a  patron  and  promoter  of 
schemes  of  public  utility.  His  biographer  has  published  a 
very  curious  letter  from  the  notorious  Thomas  Paine,  ia 
which  he  solicits  Goldsmith's  interest  in  procuring  an  ad-» 
dition  to  the  pay  of  excisemen. 

In  the  month  of  March  1773,  his  second  comedy,  '^  She 
Stoops  to  Conquer,"  was  performed  at  Covent-garden^ 
and  received  with  the  highest  applause,  contrary  to  the 
opinion  of  the  manager,  Mr,  Colmaii,    It  is  founded  upojx 


an  incident  wbich,  bis  biographer  informs  us,  happened 
to  the  author  in  bis  younger  days,  when  be  mistook  a  gen- 
tleman's house  for  an  inn.     In  the  same  year  be  appeared 
before  the  public  iu  a  different  character.     A  scurrilous  letr 
ter,  probably  written  by  Kenrick,  was  inserted  in  the  Lon- 
don Packet,  a  paper  then  published  by  the  late  Mr.  Tho- 
mas Evans,  bookseller  in  Paternoster- row.     Goldsmith  re- 
sented no  part  of  the  abuse  in  this  letter  but  that  which 
reflected  on  a  young  lady  of  his  acquaintance.     Accom- 
panied by  one  of  bis  countrymen,  he  waited  on  Mr.  Evans^ 
and  stated  the  nature  of  his  complaint.     Mr.  Evans,  who 
had  no  concern  in  the  paper,  but  as  publisher,  went  to 
examine  the  file,  and  while  stooping  for  it,  Goldsmith  wa» 
advised  by  his  friend,  to  take  that  opportunity  of  caning 
bim,  which  he  immediately  began  to  do;   but  Evans,  a 
stout  and  high-blooded  Welcbman,    returned  the  blows 
with  so  much  advantage,  that  Goldsmith's  friend  fled,  and 
left  him  in  a  shocking  plight.     Dr.  Kenrick,  who  was  then 
in  the  house,  came  forward,  and  affecting  great  compas« 
sion  for  Goldsmith,  conducted  him  home  in  a  coach.     Thia 
foolish  quarrel  afforded  considerable  sport  for  the  news- 
papers before  it  was  finally  made  up. 

One  c^  his  last  publications  was  the  ^^  History  of  the 
Earth  and  Animated  Nature*'  before  mentioned,  in  8  vols* 
8vo,  for  which  he  received  the  sum  of  850/.  and  during  the 
time  be  was  engaged  in  this  undertaking,  he  had  received 
the  copy -money  for  his  comedy,  and  the  profits  of  his  third 
nights;  but,  his  biographer iuibrms  us,  *^  he  was  so  liberal 
in  his  donations,  and  profuse  in  his  disbursements ;  be  was 
unfortunately  so  attached  to  the  pernicious  practice  of 
gaming ;  and  from  his  unsettled  habits  of  life,  bis  supplies 
being  precarious  and  uncertain,  he  had  been  so  little 
accustomed  to  regulate  bis  expences  by  any  system  of 
(Economy,  that  his  debts  far  exceeded  his  resources ;  and 
he  was  obliged  to  take  up  money  in  advance  from  the 
managers .  of  the  two  theatres,  for  comedies,  which  he 
engaged  to  furnish  to  each ;  and  from  the  booksellers,  for 
publications  which  he  was  to  finish  for  the  press.  All  these 
engagements  he  fully  intended,  and  doubtless  would  have 
been  able,  to  fulfil  with  the  strictest  honour,  as  he  had 
done  on  former  occasions  in  similar  exigencies ;  but  his 
premature  death  unhappily  prevented  the  execution  of  his 
,  plans,  and  gave  occasion  to  malignity  to  impute  thos(& 


feiiures  to  deliberate  intention^  which  were  tncrely  the  re- 
sult of  inevitahle  mortality." 

Some  time  before  bis  death,  although  they  were  not 
printed  until  after  that  event,  he  wrdte  his  poems  "  The 
Haunch  of  Venison,"  «  Retaliation,"  and  «ome  other  of 
his  smaller  pieces.  Biit  the  chief  project  be  had  at  heart 
was,  an  "  Universal  Dictionary  of  Arts  and  Sciences,"  in 
the  execution  of  which  it  is  said  he  had  engaged  all  his  li«- 
terary  friends  and  the  members  of  the  Literary  Club ;  but 
this  was  prevented  by  his  death,  which  is  thus  related  by 
his  biographer : 

"  He  was  subject  to  severe  fits  of  the  strangury,  owinff 
probably  to  the  intemperate  manner  in  which  he  confined 
himself  to  the  desk,  when  be  was  employed  in  his  compi- 
lations, often  indeed  for  several  weeks  successively,  with- 
out taking  exercise.  On  such  occasions  he  usually  hired 
lodgings  in  son^e  farm-house  a  few  miles  from  London,  and 
wrote  without  cessation  till  he  had  finished  his  task.  He 
then  carried  his  copy  to  the  bookseller,  received  his  com- 
pensation,  and  gave  himself  up,  perhaps  for  months  with-^ 
out  interruption,  to  the  gaieties,  amusements,  and  soci« 
eties  of  London.  And  here  it  may  be  observed  once 
for  all,  that  his  elegant  and  enchanting  style  in  prose 
flowed  from  him  with  such  facility,  that  in  whole  quires  of 
his  histories,  *  Animated  Nature,'  &c.  he  had  seldom  oc- 
casion to  correct  or  alter  a  single  word  ;  but  in  his  verses, 
especially  bis  two  great  ethic  poems,  nothing  could  ex-* 
ceed  the  patient  and  incessant  revisal  which  he  bestowed 
upon  them.  To  save  himself  the  trouble  of  transcription^ 
he  Wrote  the  lines  in  his  first  copy  very  wide,  and  would 
80  fill  up  the  intermediate  space  With  reiterated  correc- 
tions, that  scarcely  a  word  of  his  first  effusions  wais  left 

**  In  the  spring  of  1774,  being  embarrassed  in  his  cir- 
cumstances, and  attacked  with  his  usual  malady,  his  in- 
disposition, aggravated  too  by  mental  distress,  terminated 
in  a  fever,  which  on  the  25th  of  March  bad-become  exceed'- 
ingly  violent,  when  he  called  in  medical  assistance.  Al* 
thobgh  he  had  then  taken  ipecacuanrha  to  promote  a  vomi^ 
he  would  proceed  to  the  use  of  James's  fever-powder,  cou^ 
trai^r  to'the  advice  of  the  medical  gentlemen  who  attended 
him.  From  the  application  of  these  powders  he  had  re- 
ceived the  greatest  benefit  in  a  similar  attack  nearly  two 
years  before  -,  but  then  they  bad  beeo  administered  by  Dr* 

GO  L  D  S  M  I  T  H.  %i 

James  himself  in  person.  This  happened  in  September 
1772.  But  now  the  progress  of  the  disease  was  as  unfa« 
vourable  as  possible;  for^  from  the  time  above-mentioned 
every  symptom  became  more  and  more  alarming  till  Mon- 
day April  4th,  wbea  he  died,  aged  forty-five." 

His  remains  were  privately  interred  in  the  Temple 
barial-ground,  on  Saturday  April  9  ;  but  afterwards,  by  a 
subscription  raised  among  his  friends,  and  chiefly  by  bis  \ 

brethren  of  the  club,  a  marble  monument  was  erected  to 
his  memory  in  Westminster-abbey,  with  an  inscription  \}f 
Dr.  Johnson,  the  history  of  which  the  reader  may  find  in 
Boswell*s  Life,  vtrhere  are  likewise  many  curious  traits  of 
our  poet^s  variegated  character. 

**  He.  was,"  adds  his  biographer,  **  generous  in  the  ex* 
tiQ^me>  and  so  strongly  affected  by  compassion,  that  he  has 
been  known  at  midnight  to  abandon  bis  rest  in  order  to 
procure  relief  and  an  asylum  for  a  poor  dying  object  who 
was  left  destitute  in  the  streets.  Nor  was  there  ever  a  mind 
whose  general  feelings  were*more  benevolent  and  friendly." 
He  is«  however,  supposed  to  have  been  often  soured  by 
jealousy  or  envy,  and  many  little  instances  are  mentioned 
of  this  tendency  in  his  character ;  but  whatever  appeared 
of  this  kind  was  a  mere  momentary  sensation,  which  he 
knew  not  bow  like  other  men  to  conceal.  It  was  never  the 
result  of  principle,  or  the  suggestion  of  reflection ;  it  never 
embittered  his  heart;,  nor  influenced  his  conduct  Nothing 
could  be  more  amiable  than  the  general  featuses  of  his 
mind ;  those  of  his  person  were  not  perhaps  sa  engaging. ' 
His  stature  was  under  the  middle  size,  his  body  strongly 
built,  and  his  limbs  more  sturdy  than  elegant;  his  com* 
plexion  was  pale,  his  forehead  low,  his  face  almost  rounds 
and  pitted  with  the  small-pdx ;  but  marked  with  strong 
lines  of  thinking.  His  first  appearance  was  not  capti- 
vating ;  but  when  be  grew  easy  and  cheerful  in  company, 
be  relaxed  into  such  a  display  of  good^humour,  as  soon 
removed  every  unfavourable  impression.  Yet  it  must  be 
acknowledged  that  in  company  he  did  not  appear  to  so 
much  advantage  w  might  have  been  expected  from  his 
genius  and  talents.  He  was  too  apt  to  speak  without  re- 
fleclipn,  /and  without  a  sufficient  knowledge  of  the  subject; 
which  made  Johnson  observe  of  him,  '  No  man  was  more 
foolish  when  he  had  not  a  pen  in  his  band,  or  more  wise 
when  he  had.'  Indeed,  with  ail  his  defects  (to  conclude 
aearly  in  the  words  of  that  great  critic),  as  a  writer  be  wad 

V0L.XVL  G  / 


of  the  tnoBt  distinguished  abilities.  Whatever  he  com* 
posed  he  did  it  better  than  any  other  man  could.  Aud 
whether  we  consider  him  as  a  poet^  as  a  comic  writer,  or 
as  an  historian  (so  far  as  regards  his  powers  of  composition) 
he  was  one  of  the  first  writers  of  hi&  titiiey.  and  will  ever 
stand  in  the  foremost  class.'' 

Although  this  character  may  be  thought  in  some  respects 
exaggerated,  it  cannot  be  denied  that  the  indelible  stamp 
of  geniuar  rests  on  his^^  Vicar  of  Wakefield;''  and  on  his 
poems,  "  The  Traveller,"  "  Deserted  Village,"  aad  "  Ed- 
win  and  Angelina."  In  description,  pathos,  and  evea 
Sublimity,;  he  has  not  been  exceeded  by  any  of  the  poets 
of  his  age,  except  that  in  the  latter  quality  he  must  yield 
to  Gray.* 

,  GOLIUS  (James),  professor  of  Arabic  at  Leyden,  d%^ 
scended  from  a  considerable  family  in  that  city,  was  born 
at  the  Hague,  in  1596.  At  Leydea  he  made  himself 
naster  of  all  the  learned  languages,  and  proceeded  to 
physic,  divinity,  and  the  mathematics.  His  education 
being  finished,  he  topk  a  journey  to  France  with  the 
duchess  de  la  Tremouille;  and  was  invited  to  teach  the. 
Greek  language  at  Rochelle,  which  he  continued  to  do, 
until  that  city  was  in  the  following  year  reduced  again  to 
Ibe.  dominion  of  the  French  king,  after  which  he  resolved 
to  return  to  Holland.  He  had  early  taken  a  liking  to  Er-* 
penius,  the  Arabic  professor  at  Leyden ;  by  the  help  of 
whose  lectures  he  made  a  great  progress  in  the  Arabic 
tongue,  and  having  in  1622  an  opportunity  of  attending 
the  Dutch  ambassador  to  the  court  of  Morocco,  he  con* 
suited  with  Erpenius,  who  directed  him  to  observe  care- 
fully every  production,  either  of  nature,  art,  or  custom, 
which  were  unknown  in  Europe ;  and  to  describe  them, 
setting  down  the  proper  name  of  each,  anct  the  derivation 
gf  it,  if  known.  He  also  gave  him  a  letter  directed  to  that 
prince,  together  with  a  present  of  a  grand  atlas^  and  a 
New  Testament  in  Arabic.  These  procured  him  a  very 
gracious  reception  from  Muley  Zidan,  then  king  of  Mo- 
rocco,, who  expressed  great  satisfaction  in  the  present,  and 
afterwards  read  them  frequently.  ' 

,_  1  Life  prefixed  to  hii  Works  London,  1801,  and.  1307,  4  volt.  8vo,  priooiy 
pally  written  by  Dr.  Percy,  bishop  of  Droaiore.*->JobD8on  and  Chalmers't 
iSni^lish  Poets,  lS10.4^Life  of  Goldsmith  by  Sir  fi,  Bvydgei,  in  th»  Cenfura  Liu^ 

G  o  L  I  u  s.  ay 

'  In  the  tneati  time  (Gralius  tnade  so  good  use  of  EfpemusV 
odrice,    that  be  attained   a  perfect  skill  iii  the  Arabic 
ibngue ;    and  in   indulging^  his  curiosity  respecting   the 
(Customs  and  learning  of  that  country,  contriTed  to  ntiake^ 
hiitiself  very  agreeable  to  the  doctors  and  courtiers.     By 
this  means  he  became  particuhirly  serviceabl^e  to  the  am- 
bassador, who  growing  uneasy  because  his  affairs  were  not 
dispatched,  was  advised  to  present  to  his  majesty  a  petition 
written  by  Golius  in  the  Arabic  character  and  language^ 
mid  in  the  Christian  style,  both  circumstances  rather  novel 
in  that  eomitry.     The  king  was  astonished  at  the  beauty  of 
the  petition,  both  ais  to  writing  and  style;    and  having^ 
learWed  from  the  ambtassador  that  it  was  done  by  Golius^ 
desired  to  see  him.     At  the  audience,  the  king  spoke  to- 
bita  in  Arabic,  and  Golius  said  in  Spanish,  that  he  under« 
stood'  fais  majesty  very  well,  but  could  not  keep  up  a  con* 
versation  in  Arabic,  by  reason  of  its  guttural  pronunciation, 
to  which  his  throat  was  not  sufficiently  inured.     This  ex<^ 
cuse  was  accepted  by  the  king,  who  granted  the  ambas* 
sador^s  request,  and  dispatched  him  immediately.     Before 
his  departure,  Golius  had  an  opportunity  of  examining  the 
curiosities  of  Fes^,  and  took  a  plan  of  the  royal  palace, 
which  was  afterwardii  communicated  to  Mr.  Windus,  and 
inserted  in  his  "Journey  to  Mequinez,"  1721,  8vo.     Go- 
lius brought  with  him  to  Holland  several  books  unknown  in 
Europe ;  and  among  dthers,  \*  The  Annals  of  the  Ancient 
Kingdom  of  Fes  and  Morocco,^    which  he  resolved  ta 
translate.     Re  communicated   every  thing,  to  Erpenius, 
who  well  knew  the  valuie  of  them,  but  did  not  live  long 
enough  to  enjoy  the  treasure ;  that  professor  dying  in  Nov. 
1Q24,  after  recommending  this  his  best  beloved  scholar  to  the 
curators  of  the  university  for  his  successor.    The  request 
was  complied  with,  and  Golius  saw  liimself  immediately 
in  the  Arabic  chair,  which  he  filled  so  ably  as  to  lessen 
their  sense  of  the  loss  of  Erpenius.     Being,  however,,  still 
desirous  of  cultivating  oriental  languages  and  antiquities^ 
be  applied  to  his  superiors  for  leave  to  take  a  journey  to 
the  Levant';  and  obtained  letters  patent  from  the  prince  of 
Orange,  dated  Nov.  25,  1G25.     He  set  out  immediately 
for  Aleppo,   where  he  continued  fifteen  months;  -after 
whieli^  making  excursions  into  Arabia,  towards  Mesopo-^ 
tamia;  he  went  by  land  to  Constantinople,  in  company 
with  Cornelius  Hago,   ambassador  from    Holland  to  the 
Parte.    Hens  the  governor  of  the  coast  of  Propontis  gave 


84  G  O  L  I  U  S. 

I)im  the  use  of  his  pleasant  gardens  and  curious  library  y  in 
which  retirement  he  applied  himself  wholly  to  the  readinig 
pf  the  Arabic  historians  and  geographers,  whose  wrking» 
were  till  then  either  unknown  to,  or  bad  not  been  perused 
by  him.     Upon  his  return  to  the  city,  discovering  occa- 
sionally in  conversation  with  the  great  men  there  a  prodi- 
gious memory  of  what  he  had  read,  he  excited  such  admi- 
r/ition,  that  a  principal  officer  of  the  empire  made  him  an 
offer  of  a  commission  from  the  grand  signor  to  take  a  sur- 
vey of  the  whole  empire,  in  order  to  describe  the  situation 
of  places  with  more  exactness  than  was  done  in  such  maps 
as  they  then  had ;  but  he  pretended  that  this  would  inter- 
fere with  the  oath   which  he  had  taken  to   the  States, 
although  his  real  fear  arose  from  the  danger  of  such  an 
undertaking.     In  this  place  also  he  found  his  skill  in  physic, 
of  infinite  service  in  procuring  him  the  favour  and  respect 
of  the  grandees ;  from  whom,  as  he  would  take  no  fees,  he 
received  many  valuable  and  rich  presents,  and  every  liberal 
offer  to  induce  him  to  settle  among  them.     But  after  a  re- 
sidence of  four  years,  having  in  a  great  measure  satisfied 
^     bis  thirst  of  eastern  learning,  and  made  himself  master  of 
the  Turkish,  Persian,  and  Arabic  tongues,  he  returned  in 
1629,  laden  with  curious  MSS.  which  have  ever  since  been 
valued  among  the  richest  treasures  of  the  university  library 
at  Leyden.     As  soon  as  he  was  settled  at  home,  he  began 
to  think  of  making  the  best  use  of  some  of  these  manuscripts 
by  communicating  them  to  the  public  )>  but  first  printed  an 
**  Arabic  Lexicon,'*  1653,  folio;   and  a   new  edition   of 
*^  Erpenius's  Grammar,  enlarged  with  notes  and  additions  ;^* 
to  which  also '  he  subjoined  several  pieces  of  poetry,  ex- 
tracted from  the  Arabian  writers,  particularly  Tograi  and 
7.  Ababella.     One  purpose  on  which  he  employed  his  know- 

ledge and  influence  cannot  be  too  highly  commended.  He 
had  been  an  eye-witness  of  the  wr<3tched  state  of  Chris- 
sanity  in  the  Mahometan  countries,  and  with  the  com- 
passion of  a  Christian,  resolved,,  therefore,  to  make  hid 
^ .  skill  in  their  language  serviceable  to  them.  With  this 
laudable  view  he  procured  an  edition  of  the  ^^  New  Tea-  < 
tament*'  in  the  original  language,  with  a  translation  into 
the  vulgar  Greek  by  an  Archimandrite,  which  he  prevailed 
with  the  States  to.  present  to  the  Greek  churchy  groaning 
under  the  Mahometan  tyranny ;  and,  as  some  of  these 
Christians  use  the  Arabic  tongue  in  divine  service,  he  took 
care  to  have  dispersed  among  them  an  Arabic  translsiitioiv 

G  O  L  I  U  S. 


oF  the  confession  of  the  reformed  pfotestantg,  together 
with  the  catechism  and  liturgy  *. 

Intent  as  he  was  in  promoting  religion  and  learning 
abroad,  he  did  not  neglect  his  duty  at  home,  which  was 
now  increased  by  the  curators  during  his  absence  confer- 
ring upon  him,  in  addition  to  the  former,  the  professorship 
of  mathematics,  to  which  he  was  chosen  in  1626.  HC'dis- 
charged,  however,  the  functions  of  both  with  the  highest  re- 
putation for  forty  years.  He  was  also  appointed  interpreter 
in  ordinary  to  the  States^  for  the  Arabic,  Turkish,  Persian, 
and  other  eastern  languages  ;  for  which  he  had  an  annual 
pension,  and  a  present  of  a  chain  of  gold  with  a  very 
beautiful  medal,  which  he  wore  as  a  badge  of  his  office.^ 
He  went  through  the  fatigue  of  all  these  duties  with,  the 
less  difficulty,  as  he  always  enjoyed  a  good  state  of  health, 
which  he  carefully  preserved  by  strict  temperance;  and 
his  constitution  was  so  firm,  thatjn  1666,  at  the  age  of 
seventy,  he  travelled  on  foot  from  the  Meuse  to  the  Waal, 
a  journey  of  fourteen  hours.  He  died  Sept.  28,  1667,  as 
much  respected  for  his  virtue  and  piety,  as  far  his  talents 
and  learning. 

Although  entitled  to  the  character  of  an  universal  scholar, 
his  <:hief  excellence  lay  in  philology  and  the  languages ;  iri 
wbieh  his  application  and  skill  were  such,  that  though  he 
•did  not  begin  seriously  to  study  the  Persian  language  till 
he  was  fifty- four,  he  made  himself  so  much  a  master,  as  to 
write  a  large  dictionary  of  it,  which  was  printed  at  London, 
in  Castell's  ^^  Lexlcpn  Heptaglotton."  He  was  not  less 
acquainted  with  the  Turkish  language ;  and  made  such  a 
progress  in  «he  Chinese,  that  be  was  able  to  read  and 
understand 'their  books;  though  he  began  late  in  life  to 
this  study.  Besides  the  books  which  he  finished  and 
printed,  he  left  several  MSS.  of  others,  which  would  have 
been  no  ways  inferior  to  them,  had  he  lived  to  complete 
them.  He  had  begun  a  Geographical  and  Historical  Die* 
tionary  for  the  £astern  countries ;  wherein  the  names  of 

*  For  thif  purpose  he  employed  an 
AnnenwD,  who  understood  the  volj^r 
Arabic,  at  well  as  the  phrases  conse- 
crated io  religion ;  and  could  accom- 
modate Golius'fl  style  to  the  capacity 
of  .erery  body  ^  otherwise  his  expres- 
sion mifht  probably  hare  been  too 
sublime  and  abstruse.  Golius'  kept 
this  Armenian  two  years  and  a  half  at 
his  house ;  and  pron&ised  him  tbt  same 

pension  that  the  States  had  granted  to 
the  Archimandrite,  who  translated  tha 
New  Testament  into  vulgar  Greek. 
Yet  he  did  not  know  whether  the  States 
would  be  at  the  expence,  nor  did  ha 
propose  the  matter  to  them  till  thii 
work  was  finished;  however,  they 
agreed  to  his  proposal,  and  likewise 
made  a  hundsome  present  to  himself. 

86  G  O  L  I  U  6. 

men  and  places  throughput  the  ^ast  w^ve  expleiQed*     He 
had  long  given  expectations  of  a  new  edition  of  jthe  ^*  Ko- 
ran/' with  a  translation  and  confutation  -pf  it. 

Amidst  ail  this  profound  literature,  his  religiop  19  said 
to  have  been  plain  and  practical.  He  l^oiented  ajnd  ab-* 
borred  the  factions  and  disputes,  especially  ^bout  indif- 
ferent matters,  which  disgraced  Christianity,  and  there- 
fore had  no  inclination  to  enter  into  the  controversies  of 
bis  time.  He  married  a  lady  of  a  very  good  family,  and 
.  well  allied,  with  whom  he  lived  twenty-four. years,  aad 
who  survived  him,  together  with  two  sons,  who  studied 
the  civil  law  at  Leyden,  and  became  considerable  men  in 

His  publications,  besides  those  already  noticed,  were, 
1.  *'  The  History  of  the  Saracens,  by  Elmacin."  Erpenius 
began  the  version,  which  Golius  completed,  and  it  was 
translated  into  English  by  Simon  Ockley,  Arabic  professor 
at  Cambridge.  2.  **  The  Life  of  Tamerlane,"  v\:ritten  in 
Arabic  by  an  author  of  great  reputation,  Leyden,  1636. 
He  had  proposed  a  second  edition  of  this  some  time  be* 
fore  his  death,  and  to  print  the  text  with  vowels,  with  a 
translation  and  commentary.  3.  ^^  Alfragan's  Elements  of 
Astronomy,''  with  a  new  version,  and  learned  commentaries 
upon  the  first  nine  chapters,  but  he  did  not  live  to  carry 
these  farther,  and  what  we  have  was  published  after  bis 
death,  in  1669,  4to.* 

GOLIUS  (Peter),  brother  to  the  preceding,  excelled 
likewise  in  the  knowledge  of  the  Arabic  language,  and 
taught  it  in  the  seminary  belonging  to  the  Carmelites  at 
Home,  into  which  order^  much  against  his  brother's  wUl^ 
he  entered  very  early^  and  now  was  of  great  service  to 
those  monks  who  were  intended  to  be  sent  on  missions 
into  the  east.  Being  himself  appointed  to  this  seryice,  be 
visited  every  part  of  Syria  and  Palestine,  and  founded  a 
monastery  of  his  order  on  mount  Libanus,  over  which  he 
presided  till  he  was  recalled  to  Rome.  While  abroad  he 
wrote  a  letter  to  his  brother,  informing  him  that  instead 
of  the  opposition  and  persecution  which  he  expected,  he 
bad  met  with  nothing  but  civilities  and  caresses  from  per* 
sons  of  distinction,  when  they  found  that  he  was  the 
brother  of  James  Golius,  whom  they  still  remembered  with 
the  highest  regard.     At  Rome  he  .was  employed  as  one  of 

'  Gea»  Dict.-*-^roiiovii  Funebr.  Oratio  Jac.  GoIiL— Moreri.«— Saxli  Ooomast. 

G  O  L  I  U  S.  %1 

th«  principal  MtistantB  of  Sergius  RMus,  archbishop  of 
Dafliagciifi,  in  preparing  bis  edition  of  the  Arabic  Bible^ 
irhich  wa^  p«A>lisbed  in  1 67 1  by  the  direction  of  the  col- 
lege ^^  De  Propaganda.''  After  k  was  completed,  Golitit 
was  appointed  visitor  of  the  missions  of  the  East  Indies^ 
and  died  at  Surat  about  167S.  He  was  author  of  transla-* 
tions  into  Arabic  of  Thomas  i  Kempis'  Imitation  of  Jesus 
Christ ;  of  seritions  on  the  Evangelists ;  an  **  Historic  Dis- 
course of  St.  G*«egory  of  Decapolis ;''  several  small  devo- 
tional pieces,  and  a  translation  from  Arabic  into  Latin,  of 
a  "  Cdlection  of  Parables  and  Proverbs."  * 

GOLTZIUS  {HfiKaY),  a  celebrated  engraver  and  painter, 
was  born  in  1658,  at  Mulbrec,  in  the  duchy  of  Juli^rs^ 
and  learned  bis  art  at  Haerlera,  where  he  married.  An 
asthmatic  disor-der  afterwards  inclining  him  to  travel  iti 
Italy,  his  friends  remonstrated  against  this»  but  he  an- 
swered, that  <'  he  bad  rather  die  learning  something,  than 
live  in  such  a  langaishing  state."  Accordingly,  he  passed 
tlirongh  most  of  the  chief  cities  of  Germany,  where  he 
visited  the  painters,  and  the  curious ;  and  went  to  Rome 
and  Naples,  whet^  be  studied  the  works  of  the  best  mas- 
ters^ and  designed  a  great  number  of  pieces  after  them. 
To  prevent  his  being  known,  he  passed  for  his  man's  ser- 
vant^ pretending  that  he  was  maintained  and  kept  by  him 
for  his  skill  in  painting ;  and  by  this  stratagem  he  came  to 
bear  what  was  said  of  his  works,  without  being  known, 
which  afforded  him  no  small  amusement  as  well  as  instruc* 
tion.  His  disguise,  his  diversion,  the  exercise  of  traveU 
ling,  and  the  different  air  of  the  countries  through  which* 
be  travelled,  had  such  an  effect  upon  his  constitution,  that' 
he  recovered  his  former  health  and  vigour.  He  relapsed, 
however,  some  time  after,  and  died  at  Haerlem  in  1617. 
Mr.  Evelyn  has  given  the  following  testimony  of  his  merit 
a«  a  graver:  "Henry  Goltzius,'*"  says  he,  *•  was  a  Hol- 
lander, and  wanted  only  a  good  and  judicious  choice,  to  have 
rendered  him  comparable  to  the  profoundest  masters  that 
ever  handled  the  burin  ^  for  never  did  any  exceed  this  rare 
workman ;  witness  those  things  of  his  after  Gasporo  'Celio, 
&G. ;  and  in  particular  his  incomparable  imitations  after 
Lucas  Van  Leyden,  in  The  Passion,  the  Christus  Mortuus,' 
or  Piela ;  and  those  other  six  pieces,  in  each  of  which  bo 
so  accurately  pursues  Durer,  Lucas,  and  some  others  of 

1  Moi«ri.««-Foppen  Bibl.  Bel(. 

81     .  G  O  L  T  Z  I  U  S. 

the  old  masters,  as  makes  it  almost  impossible  to  discern 
the  ingenious  fraud.'' .  As  a  paiuter  he  drew  bis  resources 
from  the  study  of  the  antique,  of  Raphael,  Polidoro,  and 
Michael  Angelo ;  the  last  of  whom  appears  to  have  been  his 
favourite,  but  whose  faults  he  exaggerated  in  an  out* 
rageous  manner,  seldom  attaining  any  of  his  beauties,' 
Hence  bis  style  of  design  is  inflated  and^.  caricature  ;  and 
bis  expressions  participate  of  the  same  taste ;  but  his 
sense  of  hue  in  colour  is  ril:h,  vigorous,  and  transparent. 
It  is  as  an  engraver,  however,  that  be  deserves  the  highest 
commendation,  having  never  been  surpassed,  and  seldpm 
equalled  in  the  command  of  the  graver,  and  in  freedom  of 
execution.  ^ 

GOLTZIUS  (Hubert),  a  German  antiquary,  was  born; 
at  Venloo,  in  the  duchy  of  Gueldres,  in  1526.     His  father 
was  a  painter,  and  be  was  himself  bred^  up  in  this  art, 
leamiiig  the  principles  of  it  from  Lambert  Lombard  ;  but 
he  seems  to  have  quitted  the  pencil  early  in  life,  having  a, 
particular  turn  to  antiquity,,  and  especially  to  the  study  of 
medals,  to  which  he  entirely  devoted  himself.     He  con-' 
sidered   medals  as  the  very  foundation  of  true   history; 
and   travelled   through   France,    Germany,  and   Italy,  in 
order  to  make  collections,  and  to  draw  iirom  tbem  what 
lights  he  could.     His  reputation  was  so  high  in  this  respect/ 
that  the  cabinets  of  the  curious  were  every  where  open  to 
him ;  and  on  the  same  account  he  was  honoured  with  the 
freedom  of  the  city  of  Rome  in  1567^     He  was  the  author 
of  several  excellent  works,  in  all  which  he  applies  medaU 
to  the  illustration'  of  ancient  history,  and  for  the  greater 
accuracy,  had  them  printed  in  his  own  house,  and  cor-t 
rected  tbem  himself     He  also  engraved  the  plates  for  the 
medals  with  his  own  hands.     Accordingly,  his  books  were 
admired  all. over  Europe,  and  thought  an  ornament  to  any 
library;   and   succeeding  antiquaries  have   bestowed  the 
highest  praises   upon   tbem.^     Lipsius,    speaking  of  the 
*'  Fasti  Consulares,"  says,  that  '^  be  knows  not  which  to 
admire  most,  his  diligence  in  seeking  so  many  coins,  bia 
happiness  in   finding,  or  his   skill  in   engraving   them.'- 
Some,  however,  have  said  that  although  his  works  abound 
^vith  erudition,  they  must  be  read  with  some  caution.     Tb^ 
f^t  seems  to  be,  that  all  his  works  have  many  coini^  not  yet 

»  {Itrutt'ff  DictiQiiar7.--PicU  Hist, 

G  O  L  t  Z  I  U  S.  B9 

foiind  in  cabinets,  because  bis  own  collection  was  unfor-< 

tanatelj  lost,  yet  the  medals   which  he  describes,  and 

which   were,  once  looked  upon   as  fictitious,  are  yearly 

found   really  existent,  and  of  undoubted   antiquity.     A 

French  writer  compares  him  to  Pliny  the  natural  historian, 

who  was  thought  to  deal  much  in  falsehood,  till  time  drew 

the  truth  out  of  the  well ;  so  that  as  knowledge  advances^ 

most  of  bis  wonders  acquire  gradual  confirmation.     Yet  it 

is  certain  that  he  was  often  imposed  upon,  and  the  caution 

above  given  is  not  unnecessary.     His  coins  of  the  Roman 

tytants,  for  instance,  are  clearly  false ;  for  they  bea^  prek. 

and  COG.  on  the  exergue^  which  marks  never  occur  on  the 

real  coins.     It  has  been  also  said  that  many  errors  of  this 

nature  must  be  committed  by  a  man,  whose  love  and  vene-* 

ration  for  Roman  antiquities  was  such,  that  he  gave  to  all 

bis  children  Roman  names,  such  as  Julius,  Marcellus,  &c. 

so  that  he  might  easily  receive  for  antiques  what  were  not 

so,  out  of  pure  fondness  for  any  thing  of  that  kind.     Upon 

this  principle,  it  is  probable,  that  he  took,  for  his  second 

wifip,  tb^  widow  of  the  antiquary  Martinius  Smetius ;  whom 

he  married  more  for  the  sake  of  Smetius's  medals  and  in« 

ficriptions  than  for  any  thing  belonging  to  herself.     She 

was  his  second  wife,  and  a  shrew,  who  made  his  latter  days 

unhappy.     He  died  at  Bruges  March  14,  1583. 

.    His  works  are,  1.  **  Imperatorum  fere  omnium  Vitae,  ac 

vivae  Imaging,  a  C'  Julio  CaBsare  ad  Carolum  V.  ex  vete* 

ribus  numismatibus,"  Antwerp,  1557,  fol.  afterwards  trans* 

lated  into  French,  Italian,  and  Spanish*     2.  '^  Fasti  ma*. 

gistratuum  et  Triumphorum  Rpmanorum,  ab  urbe  condita 

usque  ad  Augusti  obitum,^'  Bruges,  1566  and  1571,  folio* 

3.  **  De  origine  et  statu  populi  Romani,^'  &c.  Bruges,  1566, 

fol.  Antwerp,  1618.     4,  *^  Thesaurus  rei  Antiquarii,"  Ant. 

iS79  and  1-618,  4to.     5.  "  Vita  et  res  gestae  C.  Juliidae- 

saris.'V    6r  "  Vita  et  res  gest^  Augusti  Caesaris,"  Bruges, 

1580,  fol.  and  Antwerp,  1617.     7.  ^^  Historia  Siciliae  et 

Magnae  GrsBciae  ex  antiquis  Qumismatibus,'*  Antwerp,  1 644, 

fol.  which  Mr.  Pinkerton  recommends  as  an  introduction 

to  the  study  of  the  Greek  coins.     His  whole  works  were 

republished  at 'Antwerp  in  1644  and  1645,  in  5  vols.  fol. 

by  Balthasar  Moretus,  whose  predecessors,  the  Plantins, 

bad  purchased  Goltzius's  printing-materials  and  plates.^ 


^  Melchior  Adam  io  Titit  Philos. — Pinkerton^s  Essay  oil  Medals,  Pref*  p.  1^ 
sad  18.«p]llorejri>^-*Foppen  Bibl,  Self  •-«'Saxii  OnomattMon. 

M  G  O  M  A  R.      . 


GOMAR  (FRAt^cis),  eneoi  the^great.oppofi^ii(»  of  Ar^ 
tnioivHs,  and  fron  wiioxn  the  Caiviniste  mere  at  one  time 
called  Gomarists^  V9bs  born  at  Bruges,  Jan.  30,  1563.     His 

'  father  and  mother,  who  were  prote&tants,  retired  into  the 
palaftinate  in  1578,  and  sent  him  to  Strasburgh  to  study 
under  the  celebrated  John  Sturmius.  Three  years  after  be 
went  to  prosecute  his  studies  at  Newstad,  where  tkte  pro« 
feasors  of  Heidelberg  found  a  vefn^e  when  Lewis,  the  ^ec* 
tor  palatine,  had  banished  thetn  because  they  were  not 
L.ti$berans«  In  1582  he  came  to  England,  and  heard  at 
Oxford  the  divinity  lectures  ^f  Dr.  John  Rainoide,  and  at 
Cambridge  those  of  Dr.  William  Wbitsrker,  and  at  this 
latter  university  be  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  divinity,  June,  1584.,   The'clector  Lewis  dying  in  1583, 

N  prince  Cadoiir,  his  brother,  reoitared  tbe  professors  of 
Heidelberg,  to  wkicfa  place  Gomar  returned  from  Cam* 
bridge^  and  spent  two  years.  In  1 587  be  accepted  an  in- 
vitation from  the  Flemisfaf  church  at  Francfort  to  be  their 
minister,  and  exercised  the  functkms  <of  that  office  until 
1593,  When  his  3pck  were  dispersed  by  persecution.  The 
following  year  he  was  appointed  professor  of  divi<nity  at 
Leyden,  but  before  entering  upon  the  office,  he  took  bis 
degree  of  doctor  at  Heidelberg.  Here  be  remained  quietly 
until  1603,  when  liis  colleague  Arniinius  began  to  place 
himself  at  the  bead  of  a  party,  known  by  his  name  ever 
since,  and  Gomarus  resisted  him  with  a  e^al  which  hi* 
enemies  have  construed  into  bigotry  and  intolerance.  Tbe 
truth  seems  to  have  been  that  Arminiqs  and  his  followers, 
while  they  disputed  with  equal  warmth,  chose  to  repre- 
sent the  subjects  of  tbeir  disputes  as  matters  of  indifference 
which  need  not  interrupt  diurch-fellowship,  while  Goma-^ 
rus  considered  them  as  essentials.  Vorstius  having  sue-* 
eeeded  Arminius,  Gomarus  fore3aw  only  a  renewal  of  the 
controversy  under  such  a  colleague,  and  retired  to  Mid-> 
dleburgh  in  1611,  where  he  preached  and  read  lectured 
until  1614.  He  was  then  invited  by  the  university  of  Sau- 
mur  to  be  professor  of  divinity,  and  four  years  after  he 
exchanged  this  for  the  professorship  of  divinity  and  He* 
brew  at  Groningen,  where  be  remained  during  the  re^t  of 
bis  life.  The  only  times  when  he  was  absent  were,  once 
when  he  attended  the  synod  of  Dort,  where  the  errors  of 
Arminius  were  condemned ;  apd  again  when  he  went  jto 
Ley  den  in  1633  to  revise  tbe  translation  of  the  Old  Test^ 
meat.    He  died  Jan.  11,  1641.    His  various  works,  most 

G  O  M  A  K.    ^  M 

of  which  had  ibeen  publidied  jieparatdy,  were  printed  to- 
gether at  AinsMsrda9i  io  d644,.foi.     He  was  a  man  of  ac- 
kuowi«dged  abilities^,  especially  in  the  Oriental  langui^es^^ 
GOMBAULD  (John  Ogier  de),  a  French  poet,  was 
born  in    1567^  M  St.  Ju»t   de   Lussac,  near  Brouage  in 
Saintongue.     He  vm$  a  gentleman  by  birth,  and  his  breed- 
ing was  suitable  to  it»    After  a  foundation  of  grammar- 
learning,  be  finished  his  studies  at  Bourdeaux  ;  and  having 
^one  through  most  of  the  liberal  sciences,  under  the  best 
masters  of  his  time,  be  betook  himself  to  Paris,  in  the 
view  of  making  tbe  most  of  his  parts ;  for,  being  the  cadet 
of  a  fourth  marriage  by  his  father,  his  patrimonial  financ<M 
were  a  little  short     At  Paris,  he  soon  introduced  himself 
to  the  knowledge  of  the  polite  world,  by  sonnets,  epi- 
grams, and  other  jsmall  poetical  pieces,  which  were  gene- 
rally a4>plaiidfed;  biut,  reaping  -little  other  benefit,  he  was 
^li^ed  to  uae  ihe  strictest  osconomy,  to  support  a  tolera- 
ble figure  at  court,  till  the  assassination  of  the  king  by 
Ravillac,  in  1610,  provoked  every  muse  in  France.     The 
subject  was  <to  the  last  degree  interesting,  and  our  poet 
exerted  his  talent  to  the  ^utmost  in  some  verses  which 
pleasfd  the  ^ueen-regent,  Mary  de  Medicis,  so  highly, 
that  4(hp  rewarded  him  with  a  pension  of  1200  crowns  ;  nor 
was  there  a  ma^i  of  his  condition,  that  had  more  free  access 
to  her,  or  was  more  kindly  received  by  her.     He  was  also 
in  the  i^ame  favour  with  the  s«icceeding  regent^  Anne  of 
Austria,  d,uring  the  miaorlty  of  Lewis  XIV. 

lo  thfi  fiiean  time,  lie  was  constantly  seen  at  those  meet^ 
ings  of  all  the  persons  of  quality  and  merit,  which  were 
kept  at  thov  bouse  of  Mad.  ftambouiilet.  This  was  like  a 
$mall  choice  court,  less  numerous  indeed  than  that  of  the 
Louvre,  but,  bad  charms  which  entirely  engaged  the 
heart  of  Gpmbauld  ;  and  be  frequented  it  with  great  plea- 
Mire,  as  well  as  with  more  assiduity  than  any  other,  the 
Lwv^e  not  excepted.  Thus  he  passed  his  time  in  a  way 
the  most  agreeable  to  a  poet,  and  at  length  devoted  him- 
self entirely  to  the  belles  lettres.  He  published  several 
tbiogs,  of  which  the  most  admined  was  his  /^  Endytoion,** 
a  romance  in  prose.  It  was  printed  in  1624.  2.  ^  Ama- 
r^tha,  a  Pastoral."  S.  A  volume  of  <^  Poems."  4.  A 
voluoie  of  *^  Letters,"  all  pufalisibed  before  1652.  He  was 
now  aOfCOiinted  one  of  those  choice  spirits,  who  make  up 


the  ministry  in  the  republic  of  lettersi  und  form  the 
schemes  of  its  advancement.  In  this  employ  We  iind  bini 
'  atnong.  those  few  men  of  wit,  whose  meetings  in  1626  gave 
rise  to  the  Academy  of  Belles  Lettres,  founded  by  cardinal 
Bichelieu ;  and,  accordingly,  be  became  a  member  of  that 
society  at  its  first  institution.  He  was  one  of  the  three 
who  was  appointed  to  examine  the  statutes  of  the  new 
academy  in  1643,  and  he  afterwards  finished  memoirs  for 
compIetiiSg  them.  On  March  12,  1-635,  he  read  a  dis*- 
course  before  tbe  academy  upon  ^^  Je  ne  sgai  quoi,'*  which 
was  the  sixth  of  those  that  for  some  years  were  pronounced 
at  their  meetings  the  first  day  of  every  week. 

He  lived  many  years  in  the  enjoyment  of  these  honours, 
and  had  his  fortune  increased  by  an  additional  pension 
from  M.  Seguier,  chancellor  of  France.  I'hese  marks  of 
esteem  do  honour  to  bis  patroris,  for  he  openly  professed 
the  reformed  religion,  although  in  such. a  manner  as  to 
avoid  giving  offence/  or  shocknig  the  prejudices  of  those 
with  whom  he  associated.  He  had  always  enjoyed  very 
good  health;  but,  as  he  was  one  day  walking  in  his  room^ 
which  was  customary  with  him^  bis  foot  slipped ;  and,  fall* 
ing  down,  be  hurt  himself  so,  that  he  was  obliged  almost 
constantly  to  keep  his  bed  to  the  end  of  his  life,  which 
lasted  near  a  century.  However,  in  1657,  when  at  the 
age  of  90,  he  published  a  large  collection  of  epigrams ; 
and,  many  years  after,  a  tragedj"  called  ^^  Danaides.^* 
This  was  some  time  before  his  death ;  which  did  not  hap<^ 
pen  till  1666.  In  manners  he  was  modest  and  regular, 
sincere  in  his  piety,  and  proof  agaiiist  all  temptations.  He 
was  of  a  hot  and  hasty  temper,  much  inclined  to  anger, 
though  be  had  a  grave  and  reserved  countenance.  He  was 
also  a  man  of  wit,  and  not  always  very  guarded  iti  the  use 
of  it.  Having  shown  one  of  hi«  performances  to  cardinal 
Richelieu,  he  said  ^^  Here  are  some  thiugs  1  do  not  under*- 
stand.'" — '^That  is  not  my  fault,"  answered  Gombauld, 
and  the  cardinal  wisely  affected  not  to  hear  him.  His  post* 
humous  works  wer6  printed  in  Holland  in  1678,  with  this 
title,-  ^^  Trait^s  &  Lettres  de  Monsieur  Gombauld  sur  la 
Religion."  They  co^ntain  religious  discourses,  and  were 
9iost  esteemed  of  all  his  works  by  himself:  be  composed 
them  from  a  principle  of  charity,  ^ith  a  design  to  convert 
the  catholics,  and.  confirm  the  protestants  in  their  faith.  \ 

}  6ra«  DicUwMor«ri«^fiiof.  CaUicai  V^  L^NicesoD,  vol.  XXXIV. 


GOMBERVILLE  (Marin  le  Roi),  Sieurde,  an  ingeni- 
Qos  French  writer,  was  born  at  Cbeyreuse,  in  the  diocese 
of  Paris,  or  as  some  say  in  Paris  itself,  in  1599.     He  wa» 
early  distinguished  by  some  successful  publications  which, 
had  given  him  a  literary  reputation,  and  made  him  be  en- 
rolled among  the  number  assembled  by  cardinal  Richelieu 
for  the  purpose  of  founding  the  French  academy  in  1635. 
His  first  publications  were  romances  and  works  of  a  light 
nature,  but  at  the  age  of  forty-five  he  formed  the  resolu- 
tion of  consecrating  his  pen  t6  religion,  and  adopted  a 
penitentiary  course  of  )ife,  which  some  think  was  more 
strict  at  the  commencement  than  at  the  termination  of  it. 
He  died  June  14,  1674.     One  of  the  most  curious  of  his 
works,  <*  La  doctrine  des  Mccurs,  tir^e  de  la  philosophie 
des  Stoiques,  representee  en  cent  tableaux,^'  1646,  fol.  is 
perhaps  now  more  admired  f6r  the  plates  than  for  the  letter- 
press.^    They  are  engraved  by  Peter  Daret  from  d^sign^ 
by  Otho  Vsenius.     In  this  work  Gomberville  assumes  the 
disgnised   name  of'  Thalassius  Basilides   (Marin  |e  Roi) 
His  romances  were  "  Caritce,'*  "  Polexandre,"  **  Cythe-t 
rea,'*  and  "  La  jeune  Alcidian^,''  published  in  1733  by 
roadame  Gomez,  who  says  that  Gomberville  left  merely  an 
outline  of  it.     His  other  works  were,  1.  ^^  Relation  de  la 
riviere  des  Amazones,^'  1682,  2  vols.  i2mo.   2.  ^^  Memoires. 
de  Louis  de  Gonzague,  due  de  Nevers,*'  '1665,  2  vols.  foU 
3.  <<  Discours  des  vertus  et  des  vices  de  Thistoire,^'  I620> 
4to,  and  various  pieces  of  sacred  poistry,  &c.  * 

GOMERSAL  (Robert),  a  divine  and  poet  of  the  seven-« 
teenth  century,  was  born  at  Lond6n  in  1600,  whence,  he 
was  sent  by  his  fetberin  1614  to  Christ  church,  Oxford, 
where,  soon  after  his  being  entered,  he  was  elected  a  stu^ 
dent  on  the  royal  foundation.  At  about  seven  years  stand- 
ing, he  here  took  ^is  degrees  of  bachelor  and  master  of 
arts,  and  before  he  left  the  university,  which  was  in  1627^ 
he  had  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity  conferred  on  him. 
Being  now  in  orders,  he  distinguished  himself  as  a  preacher 
at  the  university.  For  some  time,  during  the  plague  at 
Oxford,  he  resided  at  Flower  in  Northamptonshire,  and  was 
afterwafds  vicar  of  Thorncombe  in  Devonshire,  where  it  is 
probable  that  he  resided  till  his  death,  which  was  in  1646, 
He  was  accounted  a  good  preacher,  and  printed  a  volume, 
of  ^^  Sermons,*'  Lond.   1634,  which  were  well  esteemed. 

>  NUtreo,  ▼©!.  XXXVm.— MOreri. 


94  G  OTVI  ER  S  A  L. 

As  a  devotee  to  the  Muses,  be  publisbed  several  poems  $ 
J^articularly  a  sort  of  heroic  attempt,  called  the  ^^  LeviteV 
Revenge^"  being  meditations^  m  v^se,  on  the  Idth  and 
20th  chapters  of  Judges^  and  a  tragedy  called  ^*  Leiomck 
.  Sforza,  duke  of  Milan/'  1632,  12mo.  Both  were  reprinted; 
with  a  few  occa»ional  verses  iir  1633,  12^10)  reprinted 
in  1638.  > 

GOMEZ  DB  CiviDAD  RtAL  (Alvabez),  a  Spanish  La- 
tin poet,  was  born  in  1488  at  Guadalaxara  in  Spain,  and 
was  page  of  honour  to  archduke  Charles,  afterwards  em- 
peror. He  possessed  a  great  facility  in  writing  Latin  verse, 
which  is  seen  by  his  **  Thalia  Christiana^''  or  the  triumph 
of  Jesus  Christ,  in  (wenty-five  books :  **  Musa  Paulina," 
or  the  epistles  of  St.  Paul,  in  elegiac  verse  :  the  Proverbs^ 
of  Solomon,  and  other  works  of  a  similar  kind;  but  his 
poem  on  the  order  of  the  golden  fleece,  published  in  1 5^, 
8vo,  entitled  "  De  PrincipisBurgundi  Militia  quam.  VeU 
leris  aurei  vocant,"  is  perhaps  the  only  one  now  read,  and- 
more  suitable  to  his  talents  than  the  preceding^  in  which 
he  introduced  a  tasteless  mixture  of  pagan  and  Christian 
personages.     He  died  July  14,  1538.' 

GOMEZ  DE  Castro  (Alvarez),  was  born  ^t  St.  Eulaiia, 
near  Toledo,  in  1515,  and  was  educated  at  Alcala,  where 
he  obtained  a  high  character  for  diligence  and  learning. 
He  was  patronized  "by  Philip  11.  who  engaged  him  to  pre- 
pare an  edition  of  the  works  of  Isidore,  wbich  death  pre* 
vented  him  from  completing.  It  was  afterwards  finished 
and  published  by  John  Grialus.  hm  was  author  of  many 
works ;  but  the  most  esteemed  is  a  ^'  Life  of  Cardinal 
Ximenes,V  1569,  folio,  and  afterwards  inserted  in  a  collec- 
tion of  the  writers  on  Spanish  history.   Gomez  died  in  1 580,* 

GOMEZ  (Magdalen  Angelica  Poisson  db),  a  French 
lady,  whose  romanced  and  tales  are  known  iti  this  country 
by  translations,  was  the  daughter  of  Paul  Poisson,  a  piayer, 
and  was  born  at  Par^s  in  1684.  She  was  courted  by  M.  de 
Gomez,  a  Spanish  gentleman  of  small  fortune,  who,  know- 
ing her  talents,  foresaw  many  advantages  from  an  union 
with  her,  while  she,  in  accepting  him,  appears  to  have 
been  deceive^d  concerning  his  circumstances.  Her  works, 
however,  procured  some  pensions,  by  which  she  was  ena- 
bled to  live  at  St.  Germain-en-Laye  till  1770,  in  which 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Biog.  Dram. — Gilchrist's  edition  of  Corbet's  Poems,  p.  67. 

•  Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp.r^Moreri. — Dicr.  Hist. 

^  Ant.  Bibl.  Hisp.—j^tfreri.— Clement  Bib).  Ciirieuse. 

G  O  M  £  Z.  95 

jear  she  died»  respected  by  alt  who  knew  her.  This  tady 
left  some  tragedies^  which  may  be  found  in  her  ^^  Miscel-> 
laneous  Works^''  12019^  but  were  all  unsuccessful^  and  a 
great  number  of  romances.  *^  Les  Journ6es  Aoausantes/* 
H  vols. ;  "  Crementine/*  2  vols. ;  "  Anecdots  Persanes/'  2 
vols. ;  "  Hist,  du  Comte  d'Oxford,*'  one  vol. ;  ",La  Jeune 
Alcidiane,**  3  vols,  (see  Gomberville)  ;  ^<  Les  Cent  Nou-* 
veiles  Nouvelles,^'  36  parts  comprised  in  8  vols.  These 
are  all  well  written,  and  with  great  delicacy,  and  were  at 
one  time  very  popular  in  France..* 

GONDI.     See  RETZ. 

GONET  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  Dominican,;  was 
born  at  Beziers  in  1616*  After  having  gone  into  the  churchy 
and  been  admitted  to  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity  by 
the  university  of  Bourdeaux  in  1640,  he  held  the  profes- 
sorship of  theology  in  that  university  till  1671,  when  he 
was  appointed  provincial  amopg  the  Dominican  friars.  He 
died  at  Beziers  in  1681.  He  was  author  of  a  system  of 
divinity,  entitled  "  Clypseus  Theologiae  Thomisticse,  contra 
novos  ejus  impugnatores,*'  Bdurdeaux,  1666,  in  eighteen 
volumes,  12mo,  afterwards  enlarged  in  five  volumes,  folio. 
He  was  likewise  author  of  a  ^'  Manuale  Thomistarum,  seu 
brevis  TheologiaD  Cursus,''  which  has  passed  through  dif- 
fbrent  editions,  of  which  the  best  was  published  at  Lyons 
iii  1681  ;  and  *^  Dissertatio  Theologica  de  Probabilitate."  • 

GONGORA  (Lewis  de),  a  Spanish  poet,  was  born  al 
Cordova,  in  1562,  of  a  very  distinguished  family.  H9 
atiidied  at  Salamanca,  and  was  known  to  have  a  talent  for 
poetry,  though  he  liever  could  be  prevailed  on  to  «publisb 
any  thing.  Going  into  orders,  he  was  made  chaplain  to 
the  king,  and  prebendary  of  the  church  of  Cordova,  ia 
which  station  he  died,  in  1627.  His  works  are  all  posthu-* 
mous,  and  consist  of  sonnets,  elegies,  heroic  verses,  a 
comedy,  anragedy,  &c.  and  have  been  published  several 
times  under  the  title  of  ^^  Obras  de  Dom.  Louis  de  Gon* 
gora-y-  Argore,"  4to*  The  best  edition  is  that  with  notes 
by  D.  Garcia  de  Salcedo  Coronel,  Madrid,  1636 — 1648, 
3  vols.  4to.  The  Spaniards  have  so  high  an  idea  of  thi^ 
poet,  as  to  entitle  him  prince  of  the  poets  of  their  nation,, 
and  notes  and  commentaries  have  been  written  on  his 
works ;  but  he  is  not  free  from  affectation  in  the  use  of 
figures,  a  false  sublime^  and  an  obscure  and  embarrassed 
diction.'  ' 

>  Diet.  Hist.  *  Gen.  Diet.-— Morcri. 

*  Anlanie  liibl.  Hitp.— I^ortri. — Diet.  Hiiu 


99  •  G  d  N  2  A  G  A. 

GO^ZAGA  (LucRETiA),  a  lady  of  the  sixteenth  cett- 
tury,  remarkable  for  her  wit^  and  high  birth,  is  chiefly 
known,  and  that  very  imperfectly,,  from  a  collection  of 
her  letters,  printed  at  Venice  in  1552.  By  these  she  ap« 
pears  to  have  beeti  learned,  and  somewhat  of  a  critic  in 
Aristotle  and  ^schylus.  All  the  wits  of  her  time  are  full 
of  their  encomiums  on  her  :  and  Hortensio  Landi,  besides 
singing  her  praises  most  zealously,  dedicated  to  her  a 
piece,  "  Upon  moderating  the  passions  of  the  soul,'*  writ-* 
ten  in  Italian.  If,  however,  it  be  true  that  this  Horatia 
Landi  wrote  the  whole  of  the  letters  attributed  to  Lucretia, 
it  is  difficult  to  know  what  to  believe  of  the  history  of  the 
latter.  Her  marriage  at  thq  age  of  fourteen  with  Johi> 
Paul  Manfroni  was  unhappy.  He  engaged  in  a  conspiracy 
against  the  duke  of  Ferrara;  was  detected  and  imprisoned 
by  him ;  but,  though  condemned,  not  put  to  death.  Lu- 
cretia,  in  this  emergency,  applied  to  all  the  powers  ini 
Europe  to  intercede  for  him  ;  and  even  solicited  the  grand 
signior  to  make  himself  master  of  the  castle,  where  her 
husband  was  kept.  During  this  time,  although  she  was  not 
permitted  to  visit  him,  they  could  write  to  each  othen  But 
all  her  endeavours  were  vain ;  for  he  died  in  prison  in  1 552^ 
having  shewn  such  an  impatience  under  his  misfortunes  a» 
made  it  imagined  he  lost  his  senses.  She  never  would 
listen  afterwards  to  any  proposals  of  marriage,  though  se«> 
veral  were  made  her.  Of  four  children,  which  she  had» 
there  were  bpt  two  daughters  left,  whom  she  placed  in 
nunneries.  All  that  came  from  her  pen  was  so  much  es« 
teemed,^  that  a  collection  was  made  even  of  the  notes  she 
wrote  to  her  servants  :  several  of  which  are  to  be  met  with 
in  the  above-mentioned  edition  of  her  letters.  She  died 
at  Mantua  in  1^76.^ 

GOODAL  (Walter),  a  Scotch  antiquary,  the  eldest 
son  of  John  Goodal,  a  farmer  in  Banfshire,  Scotland,  was 
born  about.  1706.  In  1 723  he  entered  himself  a  student  ia 
King^s  college.  Old  Aberdeen,  but  did  not  continue  there 
long  enough  to  take  a  degree.  In  1730  he  obtained  em- 
ployment in  the  Advocates'  library,  Edinburgh,  of  which 
he  was  formally  appointed  librarian  in  1735.  He  now  as« 
sisted  the  celebrated  Thomas  Ruddiman  in  compiling  the 
catalogue  of  that  library,  upon  the  plan  of  the  *^  Biblio- 
tfaeca  C^rdinalis  Imperialis,''  and  it  was  published  in  foU^ 

»  Gen.  Diet. — ^Tiraboscbi. — ^Moreri. 

G  O  O  D  A  L.  97 

in  1742.  About  the  same  time  he  projected  a  life  of  Mary 
queen  of  Scots,  to  whose  cause  he  was  inflexibly  devoted  ^ 
but  this  design  appears  to  have  been  relinquished  for  his^ 
publication,  entitled  **  An  Examination  of  the  Letters  said 
to  be  written  by  Mary  to  James  earl  of  Boihwell/'  1754,^ 
2  vols.  8vo,  in  which  he  endeavoured  to  prove  these  letters 
to  be  forgeries.  In  this  work  it  is  said  that  he  had  done 
more,  had  he  had  less  prejudice,  and  greater  coolness.  He 
certainly  had  diligence  of  research,  sagacity  of  investiga- 
tion, and  keenness  of  remark ;  but  his  zeal  sometimes  car- 
ried him  out  of  his  course,  his  prejudice  often  blunted  his 
acuteness,  and  his  desire  of  recrimination  never  failed  to 
enfeeble  the  strength  of  his  criticism.  In  1754  he  pub- 
lished an  edition,  with  emendatory  notes,  of  sir  John  Scot's 
^^  Staggering  state  of  Scots  Statesmen,**  and  wrote  a  pre- 
face and  life  to  sir  James  Balfour's  **  Practicks.**  He  con-^ 
tributed  also  to  Keith's  **  New  Catalogue  of  Scotch 
Bishops,"  and  published  an  edition  of  Fordun's  ^' Scotir 
chronicon,"  which  was  not  executed  with  judgment.  His 
introduction  to  it  was  afterwards  translated  into  English, 
and  published  at  London  in  1769.  He  died  July  2^9  1766, 
io  very  poor  circumstances,  owing  to  a  habit  of  intemper- 

GOODMAN  (Christopher),  a  noted  puritan,  who  has 
been  sometimes  classed  among  the  reformers  of  religion  in 
Scotland,  was  born  at  Chester  about  1520,  and  in  1536 
entered  a  student  of  Brazennase  college,  Oxford,  where  he 
took  both  degrees  in  arts.  In  1547  he  was  constituted  one 
of  the  senior  students  of  Christ  chufch,  of  the  foundation 
of  Henry  VIlI.  About  the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Ed- 
ward VI.  he  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences, 
and  chosen  divinity  lecturer  of  the  university.  On  the 
accession'  of  queen  Mary  he  was  obliged  to  quit  the  king- 
dom, with  many  other  prptestants,  and  retire  to  Francfort. 
Here  he  became  involved  in  the  disputes  which  arose 
among  the  English  exiles  respecting  forms  of  divine  wor- 
ship, some  adhering  to  the  model  of  the  church  of  Eng- 
land, as  far  as  appeared  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer, 
and  others,  among  whom  was  Goodman,  contending  for  a 
more  simple  form.  After  these  disputes  had  occasioned  a 
separation  among  men  whose  common  sufferings  might 

have  made  them  overlook  lesser  matters,  Goodman  went 

/     ■'  •  .       •  •,..»•••.*' 

1  Life  of  Rn^dimaQ^  by  Mr.  George  Chalmen,  pp.  127,  167. 

Vou  XVI.  H 


to  Genevfty  where  he  and  the  celebrated  John  Knox  were 
chosen  pastors  of  the  English  church,  and  remained  therci 
until  the  death  of  queen  Mary.     While  there  he  assisted 
Knox  in  compiling  **  The  Book  of  Common  Order,"  which 
was  used  as  a  directory  of  worship  in  their  congregations, 
and  he  is  said  to  have  taken-  a  part  in  the  Geneva  transia* 
tion  of  the  Bible.     On  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth^ 
he  went  into  Scotland,  where,  in  1560,  he  was  appointed 
minister  at  St.  Andrew's,  and  in  other  respects  by  his  pub- 
lic services  assisted  in  establishing  the  reformation  in  that 
nation.     About  1565  he  removed  to  England,  and  accom- 
panied sir  Henry  Sidney  in  his  expedition  against  the  rebels 
in  Ireland,  in  the  character  of  chaplain.     In  1571  he  was 
cited  before  archbishop  Parker,  for  having  published,  du- 
ring his  exile,  a  book  answering  ^he  question  ^'  How  far 
iuperior  powers  ought  to  be  obeyed  of  their  subjects,  and 
wherein  they  may  be  lawfully,  by  God's  word,  obeyed  and 
resisted  ?"    This  had  been  written  against  the  tyrannical 
proce^edings  of  queen  Mary ;  but,  as  his  positions  were  of  a 
kind  too  general  not  to  be  applicable  to  sovereigns  of  ano-^ 
ther  description,  and  become  an  apology  for  rebellion,  he 
consented  to  a  recantation,  and  an  avowal  of  his  loyalty  to 
queen  Elizabeth.     He  lived  many  years  after  this,  and  was 
preacher  at   Chester,  where  he  died  in   1601,  or  1602. 
Besides  the  above  mentioned,  he  wrote  ^'  A  Commentary 
©n  Amos,"  but  not,  as  Wood  says,  **The  first  blast  of  the 
Trumpet  against  the  monstrous  regiment  of  Women,'* 
which  was  written  by  Knox.^ 

GOODMAN  (Godfrey),  an  English  prelate,  and  the 
only  one  who  forsook  the  church  of  England  for  that  of 
Home  since  the  reformation,  was  born  at  Ruthvyn  in  Den- 
l>ighshire,  1583.  He  was  educated  at  Westminster  school, 
whence,  in  1600,  be  went  to  Trinity  college,  Cambridge. 
After  taking  orders,  he  got  the  living  of  Stapleford  Abbots 
.in  Essex  in  1607.  Becoming  acknowledged  at  court  as  a 
celebrated  preacher,  he  obtained  in  1617,  a  canonry  of 
Windsor;  in  1620,  the  deanery  of  Rochester,  and  in  1625 
was  consecrated  bishop  of  Gloucester.  In  1639,  he  re- 
fused to  sign  the  seventeen  canons  of  doctrine  and  disci- 
pline drawn  up  in  a  synod,  and  enjoined  by  archbishop 
Laud^  who,  after  admonishing  him  three  times,  procured 

■  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  I.— -Sirype's  Life  of  Parker,  p.  43,  49K— &k»>ttni  lifCt  of 
the  Scotch  RclbaDeiB.-*P€ok't  Detid«r«ta,  vol.  !• 


liim  to  be  suspended,  and  it  appeared  soon  after  Chat  he 
was  in  all  principles  a  Roman  catholic.  After  this,  and 
during  the  rebellion,  be  lived  privately  in  Westminster, 
employing  much  of  his  time  in  researches  in  the  Cottonian 
library.  He  died,  in  the  open  profession  of  popery,  Jan. 
19, 1655.  He  wrote,  U  *^  The  Fall  of  Man,  and  Corroption 
of  Nature,  proved  by  reason/'  1616,  1624,  4to.  2.  **  Ar- 
guments and  Animadversions  on  Dr.  George  HackwiPs 
Apol<^[y  for  Divine  Providence."  3.  ^*  The  two  mysteries 
of  Christian  Religion^  viz.  the  Trinity  and  Incarnation, 
explicated,"  1653,  4to.  4.  ^^  An  Account  of  his  Suffer- 
ings,'' 1650.  5.  "The  Court  of  King  James  by  Sit  An- 
thony Weldon  reviewed,"  a  MS.  in  the  Bodleian.  ^ 

GOODRICH  (Thomas),  an  eminent  English  prelate, 
was  the  second  son  of  Edward  Goodrich  of  East  Kirby  in 
Lincolnshire.     He  was  admitted  pensioner  of  Bene*t  col- 
lege, Cambridge,  soon  after  1 500,  became  fellow  of  Jesus 
college  in  1510,  commenced  M.  A.  in  1514,  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  wais  proctor  of  the  university.     Being  of  a 
studious  turn,  he  n^ade  gneat  proficiency  in  several  branches 
of  learning,  particularly  in  the  civil  and  canon  laws.    In 
1529,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  syndics  to  return  an 
answer  from  the  university  of  Cambridge,  concerning  the 
lawfulness  of  king  Henry  VIII.'s  marriage  with  queen  Ca- 
therine :  and  from  his  readiness  to  oblige  Che  king  in  that 
business,  was  recommended  to  his  royal  favour.     He  was 
presented  to  the  rectory  of  St.  Peter's  Cheap  in  London, 
by  cardinal  Wolsey,  at  that  time  commendatory  of  the 
monastery  of  St.  Alban's ;  and  soon  after  was  made  canon 
of  St.  Stephen's,  Westminster,  and  chaplain  to  the  king* 
On  the  death  of  Dr.  West,  bishop  of  Ely,  his  nephew  and 
godson  Dr.  Nicholas  Hawkins,  archdeacon  of  Ely,  at  that 
time  the  king's  ambassador  in  foreign  parts,  was  designed 
to  succeed  him ;    but  he  dying  before  his  consecration 
could  be  effected,  the  king  granted  his  licence  to  the  prior 
and  convent,  dated  March  6,  1534,  to  choose  themselves  a 
bishop;  who  immediately  elected  in  their  chapter-house 
the  17th  of  the  same  month,  Thomas  Goodrich,  S.T.P. 
-which  was  the  archbishop  April  ISth  follow- 
ing, in  the  parish  church  of  Croydon. 
Being  a  zealous  promoter  of  the  reformation,  soon  after 

I  FoUer't  Clmrch  Hilt.  Book  XI.  p.  170.— Wortfaiei.— *Gent  Mag.  voU 
UCXVIII.— Lloyd's  Memoirs,  foiioi  p.SOK— Vther^s  Life  and  Letters,  p« 
5S3«^IMd's  Clu  Hwt.  toI.  UL 

H  2 


his  arrival  be  visited  the  prior  and  convent  of  Ely ;  and 
next  year  sent  a  mandate  to  all  the  clergy  of  his  diocese, 
dated  at  Somersham  June  27,  1535,  with  orders  to  erase 
the  name  of  the  pope  out  of  all  their  books,  and  to  pub-^ 
lish  in  their  churches  that  the  pope  had  no  further,  autho- 
rity in  this  kingdom.  Thia  mandate  is  printed  in  Bent- 
ham's  **  History  of  Ely  Cathedral,"  together  with  his  in* 
juncdons,  dated  from  Ely,  Oct  21,  1541,  to  the  clergy,'' 
to  see  that  all  images,  relics,  table-monuments  of  miracles, 
shrines,  &c.  be  so  totally  demolished  and  obliterated,  with 
all  speed  and  diligence,  that  no  remains  or  memory  might 
be  found  of  them  for  the  future.**  These  injunctions  were 
so  completely  executed  in  his  cathedral,  and  other  churches 
in  the  diocese  of  Ely,  that  no  traces  remain. of  many  fa- 
nous  shrines  and  altars,  which  formerly  were  the  objects 
of  frequent  resort,  nor  any  signs  at  all  that  they  had  ever 
existed.       . 

.  In  1540  he  was  appointed  by  the  convocation  to  be  one 
of  the  revisers  of  the  translation  of  the  New  Testament^ 
and  St.  John's  gospel  was  allotted  to  his  share.  He  was 
also  named  one  of  the  commissioners  for  reforming  the  ec- 
clesiastical laws,  both  by  Henry  V  HI.  and  Edward  VI.  as 
well  as  by  the  university  of  Cambridge ;  and  had  a  hand  in 
compiling  the  **  Common  Prayer  Book"  of  tlie  church  of 
England,  154S;  and  likewise  ''The  Institution  of  a  Chris- 
tian Man,'*  which  was  called  the  Bishops'  Book,  as  being 
.composed  by  archbishop  Cranmer,  and  the  bishops 
Stokesly,  Gardiner,  Sampson,  Repps,  Goodrich,  Latimer, 
Shaxtou,  Fox,  Barlow,  &c.  Besides  this,  he  was  of  the 
.privy  council  to  king  Henry  VIIL  and  Edward  VI.  and  em*- 
ployed  by  them  in  several  embassies,  and  other  business 
of  the  state.  In  155 hy  he, was  made  lord  chancellor  of 
England,  in  the  room  of  lord  Rich,  which  office  he  dis-« 
charged  with  singular  reputation  of  integrity,  though  in 
matters  of  religipn  he  was  suspected  by  some,  of  too  much 
disposition  to  temporize  ia  favour  of  popery,^  upon  the 
accession  of  queen  Mary ;  and  Dodd,  though  .  somewhat 
faintly,  claims  him  as  a  popish  bishop.  It  is  certain  he 
was.suffered  to  retain  his  bishopric,  to  hb  death,  although 
the  seals  were  taken  from  him.  He  was  esteemed  a  patron 
of  learned  men ;  and  expended  large  sums  in  building  jind 
embellishing  his  palaces,  particularly  at  Ely,  where  the 
long  gallery  carries  tokens  of  his  munificence.  He  died  at 
Somersham  May  10,  1554 ;  and  waa  .buried  in  the  middle 

G  O  O  D  R  I  C  If .  101 

<rf  the  presbytery  of  his  cathedral  church,  under  a  marble, 
with  his  effigies  in  brass,  mitred,  in  his  pontifical  habit,' 
and  the  great  seal,  as  lord  chancellor,  in  one  of  his  hands, 
and  an  inscription  round  it' 

GOODWIN  (John),  one  of  the  most  violent  of  the  re- 
publican sectaries  in  the  time  of  Charles  I.  but  whom  no 
sect  seems  to  own,  was  born  in  1593,  and  educated  at 
Queen's  college,  Cambridge.  In  1633  he  was  presented 
to  the  living  of  St.  Stephen's,  Coleman-street,  from  which 
he  was  turned  out  by  what  was  called  the  *'  committee  for 
plundered  ministers,''  because  he  refused  to  baptise  the 
children  of  his  parish  promiscuously,  and  refused  to  ad- 
minister the  sacrament  to  his  whole  parish.  He  was  an 
independent,  and  carried  on  many  warm  disputes  with  the 
presby  terian  party.  What  was  more  singular  in  these  days, 
was  his  embracing  the  Arminian  doctrines,  which  he  de- 
fended with  great  vigour  both  by  the  pulpit  and  press ; 
and  such  was  the  general  turbulence  of  his  temper,  -and 
conceit  in  his  own  opinions,  that  he  is  said  to  have  been 
against  every  man,  and  every  man  against  him.  Being  a 
decided  republican,  he  peculiarly  gratified  the  satage  spi- 
rit of  the  times  by  promoting  the  condemnation  of  the 
king,  which  he  afterwards  endeavoured  to  justify  in  a 
pamphlet  called  ^*  The  Obstructors  of  Jiistice,"  the  wicked- 
ness, absurdity,  and  impiety  of  which  Mr.  Neal  has  very 
candidly  exposed.  At  the  restoration  it  was  thought  he 
would  have  been  excepted  from  the  act  of  indemnity,  but, 
although  he  afterwards  was  permitted  to  live,  a  proclama- 
tion was  issued  in  1660  against  the  above  pamphlet,  and 
in  that  he  is  stated  to  have  been  **  late  of  Coleman-street, 
clerk,"  and  to  have  fled.  His  pamphlet  was  burnt  by  the 
hands  of  the  hangman.  Returnipg  afterwards,  he  kept  a 
private  conventicle  in  Coleman-street,  where  he  died  in 
1665.  His  works,  now  in  very  little  repute,  are  chiefly 
theological, among  which  the  following  may  be  mentioned: 
"  Redemption  Redeemed,"  in  folio.  "  The  divine  Autho- 
rity of  the  Scriptures,"  4to  ;  "  An  Exposition  of  the  Ninth 
Chapter  of  the  Epistle  of  St  Paul  to  the  Romans,"  4to.' 

GOODWIN  (Thomas),  a  famous  nonconformist  of  the 
independent  class,  was  born  in  1600  at  Rotesby  in  Norfolk, 

1  Benthmm't  Hist  of  Bly.'-^Matter's  Hist  of  C.  C.  C.  G.^Burnet'e  Reforma. 
tioii,Tol  II.  p.  S75.— Strype's  Cranmer,  pp.  30,  51,  134,  185,  S38,  S30,  233, 
857,  303,  504,  41 2.— Strype's  Parker,  p.  16,  30,  360. 

>  Calamy.— Meal't  Purium.'r-Bar low's  Remaiot,  p.  123. 

1©2  GOODWIN. 


and  was  sent,  when  he  was  thirteen  years  old»  ta  Christ 
Church  college,  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his  bachelor^s  de-^ 
gree  in  1617,  and  applied  himself  with  so  much  diligence  to 
his  studies,  as  to  attract  much  notice  in  the  university.    Ja 
1619  he  was  removed  to  Catherine-hall,  of  which  be  be- 
came a  fellow.     Having  taken  orders,  he  was,  elected  lec<* 
turer  of  Trinity  church,  in  Cambridge,  in  1628  ;  in  1630 
he  took  his  degree  of  B.D.  and  in  1632  he  was  presented 
by  the  king  to  the  vicarage  of  the  same  church.     In  these 
employments  he  was  greatly  admired  and  followed  by  the 
puritans,  who  began  to  look  up  to  him  as  a  leader,  but  be- 
coming dissatisfied  with  the  terms  of  conformity,  be  re- 
linquished his  preferments,  and  quitted  the  university  in 
1634,  and  to  avoid  the  consequences  of  his  nonconform 
ipity,  went  afterwards  to  Holland,  where  be  was  chosen 
pastor  to  an  independent  congregation  at  Arnbeim.    When 
the  parliament  bad  usurped  all  church  authority,  he  re- 
turned to  London,  and  became  a  member  of  the  Assembly 
of  divines,  with  whom,  however,  he  did  not  always  agree* 
But  his  attachment  to  the  independent  party  contributed 
to  render  him  a  favourite  with  Cromwell,  through  whose 
influence  he  was,  in  J  649,  made  one  of  the  commissioners 
for  the  approbation  of  public  preachers,  and  also  appointed 
president  of  Magdalen  college,  Oxford.     Here  he  formed 
a  meeting  upon,  the  independent  plan,  or  rather  converted 
the  college  into  a  meeting  of  that  description,  but  was  not 
inattentive  to  the  interests  of  learning.     His  intimacy  and 
favour  with  Cromwell  seems  to  have  been  fatal  to  his  good 
sense,  and  probably  the  usurper's  hypocrisy  deceived  him* 
When  he  attended  Cromwell  upon  his  death-bed,  he  was 
overheard  to  express  himself  with  presumptuous  confidence 
on  the  protector's  recovery ;  and  when  the  event  proved 
him   mistaken,  be   exclaimed  in  a  subsequent  prayer  to 
God,  "  thou  hast  deceived  us,  and  we  are  deceived."     But 
he  was  not  the  only  one   of  the  nonconformists  of  that 
age  who  fancied  themselves  endued  with  extraordinary 
powers.     After  the  restoration  he  was  ejected  from  Ox- 
ford, and  retired  to  London,  where  he  was  permitted  to 
continue  in  the  exercise  of  the  ministry  till  his  death  in 
1679.    He  was  buried  in  Bunhill-fields,  where  a  monument 
was  erected  to  his  memory,  with  a  long  Latin  inscription. 
He  was  certainly  a  considerable  scholar,  and  a  learned  and 
eminent  divine.     In  the  register  at  Oxford  he  is  described 
<^  in  scriptis  in  re  theologica  quamplurimis  Orbi  notus.^' 

GOODWIN.  103 

He  was  a  high  Calvinist ;  but,  while  he  zealously  enforced 
what  he  conceived  to  be  the  doctrines  of  CbristiaQity,  he 
did  not  forget  to  enforce  by  every  incitement  in  his  power 
the  necessity  of  pure  moral  conduct  He  was  author  of 
numerous  pious  and  controversial  pieces^  sermons,  expa« 
sitipnsy  &c.  some  of  which  were  printed  during  his  life-time^ 
and  inserted,  after  his  death,  in  a  coll^ection  of  his  works 
published  in  five  volumes  folio.  ^ 

<  GOOGE  (Barnaby)  was  a  celebrated  poet  and  transla-« 
tor,  who  lived  in  the  sixteenth  century,  but  of  whom  little 
*is  known,  unless  that  be  was  educated  at  Christ's  College^ 
Cambridge,  whence  he  removed  to  Staples  Inn.  '  Mr* 
Ellis  conjectures  that  he  might  have  been  born  about  1538* 
We  have  no  doubt  that  be  was  the  same  Barnaby  Googe 
who  ,was  a  relation  and  retainer  to  sir  William  Cecil,  queen 
Elizabeth's  minister,  and  who  was  gentleman -pensioner  tQ 
the  queen.  Mr.  Churton  thinks,  with  great  probability^ 
that  he  was  the  father  of  Barnaby  Googe,  master  of  Mag« 
dalen  college,  Cambridge,  who  was  incorporated  at  Ox« 
ford  in  August  1605,  when  king  James  was  there.  In  1563 
he  published  a  very  elegant  little  volume,  now  of  the 
greatest  rarity,  entitled  ^^Eglogs,  Epitaphs,  and  Sonnetes;*? 
One  of  the  sonnets,  superior,  as  the  rest  are,  in  point  of 
harmony,  to  most  of  the  productions  of  those  days,  is  ad<» 
dressed  to  Alexander  Nowell,  aftervyards  the.  celebrated 
dean  of  St.  Paurs,  and  reprinted  in  Mr.  Churton's  ela« 
borate  life  .of  that  divine^  It  is  said  there  are  only  two 
copies  of  this  volume  in  existence,  one  in  the  possession  of 
Mr,  Heber,  who  purchased  it  at  George  Steevens's  sale,  and 
the  other  in  the  library  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge* 
Cooge's  principal  translation  was  the  ^^  Zodiakeof  Life,** 
from  Marcellus  Palingenius  Stellatus,  a  very  moral,  but 
tiresome  satire,  perfectly  unconnected  with  astronomy,  the 
author  merely  distinguishing  each  of  the  twelve  books  of 
his  poem  by  the  name  of  a  celestial  sign.  The  first  three 
books  appeared  in  1 560,  and  the  first  six  in  1561;  the  whole 
was  printed  complete  in. 1565, 12mo.  In  1570  he  translated 
from.  Naogeorgus,  a  poem  on  Antichrist ;  in  1577,  Here* 
baches  oBcooomical  treatise  on  agriculture;  and  in  1&79» 
Lopes  de  Mendoza's  Spanish  proverbs,  and  afterwards 
Aristotle's  ^^  Table  of  the  Ten  Categories."    The  few  spe-^ 

»  Calamy.— rAth.  Ox.  vol.  IL— Ncal'i  Puritanf . 

104  G  O  1R  D  O  N. 

cimeiis  published  from  these  very  rare  works  are  highly^ 
favourable  to  the  author^s  talents  and  principles.  ^ 

GORDON  (Alexander),  a  native  of  Scotland,  was  an 
excellent  draughtsman,  and  a  good  Grecian,  who  resided 
many  years  in  Italy,  visited  mostparts  of  that  country,  and 
had  also  travelled  into  France,  Germany,  &c.  In  1736 
he  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  society  for  the  encoil- 
ragement  of  learning,  witt^  an  annual  salary  of  50/.  which 
he  resigned  in  1739.  In  ihe  same  year  (1736)  he  suc- 
ceeded Dr.  Stukeley  as  secretary  to  the  society  of  anti* 
quaries,  which  office  he  resigned  in  1741  to  Mr.  Joseph 
Ames,  and  was  for  a  short  time  secretary  to  the  Egyptian 
club,  composed  of  gentlemen  who  had  visited  Egypt,  viz* 
lord  Sandwich,  Dr.  Shaw,  Dr.  Pococke,  &c.  In  1741  he 
went  to  Carolina  with  governor  Glen,  where,  besides  a 
grant  of  land,  he  had  several  offices,  such  as  register  of 
the  province,  &c. ;  and  died  about  1750,  a  justice  of  the 
peace,  leaving  a  handsome  estate  to  his  family.  He  pub-' 
lished,  1.  <^  Itinerarium  Septentrionale,  or  a  Journey 
through  most  parts  of  the  counties  of  Scotland,  in  two^ 
parts,  with  66  copper-plates,  1726,"  folio.  2.  "Addi- 
tions and  Corrections,  by  way  of  supplement,  to  the  Itine- 
rarium Septentrionale ;  containing  several  dissertations  on, 
and  descriptions  of,  lloman  antiquities,  discovered  in  Scot- 
land since  publishing  the  said  Itinerary.  Together  with 
observations  on  other  ancient  monuments  found  in  the 
North  of  England,  never  before  published,  1732,^'  folio. 
A  Latin  edition  of  the  '^  Itinerarium^'  including  the  Sup- 
plement, was  printed  in  Holland,  in  1731.  3.  "The  Lives 
of  pope  Alexander  VI.  aiid  his  son  Cse^ar  Borgia,  compre- 
hending the  wars  in  the  reign  of  Charles  VIIL  and  Lewis, 
XII.  kings  of  France ;  and  the  chief  transactions  and  revo- 
lutions in  Italy,  from  1492  to  1516.  With  an  appendix  of 
original  pieces  referred  to  in  the  work,  1729,*'  folio.  4. 
*<  A  complete  History  of  the  ancient  Amphitheatres,  more 
particularly  regarding  the  Architecture  of  these  buildings, 
and  in  particular  that  of  Verona,  by  the  marquis  Scipio 
MafFei;  translated  from  the  Italian,  1730,*'  8vo,  after- 
wards enlarged  in  a  second  edition.  5.  **  An  Essay  to- 
wards explaining  the  Hieroglyphical  Figures  on  the  Cof- 
fin of  the  ancient  Mummy  belonging  to  capt.  WiUiam 

^  Phillips's  Tbeatram  edited  by  sir  E.  BiydgM.— Churton's  Irfe  of  Nowell,— « 
WartOD's  Hist,  of  Poe;ry.— Strype's  Life  of  Parker^  p.  144.— Ellii^s  Specsimeoi. 
•-^Censttra  Iiteraria>  vd.  II.  and  V. 


GORDON.  105  i 

LethieulHer,  1737,"  folio,  with  cuts.  6.  "Twenty-five 
plates  of  all  the!  Egyptian  Mummies,  and  other  £gyptiaii 
Antiquities  in  England,"  about  1739,  folio.  ^ 

GORDON  (Bernard),  a  French  physician  of  the  thir- 
teendi  century,  is  said  to  have  conferred  honour  on  the 
medical  faculty  of  Mt>ntpellier,  where  he  began  to  teach 
and  to  {Practise  m  i^^5.  As  was  the  custom  of  the  time^ 
he  tot>k  bis  surname^from  the  place  of  his  birth  (Gordon,  in 
Rouvergne),  and  AtUed  himself  Bernardns  de  Gordonio, 
and  not  Gordoniis,  as  it  is  commoiily  written.  According 
to  the  accounts  of  some  writers,  who  place  the  death  of 
this  physician  in  1305,  be  taught  at  Montpellier  only  twenty 
years  ;  but  others  say  that  he  was  living  in  1318.  He  left 
aiconstderable  number  of  treatises,  which  were  published 
together  at  Ferrara  in  1487,  at  Venice  in  1494,  at  Paris  in 
1542,  and  at  Lyons  in  1550.* 

GORDON  (James),  a  Scotch  Jesuit,  of  the  noble  fa- 
mily of  Gordon,  was  born  in  1543,  and  educated  at  Rome, 
where  he  became  a  Jesuit,  Sept.  20,  1563,  and  was  created 
D.D.  in  1569.'    He  was  professor  of  Hebrew  and  divinity 
for  nearly  fifty  years  in  several  parts  of  Europe,  Rortie, 
Paris,    Bourdeaux,    Pont  a  Mousson,  &c.  and   acquired 
great  reputatfon  for  learning  and  acuteness.     He  was  em-^ 
ployed  as  a  missionary  in  England  and  Scotland,  and  was 
twice  imprisoned  for  his  zeal  in  making  converts.     He  was 
also  frequently  employed  by  the  general  of  his  order  in 
negociating  their  affairs,  for  which  he  had  every  requisite 
talent.     Alegambe  describes  him  as  a  saint,  without  a  par- 
ticle of  human  frailty,  but  Dodd  allows  that  he  lived  very 
much  in  a  state  of  dissipation^  yet  was  regular  in  all  the 
austerities  of  bis  profession.     He  died  at  Paris,  April  16, 
1620.     His  only  writings  are  ^^  Controversiarum  Fidei  Epi- 
tome,'' in  three  parts  or  volumes,  8vo,  the  first  printed  at 
Limog^  1612,  the  second  at  Paris,  and  the  third  at  Co- 
logn  io  1620.    There  was  another  James  Gordon,  of  the 
family  of  Lesmore,  also  a  Scotch  Jesuit,  who  was  born  at 
or  near  Aberdeen  in  1553,  and  died  at  Paris,  Nov.  17, 
1641.     He  wrote  a  commentary  on  the  Bible,  **  Biblia 
Sacra,  cum  Comiiienttfriis,  &c.'*  Paris^  3  vols.  fol.  1632^ 
which  Dnpin  seems  to  think  an  useful  ahd  judicious  work. 
He  wrote  idsp  some  historical  and  chronological  works, 

*~Nic1iolt^  Bowyeir. 

*  ten^  Cyclopedia,  from  El07.^MftGlL«ii>M>i  Sootch  WnUn,  yl  I.  p.  439. 

106  GORDON. 

enumerated  by  Alegambe,  aad  a  system  of  moral  lheo«« 
logy,  &c.* 

GORDON  (Thomas),  a  native  of  Scotland,  and  once. 
distinguished  by  bis  party  writings  on  political  and  religious 
subjects,  was  born  at  Kirgudbrigbt  in  Galloway,  about  the 
end  of  the  seventeenth  century.  He  had  an  university 
education,  and  went  through  the  common  course  of  aca« 
demical  studies ;  but  whether  at  Aberdeen  or  St.  Andrew's 
i$  uncertain.  When  a  young  man  he  came  to  London^ 
and  at  first  supported  himself  by  teaching  the  languages,; 
but  afterwards  commenced  party  writer,  and  was  employed 
by  the  earl  of  Oxford  in  queen  Anne's  time;  but  we  know 
not  in  what  capacity.  He  first  distinguished  himself  in  the 
Bangorian  controversy  by  two  pamphlets  in  defence  of 
Boadly,  which  recommended  him  to  Mr.  Trenchard,  an 
author  of  the  same  stamp,  who  took  him  into  his  house,  at 
first  as  his  amanuensis,  and  afterwards  into  partnership,  as 
an  author.  In  1720,  they  began  to  publish,  in  coBJuncr 
tion,  a  series  of  letters,  under  the  name  of  *^  Cato,"  upon 
various  and  important  subjects  relating  to  the  public. 
About  the  same  time  they  published  another  periodical 
paper,  under  the  title  of  ^^  The  Independent  Whig,'*  which 
was  continued  some  years  after  Trenchard's  death  by  Gor* 
don  alone.  The  same  spirit  which  appfears,  with  more 
decent  language,  in  Cato's  letters  against  the  administra- 
tion in  the  state,  shews  itself  in  this  work  in  much  more 
glaring  colours  against  the  hierarchy  in  the  church.  It  is» 
in  truth,  a  gross  and  indecent  libel  on  the  established  re- 
Iigion»  which,  however,  Gordon  was  admirably  qualified 
to  write,  as  be  had  no  religion  of  his  own  to  check  his  in- 
temperate sallies.  After  Trenchard's  death,  the  minister, 
sir  Robert  Walpole,  knowing  his  popular  talents,. took  him 
into  pay  to  defend  his  measures,  for  which  end  hd  wrote 
several  pamphlets.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  July  28, 1750, 
'\ie  was  first  commissioner  of  the  wine-licences,  an  of- 
fice which  he  had  enjoyed  many  years,  and  which  di- 
minished his  patriotism  surprisingly.  He  was  twice  mar- 
ried. His  second  wife  was  the  widow  of  his  friend  Tren- 
chard; by  whom  he  had  children,  and  who  survived  him. 
Two  collections  of  his  tracts  have  been  preserved :  the 
first  entitled,  ^<  A  Cordial  for  Lo\y-spirits,''  in  ^hree  volumes; 
and  the  second,  <<  The  Pillars  of  Priestcraft  and  Ortho- 

>  Alagtmb*  Bibl  Script  Societal.  Jetui.— Dodd's  Church  Hiftsiy,  vol.  II. 

GORDON.  107 

doxy  shaken,^'  in  two  volumes.  But  these^  like  many  other 
posthumous  pieces,  had  better  have  been  suppressed.  His 
translations  of  Sallust  and  Tacitus,  now,  perhaps,  contri- 
bute more  to  preserve  his  name,  although  without  confer*^ 
ring  much  reputation  on  it.  His  Tacitus  appeared  in  2 
vols.  fol.  in  1728,  with  discoursiss  taken  from  foreign  com** 
mentators  and  translators  of  that  historian.  Sit  Robert 
Walpole  patronised  a  subscription  for  the  work,  which 
was  very  successful;  but  no  classic  was  perhaps  ever  so 
miserably  mangled.  His  style  is  extremely  vulgar,  yet 
affected,  and  abounds  with  abrupt  and  inharmonious  pe<« 
riods,  totally  destitute  of  any  resemblance  to  the  original, 
while  the  translator  fancied  he  was  giving  a  corre<^t  imi-* 
tatioh.  * 

GORDON  (William),  an  Anglo-American  divine  and 
historian,  and  minister  ait  Roxburg  in  Massachusetts,  was 
born  at  Hitchin,  in  Hertfordshire,  in  1729,  and  educated 
a^  a  dissenting  academy  in  or  near  London.  He  was  afters- 
wards  pastor  of  an  independent  congregation  at  Ipswich^ 
where  he  officiated  for  several  years.  In  1772  he  went  to 
America,  and  settled  at  Roxburg.  When  the  revolution 
commenced  in  America,  he  took  a  very  active  part. against 
his  native  country,  and  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the  pro- 
vincial congress  of  Massachusetts.  In  1776  he  appears  first 
to  have  conceived  the  design  of  writing  the  history  of  the 
revolution  and  war,  and  began  to  collect  materials  on  the 
spot,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by  the  communication  of 
state  papers,  and  the  correspondence  of  Washington  and 
the  other  generals  who  had  made  a  distinguished  figure  in 
the  field.  In  1786  he  came  to  England,  and  in  1788  pub* 
lished,  in  4  vols.  8vo,  "  The  History  of  the  rise,  progress, 
and  establishment  of  the  Independence  of  the  United  States 
of  America.*'  This,  however,  is  rather  a  collection  of  facts, 
than  a  regular  history,  for  the  writing  of  which,  indeed, 
the  author  had  no  talent ;  his  style  is  vulgar  and  confused, 
and  his  reflections  common-place.  The  best  parts  of  it 
occur  where  he  made  most  use  of  Dodsley^s  Annual  Re* 
gister.  The  colouring  he  attempts  to  give,  as  may  be 
expected,  is  entirely  unfavourable  to  the  English,  nor  does 
he  endeavour  to  disguise  his  partialities.  He  is  said  to 
have  published  also  some  sermons ;  a  pamphlet  recom- 

1  Bio|^.  Brit.  art.  Trenchard.^WhistOD's  MS  notes  M  the  first  tditioa  of 
this  Dictionary. 

10$  O  O  R  D  o  N: 

mending  a  society  for  the  benefit  of  widows,  another  istgainst 
the  doctrine  of  universal  redemption,  and  an  abridgment 
of  Edwards,  *^  on  religious  affections.*'  He  appears  not 
to  have  returned  to  America  after  the  publication  of  his 
history,  but  to  have  resided  partly  at  St.  Neots,  and  partly 
at  Ipswich,  at  which  last  he  died  in  1807.^ 

GORE  (Thomas),  a  heraldic  writer,  was  bom  of  an  an^ 
cient  family  at  Alderton,  in  Wiltshire,  in  1631,  and  was 
educated  at  Magdalen  college,  Oxford.  Thence  he  went 
to  Lincoln*s-inn,  but  probably  with  no  serious  purpose  to 
study  the  law,  as  he  retired  afterwards  to  his  patrimony  at 
Alderton.  ]9ere  his  property  entitled  him  to  the  honour 
of  being  appointed  high  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  in  1680,  at 
which  time  some  unjust  aspersions  on  his  character  ibduced 
him  to  write  a  defence  entitled  '^  Loyalty  displayed,  and 
falsehood  unmasked/'  &c.  Lond.  1681,  4to.  He  died 
March  31,  1684,  at  Alderton,  leaving  a  variety  of  curious 
MSS.  and  printed  collections  on  his  favourite  study  of  he- 
raldry. His  publications  were,  1.  "  A  Table  shewing  how 
to  blazon  a  coat  ten  several  ways,"  1655,  a  single  sheet 
copied  from  Feme.  2.  ^^  Series  Alphabetica, .  Latino* 
Anglica,  Nomina  Gentilitiorum,  sive  eognominum  pluri- 
marum  familiarum,  quas  miiltos  per  annos  in  Anglia  ilo-* 
ruere,*'  Oxoii.  1667,  8vo.  A  copy  of  this  rare  book  is  ia 
the  British  Museum.  3.  <<  Catalogus  in  certa  capita,  seu 
Classes,  alphabetico  ordine  concinnatus,  plerorumque  om- 
nium Authorum  (tarn  antiquorum  quam  recentiorum)  qui 
de  re  Heraldica,  Latine,  Gallice,  Ital.  Hisp.  &c.  scripse- 
runt,'*  Qx.  1668,  reprinted  with  enlargements,  1674.  4. 
•*  Nomenclator  geographicus,"  &c.  Ox.  1667,  8vo.* 

GORELLI  or  GREGORIO,  the  son  of  Raynier,  of  the 
family  of  Sinigardi,  of  Arezzo,  in  Italy,  lived  in  the  four-* 
teenth  century,  and  was  notary  of  Arezzo,  an  office  of 
considerable  rank.  In  his  fiftieth  year  he  formed  the  de* 
sign  of  writing  the  history  of  bis  country  in  Italian  verse, 
and  unfortunately  took  Dante  for  his  model,  w^om  be  was 
unable  to  follow.  The  events  he  relates  concern  the  pe- 
riod from  1310  to  1384,  and  may  be  consulted  with  advan- 
tage by  those  who  will  overlook  the  badness  of  the  poetry. 
When  he  died  is  not  known.  Muratori  has  inserted  hi^s 
history  in  his  collection  of  Italian  historians.* 

1  Siipplementaiyyol.  to  the  Diet.  Hist.  1819,  which  oonsiits  chieflf  of  Attie* 
neaD  lives,  probably  contributed  by  an  Americao. 
*  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Gent.  Maf.  vol.  LXII.  *  Morert. 

G  O  R  G  I  A  S.  .  IW 

GORGIAS  (LeoN/Tinus),  a  native  of  Leontium^  in  Sicily^ 
who  floarislied  in  the  fifth  century  B.  C.  was  a  celebrated 
orator  of  the  school  of  Empedocles.  He  was  deputed  in 
the  year  427,  by  his  fellow-citizens,  to  request  succour 
of  the  Athenians  against  the  people  of  Syracuse,  whom  he 
so  charmed  with  his.  eloquence  that  he  easily  obtained 
what  he  required.  He  also  made  a  display  of  his  eloquence 
at  the  Olympic  and  Pythian  games,  and  with  so  much 
success,  that  a  statue  of  gold  was  erected  to  him  at  Delphi, 
and  monej^was  coined  with  his  name  upon  it.  In  the  lat- 
ter part  of  his  life  he  established  himself  at  Athens,  and 
lived  till' he  had  attained  the  age  of  one  hundred  and  five 
years.  He  is  reputed,  according  to  Quiottlian,  to  be  the 
author  and  inventor  of  extemporaneous  speaking,  in  which 
art  he  exercised  his  disciples.  Hermogenes  has  preserved 
a  fragment  of  his,  from  which  we  may  infer  that  his  man- 
ner was  quaint  and  artificial,  full  of  antithesis  and  pointed 

GORIO  (Anthony  Francis],  a  learned  antiquary  of 
Florence,  was  born  in  1691,  and  died  Jan.  21,  17i7,  in 
that  city.  He  was  the  author  of  an  account  of  the  grand 
duke's  cabinet,  entitled  <^  MussBum  Florentinum,"  Florene. 
1731,  continued  to  11  vols,  fol.^  *' Musieiim  Etruscum,** 
1737,  Svols.fol. ;  *' Musseum  Cortonense,*'  Romie,  1750, 
foi.  He  also  published  the  ancient  Inscriptions  which  are 
found  in  the  cities  of  Tuscany;  Florence,  1727,  3  vols.  fol. ; 
and  other  books  on  Tuscan  antiquities.^  His  '^  Musaeum 
Fiorentinum*'  contains  in  vol.  L  *^  Gemmae,*'  dedicated  to 
Gaston,  100 plates;  vol.  II.  1732,  '^Gemmae,"  100  plates; 
vol.  III.  1734,  <<  Statuae,"  dedicated  to  Gaston,  100 
plates;  vols.  IV.  V.  and  VI.  1740,  «  Numismata,"  dedi- 
cated  to  Francis  III.  115  plates.  It  is  divided  into  three 
parts;  one  consisting  of  figures,  two  of  dissertations;  some- 
times bound  in  2  vols,  and  sometimes  in  three.  In  1 748, 
50  portraits  of  the  eminent  professors  of  painting  were  en- 
graved, with  no  farther  explanation  than  their  names,  the 
year  in  which  they  were  born  and  died ;  but  this  part  is 
freqiiently  wanting,  because  these  portraits  may  be  found 
in  the  History  of  the  Painters,  4  vols,  with  their  lives,  by 
Francis  Mouck^.  Vol.  VII.  is  the  first  volume  of  the 
painters,  1752,  55  portraits.  Vol.  VIII.  the  second  vo- 
lume of  the  painters,  1754,  55  portraits.     Vol.  IX.  the 

1  Fabric.  Bibl.  Gnec-^Moreri.— Saxii  Onomait. 

110  G  O  R  I  O. 

Ihifxl  votame  of  the  painters,  1756)  55  portraits.  Vol.  X. 
the  fourth  volonae  of  the  painters,  1762,  55  portraits% 
VoU  XI.  contains  100  portraits  of  painters,  which  may  be 
found  in  the  abbi  Pozzi,  and  their  lives  by  the  abb< 
Orazis  Marrioi,  Florence,  1764,  2  tom^eacb,  divided  int^ 
jtwo  parts;  the  whole  bound  in  1  vol.' 


GORLiEUS  (Abraham),  an  eminent  antiquary,  waa 
^born  at  Antwerp  in  1549,  and  gained  a  reputation  by  col^ 
lecting  medals  and  other  antiques.  He  was  chiefly  fond  (^ 
the  rings  and  seals  of  the  ancients,  of  which  he  published 
«  prodigious  number  in  1601,  under  this  title,  <^Dacty«- 
liotheca,  sive  Annulorum  Sigillariumi  quorum  apud  priscdf 
tarn  Grsecos  quam  Romanos  usus  ex  ferro,  aere,  argento^ 
.&.  auro,  Promptuarium.*'  This  was  the  first  part  of  the 
work ;  the  second  was  entitled  *^  Variarum  Gemmarum, 
quibus  Antiquitas  in  signando  uti  solita,  sculpturse."  This 
work  has  undergone  several  editions,  the  best  of  which  is 
that  of  Leydien,  1625 ;  which  not  only  contains  a  vast 
mumber.of  cuts,  but  a  short  explication  of  them  by  Gn>* 
jDOvius.  In  1608  he  published  a  collection  of  medals; 
.which,  however,  if  we  may  believe  the  ^^  Scaligerana,''  it 
is  not  safe  always  to  trust.  Some  have  asserted,  that 
be  never  studied  the  Latin  tongue,  and  that  the  learned 
pjreface  prefixed  to  his  **  Dactyliotheca,'*  was  written,  by 
another.  Peiresc,  as  Gasse^dus  relates,  used  to  say,  that 
*^  though  GorlsDus  never  studied  the  Latin  tongue,  yet  be 
understood  all  the  books  written  in  Latin  concerning  medak 
find  coins;"  but  this  cannot  be  reconciled  with  the  accounts 
of  him  in  other  authors,  nor  indeed  with  probability, 
porlaeus  resided  principally  at  Delft,  and  died  there  April 
15,  1609.  His  collections  of  antiques  were  sold  by  his 
heirs  to  the  pirnce  of  Wales.' 

GORRIS  (John  de),  in  Latin  Gorreus,  a  physician, 
was  born  at  Paris  in  1505.  He  took  the  degree  of  doctor 
x>f  physic  in  that  city  about  1540,  and  was  appointed  dean 
of  the  faculty  in  1548.  He  is  said  to  have  possessed  both 
the  learning  and  sagacity  requisite  to  form  an  accomplished 
physician,  and  to  have  practised  with  great  humanity  and 
success.  His  works,  which  were  published  in  1622,  folio, 
by  one  of  his  sons,  contributed  to  support  this  reputaUoQ. 

1  Diet.  Hilt— >Saxii  Onomast.— Archeologia,  toI.  VII, 

s  Gen.  DicU— MQreri.«-JPoppeii  Sibl.  Bel^.^-SaiU  QMontt. 

G  O  R  R  I  S.  114 

Hie  greater  part  of  theai  consists  of  commentaries  on  dif- 
lereBt  portioifs  of  the  writings  of  Hippocrates,  Galen,  and 
Nkander.  During  the  civil  war,  which  was  fatal  tonu- 
tnerous  men  of  letters,  John  de  Morris  was  stopped  by  a 
party  of  soldiers,  when  on  bis  journey  to  Melun  to  visit 
the  bishop  of  Paris,  and  the  fright  which  he  sustained  is 
said  to  ]iave  deprived  him  of  his  reason.  This  occurred  ia 
1561,  and  he  lived  in  this  deplorable  condition  until  hia 
death  at  Paris,  in  1577.  His.  father,  Peter  dj^  Gokr}£^ 
was  a  physician  at  Bourges,  attained  considerable  emi- 
nence^  and  left  two  works,  one  on  the  general  ^^  practice 
of  medicine,^'  dated  1555;  the  other,  ^*  a  collection  ci 
brmvl3Sf\  1560,  both  in  Latin.' 

OORTER  (John  de),  a  physician,  was  born  in  1689^ 
at  EuJibuysen,  and  after  having  been  a  disciple  of  the  ce- 
lebrated Boerhaave,   became  a  distinguished   teacher  of 
medicine  at  Harderwick,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  academies  of  Petersburg,  Rome, 
and  Haerlem,  and  obtained  the  title  of  physician  to  Eii- 
satbetb,  empress  of  all  the  Rassias.     He  died  Sept.  1 1, 
1762.      He  was  the  author  of  several  works,  which  are 
written  with  excellent  method,  and  contain  many  interest- 
ing and  original  observations,  relating  to  physiological  and 
practical  subjects,  as  well  as  to  the  practice  of  the  ancients. 
The  principal  are,    1.   "  De   Perspiratione  insensibili," 
Leyden  and  Padua,  1725,  4to,  often  reprinted.     2.  *^  De 
Secretione  humorum  in  sanguine,"  ibid.  1727.     3.  ^'  Me- 
dicinae  Compendium,"  1731 — 1737,  2  vols.  4to.  4.  "Exer- 
•citationes  quatuor  medicae,"  Amst.   1737,  4to,  &c.     His 
jon,  David  de  Gorter,  professor  of  physic  and  botany  in 
Ae  Dutch  university  of  Harderwick,  was  author  of  Several 
'local  Floras  of  that  neighbourhood,  and  of  Elenienta  Bo- 
tanica.     He  died  in  1783,  aged  sixty-six.' 

60SSELINI  (Julian),  an  Italian  poet  and  miscellaneous 
writer,  was  born  at  Rome  in  1525,  where  he  pursued  his. 
studies  in  the  bouse  of  the  cardinal  de  Santa  Fiora,  but  in 
liis  seventeenth  year  was  taken  into  the  service  of  Ferdi- 
nand Gonzaga,  then  viceroy  of  Sicily,  and  governor  of 
Milan,  to  which  city  he  accompanied  that  nobleman  in 
1546,  and  became  his  secretary.  He  was  afterwards  taken 
:to  the  court  of  Spain,  where  he  obtained  the  esteem  and 

^  NiceroD,  toI.  XXXVIII.— Rees's  Cyc1o|)edia.— Saxii  OnooMst. 
'  Diet.  Hitt.— Rces'fl  Cyclopedia* 


112  G  O  S  S  E  L  I  N  I. 

favour  of  Philip  IL  Under  the  duke  of  Albuquerque  be 
was  imprisoued  on  a  charge  of' conspiracy  against  the  life 
of  John  Baptist  Monti,  but  vindicated  his  own  cause,  and 
was  not  only  released,  but  admitted  to  public  employment 
under  the  succeeding  governors  of  Milan.  ^  He  died  Feb. 
12,  1587,  leaving  behind  him  several  works,  that  obtained 
for  him  high  reputation ;  of  these  the  principal  are,  ^^  The 
Life  of  Ferdinand  Gonzaga,"  1579,  4to.  <' Three  Con- 
spiracies,*' &c.  15Sd,  8vo.  <<  Rime,'*  or  a  collection  of 
poems,  several  times  reprinted.  ^^  Discourses.**  ^^  Let- 
ters,** &c. ;  and  he  translated  inta  Italian  a  French  work 
.entitled  ^^  A  true  account  of  things  that  have  ha^jpened 
in  the  Netherlands,  since  the  arrival  of  Don  Juan  of 
Austria.** »  " 

GOSSON  (Stephen),  a  divine  and  poet,  was  bom  in  Kent 
in  1 554,  and  was  admitted  scholar  of  Christ-church,  Oxford, 
in  April  1572,  but  left  the  university  without  completing^ 
bis  degrees,  and  came  to  London,  where  he  commenced 
poet,  and  wrote  some  dramMic  pjeces  which  were  never 
published.  He  then  retired  into  the  country,  as  tutor  to 
a  gentleman*8  sons,  and  became  by  some  means  a  bitter 
enemy  to  the' drama  and  all  its  concerns.  This  occasioned 
some  dispute  with  the  father  of  his  pupils,  whose  service 
he  thereifore  quitted,  and  took  orders.  His  first  promotion 
was  to  the  living  of  Gresit  Wigborow,  in  Essex.;  and  his 
next  in  1600,  the  rectory  of  St.Botolph,  Bishopsgate-street, 
where  he  died  Feb.  13,  1^23.  He  was  a  contemporary  of 
Speuser  and  sir  Philip  Sidney,  whom,  he  imitated,  and 
was  thought  to  have  excelled  in  pastoral  poetry.  His  un- 
published plays  were,  I.  ^^  Cataline's  Conspiracies.**  2. 
"  The  Comedy  of  Captain  Mario  ;'*  and  the  "  Praise  at 
parting.*'  In  opposition  to  theatrical  amusements  be  wrote, 
f^  Play  confuted  in  five  several  actions,**  1580,  and  *^  The 
School  of  Abuse,**  1587;  the  latter  a  professed  invective 
against  poets,  players,  and.  jesters,  but  with  much  good 
sense  and  gooxi  temper  He  wrote  also  the  '^  Ephemerides 
of  Phialo,*'  1579,  and  a  sermon  entitled  <<  The  Trumpet 
of  War." « 


GOTTESCHALCUS,  surnamed  Fulgentius,  and  ce» 
lebrated  for  propagating  and  exciting  a  .controversy  on 
the  doctrines  of  predestination  and  free  grace,  was  bora 

'  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri.— -Tiraboschi* 

*  Atb.  Ox.  ToU  I.— Gtot.  Mag.  ?ol.  LXV.— Biog .  Drainatio«« 

©  O  T  T  E  S  C  HA  1-  C  U  S.  lis 

«a6erUa«lf,  in  the  beginning,  prdbably^  of  the  ninth  t;e6- 
/tiify,     Fsom  au-ly  Ufe  be  ha4  be^n  a  monk,  and  bad  de- 
voled  faudtetf  to  tbeolegieal  inquiries.     He  was  pecftliaitly 
i»fi^  Qrf  tim  ^ratings  (of  St.  Apgttstiiie>  and  efitered  with 
jo^efa  sKial  'inte  his  sentinents.    About  the  year  846,  iie 
left 'his  nteoasterj^  at  FuMa,  and  went  into  Dalmatia  and 
Panootiia,  where  be  spread  the  doctrhies  of  St.  Augustine, 
under  a  firetence,  as  his  eneuiies  said,  of  preaching  the 
go8|)el  to  the  iniideis.    At  his  return,  he  reaiataed  sokne 
iime  m  Looibardy,  and  in  the  year  847  held  a  confeience 
wiA  Notingus,  or  Nothingus,  bishop  of  Vietine^  concern* 
ing  predestination,  who  prevailed  on  Rabamis,  archbishop 
t)f  MeitttZy  to  tiadertake  the^  confutation  of  what  was  called 
a  siewir  ireresy.     This  the  archbishop  undertook,  and  was 
iopported  by  a  syaod  at  M^Boiz,  which  condemned  Gottes*- 
chaiciis.     He  was  farther  prosecuted  by  Himeniar,  arch" 
hisfaop  of  fijieifiis,  was  degraded  from  the  priesthood,  and 
^idered  «o  be  beaten  with  rods^   and  imprisoned.     But 
-as  n^^biog  was  proved  against  him,   except   bis  adhe^ 
iHeDoe  ^  the  sentiments  of  Augustine,  which  were  still 
heldln.esiimalaott  ia  dse  .church,  tbiis  shews,  in  the  opitiion 
iof  Dnpih,  diat  he  was  an  injured  man.     He  was,  however, 
«a  aemetaely  whipped  in  the  presence  of  the  emperor  Charles 
and  the  bishops,  ^at  his  resohition  failed  him^  and  be 
complied  with  their  commands  so  far  as  to  throw  into  the 
£re  a  wrttiog  in  which  he  had  made  a  coUection  of  scrip- 
tuce  tekts  in  order  4o  prove  his  opinion.     After  this  he 
was  kept  a  close  prisoiser  by  Hincmar  in  a  monastery, 
wkeeehe  ooatinued  to  maintain  his  opiotans  until  his  death 
in  ihe  aanle  prison  in  the  year  870.     Hincmar,  hearing 
that  be  lay  at  the  point  of  death,  sent  him  a  formulary, 
which  he  was  to  subscribe,  in  order  to  his  being  received 
iatothe  eottimonion  of  tbe  church ;  Oottesbhalcus,  however, 
jpgecled  thec^er  witb  indignation,  and  therefore,  by  ord^i« 
ql  Hinemar^  was  denied  Christian  burial.    But  even  in  that 
a^  tiiere  were  men  who  loudly  remonstrated  against  the 
faarbafily.with  whiob  he  had  been  treated.   Remigius,  arch* 
hUkisp  fOf  Lyons,  distinguished  himself  among  these ;  and^ 
im  a^sftuneil  held  at  Valence,  in  Daupbiny,  in  the  year 
^65^  hol^h  Ootteschalcus  and  his  doctrine  were  vindicated 
jmd  def^hded,  and  two  subsequent  councils  confirmed  the 
decrees  x>f  »this  connciL    The  churches  also   af  Lyons^ 
Vienne,  and  Aries,  vigorously  supported  the  sentiments  of 
Gotteschalcus,  whom  nothing  biit  the  secular  influence  of 
Vol.  XVI.  I  ^ 

114  GO  T  T  ESCHALCUS. 

Hincmar  could  have  detained  in  prison,  while  bis  catne 

•  was  thus  victorious.  The  only  wntii>g8  of  this  confessor 
that  have  reached  the  present  limes  are,  two  ^**  Confessions 

.  of  Faith,''  inserted  in  archbishop  Usher's^  **  Historia  Qot- 
teschalci,"  printed  at  Dublin  in  1641 ;  an  epistle  to  Ra- 
tramnus,  published  in  Cellot's  '<  Historia  Gotteschalci/'  at 

eParis,  in  1655,  and  some  fragments  of  other  jMeces,  no- 
ticed by  Cave.     In  1650,  the  celebrated  Maguin  publish- 

red,  at  Paris,  a  collection  of  the  treatises  produced  on  both 
sides  of  this  controversy,  entitled  ^^Veterum  Auctorum 
qui  nono  saeculo  de  Prs&destinatione  et  Gratia  scripserant, 

.  &c/'  2  vols*  4to.  * 

GOTTI  (Vincent  Lewis),  a  learned  cardinal,  was  born 

'at  Bologna  Sept.  5, 1664.  He  was  the  son  of  James  Gotti^ 
a  doctor  of  laws,  and  professor  in  the  university  of  Bologna* 
In  1680  he  became  of  the  Dominican  order,  and  having 

.completed  his  course  of  philosophy  at  Bologna,  was  sent  to 
study  theology  for  four  years  at  Salamanca  in  Spain.  U^ 
on  his  return  in  1688,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  phi- 
losophy in  the  university  of  Bologna,  and  was  also  made 
prior  and  provincial  of  his  order,  and  inquisitor  of  Milan. 

,In  1728,  pope  Benedict  XIII.  created  him  a  cardinal,  and 
three  years  afterwards  appointed  him  member  of  the  con- 
gregation for  examining  bishops  -,  and  such  was  his  reputa- 
tion, that  in  the  last  conclave,  held  during  his  time,  a  con- 
siderable number  of  the  cardinals  were  for  his  being  raised 
to  the  papal  throne.  Soon  after  this  he  died  at  Rome  in 
.1742.  His  works  are  much  valued  by  the  catholics  m 
Italy,  and  display  considerable  erudition.  Of  these  the 
principal  are,  1.  ^^De  vera  Christi  Ecclesia,"  Rome,  17 19, 
3  vols,  and  reprinted  with  additions  at  Milan  in  1734.  2. 
<^  Theologia  Scholastico-dogmatica,  juxta  mentem  divi 
Thomae  Aquinatis,  &c.*'  6  vols.  4to.  S.  ^'  Colloquia  Theo- 
logica-polemica,  in  tres  classes  distributa,  &c."  Bologna, 
4to.  4.  '^  De  Eligenda  inter  Dissidentes  Christianos  Sea* 
tentia,*'  written  in  answer  to  a  piece  with  the  same  title, 
by  Le  Clerc  ;  and  an  elaborate  work  in  defence  of  the  truth 
of  the  Christian  religion  against  atheists,  idolaters,  Maho- 
metans, Jews,  &c.  1735 — 1740,  in  12  vols.  He  was  em- 
ployed at  the  time  of  his  death  in  writing  '*  A  Commentary 
on  the  Book  of  Genesis.''  A  long  life  of  him,  ^'  De  vita  et 
atudiis,  &c.''  4to,  was  published  at  Rome  in  1742.' 

1  Cs¥e<F-Diipiiii— Moreri.«-]IIiki«r'f  Chnrcli  Hitt.  toU  III.  p.  242.     *  Morta. 

G  O  TT  SX  H  E  D.  lis 

(srOTTSCHED  (John  Christopher),  a  German  poet, 
father,  however,  in  theory  than  practice,  was  born  at  Ko- 
Digsberg'in.1700,  and  attained  the  office  of  professor  of 
philosophy,  logic,  and  metaphysics  at  Leipsic^  where  be 
.  died  in  1766.     His  works,  both  original  and  republished, 
contributed  in  a  considerable  degree  to  diffuse  a  taste  for 
.-elegant  literature  in  Germany,   as  well  as  to  refine  the 
:  German  language.     Among  these  we  find,  1.  <^  An  Intro- 
,  duction  to  Dramatic  Poetry,  or  a  Review  of  all  the  trage- 
t  dies,  comedies,  and  operas,  which  have  appeared  in  Ger- 
many from  1450  to  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,'* 
Leipsic,   1757.     2.  "The  German  Poets,    published  by 
John  Joachim,  a  Suabian^'*  ibid.  1736.     He  also  compiled 
■  various  books  of  instruction  in  style  and  elocuti«n  adapted 

•  to  the  then  state  of  the  German  schools ;  and  might  have 
'  deserved  the  praise  of  an  acute  critic,  had  he  not  unfortu- 
nately illustrated  his  principles  by  his  own  poetical  effu- 

^sions,  in  which  there  is  only  a  mediocrity  of  taste  and  ge- 
nius.' He  died  in  December  1766. — His  wife,  Louisa 
Maria,  had  also  very  considerable  literary  talents,  and  had 
studied  philosophy,  mathematics,  the  belles  lettres,  and 
music,  with  success.  She  published  a  metrical  translation 
of  Pope's  "  Rape  of  the  Lock  ;^'  and  since  her  death,  in 
:  1762,  a  collection  of  her  letters  has  been  published,  which 
is  held  in  high  esteem.  Frederick  the  Great  of  Prussia, 
who  preferred  Gellert  to  Gottsched,  speaks  with  greater 

•  respect  of  this  lady  than  of  her  husband,  but  seems  to  think 
that  both  discovered  more  pedantry  than  taste*^ 

GOUDELIN  (Peter),  a  Gascon  poet,  was  born  at  Tou- 
louse iti  1579,  where  his  father  was  a  surgeon.  He  was 
educated  for  the  law,  but  the  muses  charmed  him  fron 
that  profession,  and  he  devoted  himself  to  their  service. 

•  His  verses  and  the  wit  of  his  conversation  procured  him 
easy  access  to  the  tables  of  the  great,  but  he  profited  so 

'  little  by  their  patronage,  that  he  would  haVe  been  left  to 
starve  in  bis  old  age,  had  not  his  fellow  citizens  bestowed 
'  a  pension  on  him  from  the  ^blic  funds,  wjiich  he  enjoyed 
!  until  bis  death,  Sept.  10,  1649.  Suc)i  was  his  reputation 
that  they  also  placed  his  bugt  in  the  gallery  of  the  town- 
hall,  among  those  af  other  illustrious  men  whom  Toulouse 
had  produced ;  and  his  works  were  long  cited  with  delight 
and  admiration.    They  were  published  in  a  single  volume, 

•     •  .'Diet.  Hilt.  -  • 

J  2 

116  C  O  U  D  E  L  I  N,  "~^ 

jmmI  oftan fu&Bto^  .at Toulouse^  and  at  AmsteFdam  in  170O. 
Hb  rpoem  .ob  ^ttie  4eath  of  Henry  <!¥.  is  ^ne  -of  bis  best/  aiid 
•nefof  the  Ukv  Jtbat  has  borne  a  itraodatioti  from  fbe  19^j^« 
lOcna  language.  ^ 

'GOUlilNIEL  i(Ciw^i?DE%  on^  iof  tfce  «arly  and  most  ce-* 
l^hrated  .cooiposers  of  mwc  to  tbe  fnetHrksd  Frencdi  'tratis* 
latioiis  of  tile  psaloas  for  the  use  of  the  prot6«t«lnas,  xrad  a 
oatiTe  of  Franobe-Comt^,  wbo  iost  his  Mfe  ^t  -Lyons^  -on 
abe  day  of  tke  massacre  of  Fajrh  in  1 5t2,  ifbr  bating  set  to 
music  tber  psalfns  of  Cieaaefit  Marot.  Goudimel  bei^^en 
luudi  celetbrated  by  the  protesftants  in  France  for  fhis  ami- 
'Sic,  vbicb  w^s  .never  used  ia  47be  church  of  Geneva,  and  by 
the  catholics  in'  Italy  for  instructing  Fdestriiia  in  4be  art  «f 
QOB^fiasirion,  though  k  is  doubtful  «wbether  this  gresBt  bar* 
aaonisit  and  (Goudimel  bad  ever  the  least  acquaintance  or 
mtercouvse  tc^etfaer.  He  set  the  ^^  .Chansons  ^^ritueUes'* 
of  ^be  cekbrated  Marc^  Ant.  De  Muret,  in  four  parts,  which 
m0te  printed  at  Paris,  1555.  We  may  suppose  Goudimel, 
at  ^s  time,  to  have  beein  a  catholic,  as  the  learned  Mu^et 
is  never  ranked  aoEiong  hieretics  by  French  biographers. 
Ten  yioars.  a&Br,  wheii  be  set  tbe  psalms  of  Clement  Marot^ 
tbisvension  wasstiU  cegarded  mth  less  horror  by  the  cat^- 
liqs  tbaa  in  later  times ;  for  the  music  which  Goudimei  bad 
jfist  to  it  was  printed  at  Paris  by  Adrian  Le  Roy,  and  Robeirt 
BoUard,  with  a  privilege,  1565.  It  was  reprinted  in  Hot- 
iand,  in  1^7,  for  the  use  of  the  protestants.  His  works 
jwre  beooine  so  scarce,  that  bis  name  and  reputation  ai^ 
preserved  by  protestant  historians,  more  in  pity  of  his  mis* 
fortunes,  than  by  any  knowledge  of  tlieir  excellence.  The 
emrliest  mention  of  Goudimd,  as  a  composer,  is  in  a  woiik 
/entttlfid  ^^  liber  quartus  Eeclesiasticarum  Cantionum  4}ua* 
tuor  TOCittD  vulgo  Motets  vocant,*'  printed  at  Antwerp,  by 
£usato,  1554,  eighteen  years  before  his  death.  These 
motets  resemble  in  gravity  of  style,  simplicity  in  ike  sub- 
jects of  fugue,  and  purity  of  harmony,  the  ecclesiastical 
compositions  of  our  venerable  countryman  Bird*  Some  of 
bis  letters  are  .printed  anKMig  the  poems  of  bis  intimate 
frioid  Melissus,  published  under  die  title  of  ^'Melisai 
Scbediasmatum  Reliquise/'  1575,  8vo.' 

GOUGE  (William),  a  very  celebrated  puritan  divine, 
was  born  at  Bow  near  Stratford^  Middlesex^  Nov.  1^  .1575^ 

'1  Mpreri.— Diet  Hist. 

<  Gen.  Diet.— Dr.  Barney,  m  Refit's  Cjrdsp«di«,— Hawkins'*  Hist,  of  Music* 


G  a  U  G  R  lit 

aod  edHfiQtoii  at  Eton  iehotA,  ^b^nce  he  nieat  in  1595  to 
King's  coUeg(e>  Gambridgie.  He  vifat  endowed  wtA  con^ 
sideivdble  powers  of  mkid,  and  by  close  appiioation  to  sNidy, 
acGumnlated  a  great  fund  of  learning.  Sucb  was  bis  ar^ 
doar  and  regularity  in  his  ikerary  pursuits,  that  during^  his 
first  thrae  yearS)  he  dept  only  one  dight  out  of  eollege^ 
and  for  nine  years*  never  missed  college  prayers  at  half- 
pB9t  frve  in  the  morningt  ufitess  when  froiti  home*  it  wm 
hia  invairiabie  rule  to  read  fifte^  chapters  io  die  Bible 
eFery  day,  at  three  times.  When  bhosen  reader  of  logio 
and  philoiopby  in  the  college,  he  was  equally  precise<  id' 
regiUttffi^  of  duty  and  attendanoe.  Hamsg  tsri^en  bie  de« 
greesy  aad  beenadoutied  into  orderS)  he  was  iu  1606  pi^* 
ferred  po*  the  rectory  of  St.  AnneV  ^cfcfriars^  London^ 
where  he^  became  extremely  popular ;  and*  ha?ioge  insti* 
tuted  a  leetimneon  Wednesday  morakigS|» it vra$ fi^iiented* 
by  ntany  persona  of  die  first  itmk  Having,  howie»ver,  imw 
bibed  jHMiieof  the  pjrejudififta  whidi  wereahen  so  coMmm^ 
agaiimt  the.  church  of  Englatod^-  he  was  oceaiibwUr  cii^U** 
sated,  and  at  ^nH  time  threattened  witba  prosecudon  m* 
the  StaiMshamfaer  for  having  beeone^  a*  meanber  ctf  li  soeietj^ 
for  the  piHchase  of  imjMtopriatioiis ;  but'  this'did  not^takd^ 
effidct^  aiididie  subiequeat  disturbancea  i<dieTed,hifiS  (\rom^ 
any  £iiitbei*  molestation.  In  164S>  he  was  nooiioaited  one- 
fit  fht  asiembly  of  divines,  and  took  an  active  piArtin>  die^ 
various  pnooeedinge  instituted  by  the  then  poling  powon^* 
for  the  cefonnatioa  of  the  church*  But  «i^eti  in  1^46,  be 
sav  the:  fevgcfas  to  whidi  their  reformations 'tevid^d^  be 
united  with  a  large  body  of  Im  bretbrisn  in  dedaring  against 
patting  the  hing  to  d^th.  For  forty^five  yeairsj  stsy^ 
Gyas^r, .  he  wan*  the  laborious,  the  exemplary,  attd^:  ih^^ 
nracb  leifedi  mtndster  of  St  Anne*s  Blacbfriaie,)^  wtbere^Me^ 
ever  tboc^tor  spoke-  ill  of  him,  but  sueh  as  wei^inoliiDeid'' 
to  thMi  or  speak  ill  of  religion  itself.  He  died  9ee^  P2f 
l$6&*  He  appears,  indeed^  to  have  had  the' suf&ages^  of 
ali  his^  contemporaries,  and  is  boeottrtAvly  men^tkined'  by 
many  foreign  divines*^  He  was  at  one  time  08ewd  tbe 
prarofitship  of  King^s^ college^  but' declined  it;  Ma  uauii^ 
saying  was^  that  it  waa  bis  highest  ambitkm  ^  4ol  go  firofii' 
Biaokfefars*  .to  beaitiea%**  Be  published  several  pious  tmet^ 
and  aomie  serHipns^  which  buhop  WiUdns  elas^ofr.ani4^iijgf 
the  most  excellent  of  his  time ;  but  his  principal  work 
was  <^  A  Commentary  on  th^  Epistle  to  tjie  Hebrews^'* 


1655,  fol.     He  had  also  a  share  in  the  commentairy  on  the 
Bible,  usually  called  ^'The  Assembly's  Annotations.*'  ^ 

GOUGE  (Thomas),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  bom  at 
Bow,  Sept.  19,  1605^  and  was  educated  at  Eton  school, 
whence  he  was  chosen  to  King's  college,  Cambridge,  in 
1626.  Here,  after  taking  his  degrees,  he  was  chosen  fel- 
low of  his  college,  and  afterwards  presented  with  a 'living 
at  Colsden  near  Croydon,  in  Surrey,  where  he  continued 
about  three  years.  In  1638,  he  was  removed  to  the  living 
of  St.  Sepulchre's,  London^  and  the  year  after  married  one 
of  the  daughters  of  sir  Robert  Darcy.  During  a  period  of 
twenty-four  years  he  diischarged  the  duties  of  his  profession 
"  with  the  most  exemplary  zeal.  Besides  preaching  twice 
every  Sunday,  and  often  on  we^k-days,  he  visited  his  flock, 
catechised  their  children,  inquired  into  «nd  relieved  the 
wants  of  the  poor,  and  devised  plans  for  their  employment. 
Such  of  the  poor  as  were  able  to  work,  he  employed  in 
spinning  flax  and  hemp,  whi^h  he  bought  for  the  puipose, 
and  paying  them  for  dieir  work,  got  it  worked  into  cloth, 
which  he  sold,  as  well  as  he  could,  chiefly  among  bis 
friends,  bearing  himself  whatever  loss  was  sustained.  By> 
this  wise  and  humane  scheme  he  diverted. many  from 
^^gs\^gf  cmd  demonstrated  to  them,  that  by  industry  they 
might  soon  become  independent  of  charity ;  and  he  thus 
is  said  to  have  given  the  hint  which  produced  the  humane 
and  benevolent  institutions  of  Mr.  Firmin,  which  have 
been  referred  to  in  the  memoir  of  that  excellent  citizen. 
When  the  act  of  uniformity  took  place,  he  quitted-  his 
living  of  St.  Sepulchre's,  being  dissatisfied  respecting  the 
terms  of  conformity ;  but  after  this  he  forbore  preaching, 
saying  there  was  no  need  of  him  in  London,  where  there 
were  so  many  worthy  ministers,  and  that  be  thought  he 
Blight  do  as  much  or  more  good  another  way,  which  could 
give  no  offence.  Accordingly  his  time  was  now  zealously 
devoted  to  acts  of  beneficence  and  charity.  He  employed 
his  own  fortune,  which  was  considerable,  in  relieving  the 
wants  of  his  poorer  brethren,  who,  on  account  of  their 
noncoafoirmity,  were  deprived  of  their  means  ef  subsist- 
ence ;  and  be  was  a  successful  applicant  to  the  rich,  from 
whom  he  received  large  sums,  which  were  applied  to  that 
humane  purpose.    In  1671,  he  set  about  a  plan  for  intro^ 

I  CUurke'i  Li?e8  at  the  eii4  of  |iis  Hartyrokfyi^-Foneral  Senoon  by  Jcnkyiu 
4to*«^Wood'i  Fasti*  vol.  I. 

GOUGE.  119 

4atifig  knbwledge  and  religion  into  the  different  parts  of 
Wales»  which  at  that  period  were  in  the  most  deplorable 
d^kness.  He  established  schools  in  different  towns  where 
the  poor  were  willing  that  their  children  should  be  taught 
the  elei^ents  of  learaingi  and  he  undertook  to  pay  all  the 
expences  which  were  incurred  in  the  outset  of  the  business. 
By  degrees  these  schools  amounted,  to  between  three  and 
four  hundred,  and  they  were  all  annually  visited  by  Mrr 
Gouge,  when  he  carefully  inquired  into  the  progress  made 
by  the  young  people,  before  whom  he  occasionally 
preached  in  a  style  adapted  to  their  age  and  circumstances 
in  life,  for,  being  in  his  latter  days  better  satisfied  with  the 
terms  of  conformity^  he  had  a  licence  from  some  of  the 
bishops  ta  preach  in  Wales.  With  the  assistance  of  his 
friends,  whose  purses  were  ever  open  at  his  command,  he 
printed  eight  thousand  copies  of  the  Bible  in  the  Welsh 
language ;  a  thousand  of  these  were  distributed  freely 
among  those  who  could  not  afford  to  purchase  them,  and 
the  rest,  were  s^nt  to  the  cities  and  chief  towns  in  the  prin« 
<upality,  to  be  sold  at  reasonable  rates.  He  procured  like- 
wise the  English  liturgy,  the  '^  Practice  of  Piety,"  the 
^'  Whole  Duty  gf  Man,''  the  Church  Catechism,  and  other 
practical  pieces,  to  be  printed  in  the  Welsh  language,  and 
distributed  among  the  poor.  During  the  exercise  of  this 
benevolent  disposition,  he  meddled  nothing  with  the  con- 
troversies of  the  times,  and  partook  in  no  shape  of  the  ran- 
cour of  many  of  his  ejected  brethren  against  the  church  of 
England,  with  which  he  maintained  communion  to  the  last, 
and,  as  he  told  archbishop  Tillotson,  ^^  thought  -himself 
obliged  in  conscience  so  to  do.*'  He  was  accustomed  to 
say  with  pleasure,  *^  that  he  had  two  livings  which  he  would 
not  exchange  for  two  of  the  greatest  in  England."  These ' 
were  Wales,  where  he  travelled  every  year  to  diffuse  the 
principles  of  knowledge,  piety,  and  charity :  and  Christ's 
Hospital,  where  he  catechised  and  instructed  the  children 
iu  the  fundamental  principles  of  religion.  He  died  sud- 
denly Oct,  29,  1G81,  in  the  seventy-seventh  year  of  his 
age.  His  death  was  regarded  as  a  public  loss.  A  funeral 
sermon  was  preached  on  the  occasion  by  Dr.  Tillotson, 
afterwards  archbishop  of  Canterbury ;  who,  at  the  conolu- 
sipa  of  an  animated  eulogium  on  his  piety  and  virtue,  ob- 
serves, tj^at  ^Vall  things  considered,  there  have  not,  since 
the  primitive  times  of  Christianity,  been  many  among  the 
sons  of  men,  to  Whom  that  glorious  character  of  the  Son  of 

IQCk  G  O  U  G  K. 

God  might  be  better  applied^  that  "  he  went  about  ji0ing 
good.*'  And  Mr.  Ba:!(teF,  ia  his  Narrative  of  his  dwn  LiU 
and  Times,  says  of  Mr.  Gouge,  ^'  I  never  heard  vaxy  one 
person,  of  whatever  rank,,  sort,,  or  sect  soever,  sp^ 
word  to  his  dishonour,  or  ^ame  any  fault  that  they  elnu^gedf 
on  his  life  or  doctrine ;  no,  not  the  prelatists  theoMelvesy 
aave  only  that  he  oonfprmed  nofe  to  their  impositions;  atid- 
that  he  did  so  much  good  with  so  much  industry.*'  Tbi» 
^ninent  divine  published  a  fqw  practicid  pieces,  of  twbicb 
the  following  may  be  mentioned^ :  ^f  The  Prinoipli^s  06  Re- 
ligion expluned;"  ^^  A  Word  to  Sinners;'*  '^  Cbristiaa» 
Sinections  to  walk  with  God ;"  ^}  The  surest  and  safest 
Way  of  Thriving^  viz.  by  Charity  to  the  Poor;'?  «The 
Young  Man's  Guide  through  the  Wildernessofthib  World*'* 
Tbe^e  were  collected  in  an  8vo- volume  ia>  1706,  and^  pnb- 
lisbed  at  London,  with  a  fine  portrait,  by  Van  dOP  GiK^ht^ 
and  archbishop  Tillotson's  Enneral  SermoR  and  Life  of  hint- 

.  GOUGH  (RicHARD)t  the  Camden  of>  the  eighteenth 
century^  and  one  of  the  most  illustrious-  antiquaries  Eng- 
l^yod  has  produced,  was  the  only  son'Of  Hanry  Gough)  esq^ 
of  Perry-hall.  This  gentleman,  for  whom  his  ^on^Mrpre- 
served  a  reverential  aflbction,  was  born  Apsil  2,  16S1,  and. 
in  bis.  eleventh  year,  went  with  his.  node  sir  Riehar<l 
Gough,  to  China,  where  he  kept  hir  aceounts^  In  1707, 
ha  commanded  the  ship  StreaJt^am,  of  which  his  younger 
brother  Richard  was  purser  in  1709.  He  cominued  to 
command  this  ship  till  1715,  when  be  retired-  with^  a  de- 
cent competency,  and  was  elected  a  director  of  the  £«st 
India  company  about  1731.  In  this  situation,  his  know- 
ledge of  the  company's  afiairs,  the  result  of  hjs  many 
voyages  in  their  service,  and  bis  zeal  for  their  interests, 
joined  to  habitual  activity  and  integrity,  gave  him  great 
vi^eight.  He  became  also  a  reprefsentative  in  parliament  in 
1734,  for  the  borough  of  Bramber,  for  which  he  sat  until. 
hi$  death.  His  political  career  was  marked  by  independence 
of  spirit  Although  attached  to,  and  in  the  confidence  of, 
sir  Robert  Walpole,  he  refused  several  offices  from  that 
n^inister,  and  yet  supported  him  to  the  last  He  died  in 
17i51,  and  was  bpried  in  the  rector'9  vault  in  St.- Andrew's 
church,  Holborn.  in  1717,  he  purchased  of  the  lady  of 
sir  Richard  Shelley,  one  moiety  of  the  Middlemore  estafe 

1  Life  by  TiUoUoo.  abi  S9pnk<-»Calsaij«— Clarke's  lirsB  of  Ssiidiy  QwMit 
PersoDBi  1783|  folio. 

G  O  U  G  IL 


ip. 'Wajwtiiikrilim  (die  other  moifety  of  wWch  he  before 
pQ8Mfi«ed%  wbioh  afterwards  descended  to  hie  soe  wA  bete 
Biic^d,  tiQfgetber  mtb«  the  property  at  Enfield^  whiAfa*  he 
purehe^di  in  1723»  In  1719  he  married  Elisabeth^ 
4iit4gbt)er of  A^Kgan  Hyindei.  esq»  of  London^  aneoiineQt^ 

By  tbi»le4y»  who  died  May  27,  1774,  be  had  an  onlsr* 
soe^  the  sufaijeet  of  this  article,  who  was  born  Oct.dl,  1735, 
ip  ^  large  bouse  in  Wiacbester-street^.  on  the  sitae  of  the 
monasteiy.of  the  Austin-  friars^     He  receiFed  the  fihit  nt*^ 
diments  of  £.a{dn  and  Greek  under  the  tuition  of  one  Bac« 
oewitz,  a  Courlander ;  and  afterwards,  on  his  deadly  vraa* 
eommitted  to  the  care  of  the  rev.  Roger  Pickerings  a<  «Bs^ 
senting  minister,  a  man  unfortunate  in  life,  but  au  acooiii«> 
phshed  scholar,  who  died  in  1755*;   f^hen  Mr.  Gough 
finuihed  hia  Greek  studies  under  Mu  Samuel  Dyer^  the 
frieud  of  Dr.  Johnson  ^)d  of  the  oontemporairy  liteiMbL 
Under  these  ins4arM9tpni>    Mr.  Goug^  baa  eot  left  qsi  tm 
question  his  pr^oiency,  nor  that  early  ambition  to  know 
and  to  ceoHmunieaie,  which  forms  tbeiostructireeditGdr  and; 
autbor^     At  the  very  early  age  of  eleven  he  commenced  « 
task  whtcbi  wioiild  have,  reflected  credit  on  any  perbd  eif 
li£s^  i^nri  he  completed  it  with  a  perseveranoe  of,  which, 
there  ia.pjmoihably  no  other  instance  ia  our  literary  anoalii« 
Thie  «a»  *^  The  Hisliory  of  tl|e  Bible,  translated'  from  tbe^ 
French^''  (of  49  Aaisterdam  edition,  of  1700}  ^*  by.  B..O. 
junior/*   printed   atv  London  in   1747.      Of  this  curiotts 
voiumc^  consiatiog  of  160  sbeetsvio  folio^    his  mother, 
delighted,  at  such  a  display  of  liuidable  applicatioo^  bore 
the  enpew^e  of  printing  twenty  •five  copiee,  aa  presenta. 
to  ai  few  friends;    and  when  completed  at  the  presa^. 
it  wM.m^rliedy  by  way  of  colophon,  ^^  Done  at  tiaelve  yeava. 
and.  Sk  half  old^*'  after  which,  i»  the  copy  now  before  us,, 
follow^  >^  A  short  Chronology  of  the  HoJy  Scripture,**  m- 

*  ''From  this  iqpst  aecomplishedf 

ai  w 

ell  as  learned  man,"   tsays  Mr. 

*'  IliNiffl^lkyluwfpiedge  myaelf  to  bare 
derived  i^eat  advantage ;  and  had  be 
been  left  to  indulge  the  liberality  of 
hie .  tfempei^  uacontroaled  by  femate 
and  mateinal  partiality  ar^  peeulia* 
rity,  I  might  have  been  forwarded  in 
that  styl*  of 'lite  to  which  it  was  bis 
ambition  to  train  me,  and  to  which  I 
•ver  after  wanted  both  the  spar  and 

the  guide."  This  may  probably  al- 
lude to  some  early  view  Mr.  Gough 
entertained  of  risiofg  inpvMiciffe;  and' 
he  .afterwards  gives  iiints , of.  bttna  lo«a 
restrained  and  contronled  in  the  pjor? 
suits  to  which  he  subsequently  was  led 
by  .inelination,  and  wfcicb  beOMn«  ba« 
bitual.  In  another  place  he  safs# 
*'  The  year  1T74,  by  the  death  of  mjr 
mother^  made  mfi  eanpletelj  mnter 
of  myself.*' 

12?  G  O  U  G  H. 

three  sheets.  The  style  is  throughout  juvenile  and  simple ; 
and  such  were  even  at  this  early  age  our  author's  notions 
of  literary  honour,  that  be  would  receive  no  aid  without 
acknowledgment,  and  therefore  p^ge  24,  which  contains 
mn  account  of  the  furniture  and  inhabitants  of  Noah's  ark, 
is  introduced  with  these  words  i  ^^  The  printer  gives  you 
this  explanation."  It  is  impossible  not  to  contemplate  this 
volume  with  a  strong  impression  of  the  excellent  and 
amiable  disposition  which  conducted  a  mere  boy,  unwearied 
and  pleased,  through  so  laborious  a  task.  Mr.  Gough 
himself,  in  his  mature  years,  appears  to  have  looked  at  it 
with  complacency ;  and  the  copy  in  Mr.  Nichols's  pos^ 
session  is  filled  with  corrections  and  improvements  of  the 

'  It  is  not  difficult  to  conceive  that  his  parents  and  friends 
would  be  desirous  to  encourage  a  turn  of  mind  which  indi-> 
cated  80  powerful  a  sense  of  the  value  of  time  and  instruc- 
tion ;  and  accordingly  we  find  him  in  about  three  years 
completing  a  translation  of  ^^  The  Customs  of  the  Israelites^ 
translated  from  the  Frenchrof  the  abbot  Fleury,  by  R.  G.^' 
1760,  8vo.    This  was  also  printed  for  distribution  among^ 
friends.     He  had  about  this  time  fully  prepared  for  the 
press,  even  to  the  title-page  and  preface,  a  work  of  great 
labour  and  research,  under  the  title  of  ^  Atlas  Renovatus, 
or  Geography  Modernized  ;  being  a  particular  deseriptioa 
of  the  world  as  far  as  known  to  the  ancients,  and  the  pre« 
sent  names  of  such  places  as  now  subsist ;  containing  alt ' 
the  cities,  towns,  villages,  castles,  &c.  mentioned  in  an-* ' 
ctent  authors,  with  all  the  remarkable  occurrences  that 
happened  at  l^e  several  places ;  the  birth-places  of  famous 
men,  the  memorable  sieges  and  battles,  &c.  the  bounds, 
soil,  air,  manners,  government,  religion  of  each  country. 
The  whole  being  the  most  complete  system  ever  composed  be* 
/ore.  .  To  which  is  annexed  a  list  of  the  Roman  ways,  and 
a  copious  index  to  facilitate  the  whole.     Drawn  upon  the 
plans  of  Hornius's  and  Cellarius's  maps."     This  is  a  folio 
volume,  dated  1751,  fairly  written,  and  now  preserved  in 
Mr.  Nichols's  library,  as  a  memorial  of  his  consummate 
industry.     Such  a  compilation,  indeed,  at  the  age  of  six* 
teen,  is  probably  without  a  parallel ;  for  much  of  the  de- 
sign,  arrangement,    &c.  is  perfectly  original,    and  sycli 
intenseness  of^pplication  could  not  have  been  recommended 
by  any  master. 

G  O  U  G  H.  1M: 

After  the  death  of  his  father  (July  1%  1751)  Mr.  Goilgb 
was  admitted,  in  July  1752,  feUoiv*coininouer  of  Bene't<^ 
college,  Cjunbridge.    The  college  tutor  at  this  time  was 
Dr.  Joba  Barnardiston,  afterwards  master;  but  Mr,  GougVs 
private  tutor  was  the  rev.  John  Cott,  fellow  of  the  college,' 
and  afterwards  rector  of  Braxted,  in  Essex,  ^^  to  whom,*' 
says  Mr.  Gough,  **  I  regularly  repeated  my  lesson,  with-, 
out  a  grain  of  instruction  on  his  part.'*     To  the  university 
Itfr.  Gough  brougbt  a  considerable  fund  of  classical  litera** 
ture,  and  having  already  imbibed  a  curiosity  after  matters 
of  antiquity,  found  his  enthusiasm  heightened  by  a  con* 
nexion  with  a  college  eminent  for  producing  a  succession 
of  British  antiquaries ;  and  it  is  certain  that  he  here  laid 
the  plan  of  his  ^^  British  Topography  */'     He  applied,  in 
the  mean  time,   to  academical  studies,    with  an  ardour 
which  even  at  this  age  was  become  habitual,  and  the  knom^ 
ledge  he  acquired  in  philosophy  and  the  sciences  was  often 
displayed  in  his  future  labours  ;  some  of  which  prove  that 
he  had  paid  no.little  attention  to  subjects  of  theology  atid 
sacred, cnticitm  ;  and  indeed  it  was  inferred  by  the  friends 
w1h»Idb0W  his  acquisitions  most  intimately,  that  he  might 
have  passed  into  any  of  the  Learned  profes«ons  by  a  very 
easy  taransition.     Before  he  left  the  university  he  had  pre- 
pared  for-lhe  press,  although  they  all  remain  still  in  MS. 
the  following  works  :  I.  ^  Notes  on  Memnon,  annexed'to 
the  .abb6  Gedoyn's  French  translation.*'     2.  <^Astro-my- 
tkologf^.otf  a  short  account  of  the  Constellations,  with  the 
names  of  the  principal  stars  in  each,  and  their  connexion 
with  mythelogy."     3.  <^  The  History  of  Bythynia,  trans- 
lated from  the  French  of  the  abb6  Sevin."     4.  <^  Memoirs 
of  celebrated  Professors  of  the  belles  lettres  in  the  aca« 
demy  of  inscriptions,  &c.  at  PaHs,  translated  and  abridged 
from  the.Elogia,  &e."     5.  <*  Reflections  on  the  Egyptian 
Government;  and  also  on  the  Jewish,  Persian,  Cretan, 
Carthaginian,   Spartan,   Athenian,   and  Roman  Govern- 
xnents."     6.  *^  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and  Character  of  Mith- 
ridates,  king  of  Pontus,  extracted  from  various  and  ge- 
mine  authors."  All  these,  with  many  voluminous  common- 
place bookS}  were  executed  before  our  author  had  reached 


*  «  While  at  college  I  had  begun  son's  «  English  Topographer,'*  till  f 

to  make  additions  to  the  list  of  writers  fancied  I  might  commence  topographer 

OB  the  Topography  of  'Great  Britain  myself.     E  formed  a  quarto  volume/* 

and    Ireland,    prefixed  to   Gibson's  &c.    Fragment  of  his  Memoirs,  writ- 

(amden,    I  inserted  these  in  Rawlin*  ten  by  himself. 



his  lnirenty-fii>st  y^ar.  Of  amusement's  he  imiftt  cff  coiuAse 
hare.beeii'  spano^,  and  this  incessant  pursuit.  o£  kaow^ 
ledge^  while  it  acciimiilat:ed  a-  large  fund-  for  tbe  use  of 
fatiire  labouris^  preserved  him  frdm  those  associaftitiiis 
are  so  dai>g«rous^ta  morals^  and  enabled  Um:  to  .pa»  »longr 
life  not  oiAy  untainted  with  vice,  but  unifeanly  guided  by 
»*sen«e  of  piety. 

Amidst  all  his  academicallabcrnvS)  hpwerer^^his  peeidi&r 
attachment  was  to?  thiat  pursuit  onii4iioli  his  fame*i«  foanded, 
the  stably  of  the  history  and  antiqpiitjr  of  his  native  country,' 
which,  he  always  acknowledged,  was<  fosteved  mtlfin  liie< 
wails  of  a  colI^;e  that  had  trained  arcfabtsiiDp  Parker^  the^ 
g^eat  reviver  of  trhe*  study  of  anttqui^*.     In?  July  1TS6, 
he  finally  left  CamtSridge  wttbouttsJdng  a  degiteey  and  en-, 
tered  ont  an;  excursion  to  Peterborough,  Groifiland,   and 
(Stannfoord*     Int  bis.  history  of  Groyland,    pnhtisdied^  ^^owg- 
after,  he  infoi«is>iis  that  his  cai«er  of  antiquanxii  pwrsake 
began  there,  and  at  that  time.      Similar  encurssona  he 
afterwards  made ;  regularly  thmogli  tiie  different  parts^  ofi 
Eag^nd,.  Walies^ .  a»d  Scotland,  flrom  17*59  t(»  17QPI,  oq1<*- 
leeting  materials,,  noting  observations,  and'  examiniog  wttb^ 
historical  and:  critical  precision  all  the  remarkable' sites*  of^ 
national  antiqnities ;   and  until  within  tlvo  yseaiw  06  Ui' 
death,  he  repeated  his  visits  to  spots  of  particulatr  krtitweet 
and  curiosity..    Buring  this  penod  he  fi>rmed  anteictensife 
acquaintance  with  the  antiquaries  of  hts-  time,  i^htohpro«« 
dttced  an  equally  extensive  eorrespondeace^    la  some  otf - 
these  tours'be  made  several  drawings,  whtchi,  although  he 
was  not  a.  professed  draftnnan,  were  not  diseredilaUe  ^t<r 
has  >  taste  and  accuracy,  and  he  alao  •  amused  himself  ooca^ 
sionally.  wi^  etefaing,  which  be  did  in^a'^sefy-iieflit  ma»ner4  • 
A  volume  of  these  etchings^  now  in  our  .possessienj  by/the 
kindness  of  his  biographer,,  we'treasure  ak  a  most  pleasing 
and  curious  memorial*     The  result  oflalLhis  twenty*  yeani - 
e»:ursions  affpeaced  afterwanis  in  hi$t  new  edition  of  Cami- ' 
den's  ^<  Britannia.''  .  1       . 

•  <<  W9»  it  to  be  wondered  at  that 
(the  pursuit  of  our  uatioual  antiquities) 
shbuld  be  foi^tere^  within  these  venerable 
watls,  which  owed  their  support  and 
ipjeiidoar  toti^rehhtfbep  I^tfeer,  and  had 
naned  a  9M8ee»uo»  of  British  Anti« 
qaaries  tQ<  tii|>piicaent  tkBe  i  or  that> 
withwt  aay  tmv  to  a  degirea  ar  a  pro- 
fessiooi   I   should  exceed  the 

uHiaUfT  sp^t  io'a  oolleyel  or  thstiiM) 
I  was  to  return  home  again  tor  books 
and  study,  without  any  prospect  sT 
•being  able  to  gratify  my  wish  of  ▼!• 
sitiag  iMeigii' owKilnesi  that  desiite 
shouMU  by  reooiU  inf  ^iBie  poverfoHjr 
to  raoiMe-  orer  my  ^wn  V*  Frtigabnt 
QiMmaoin,  as  abare* 

!&  D  U  G  X.  US 

fiKs  fifst  n^gokr  publicatioii  was  oaonymoiM,  <^  The 
Hisfeiinjr  df  Oarafiaimi ;  oar  an  examination  of  what  has  been 
.BfbafNeedieD  thai;  subject  by  Geaelmer  And  Dr.  Stubeleyv^' 
JM^  «4Mi  a  very  ebiborate  and  <crittcal  disquwiden.  In 
Fehnaary  1767  be  was  elected  a  £&Uowof  the  society  ^fae- 
Aiqeasies  of  LoitdQ%  and  in  177 1^  on  the  'death  of  Dri  Gns- 
fg9tty  SbarfMs,  maaler  cf  the  temple,  he  was  noaaiiiated 
4irecalar  ef  the  society^  which  office  he  held  till  I>ec.  If, 
ll^^y  when  he  quitted  the  soeiety  altogether.  Two  years 
he£M^  he  >qnilted  cthe  royal  society,  of  which  he  had  .'been 
ehoaeo  fellow  ip  MarcAi  ft77S*  lo  1767  Jne  commenced  his 
^MunsrsfMUidieEiee  with  the  iGentleiiian's  Magaaine^  by -an  ac* 
eouot-of  the  Tillage  of  Aldfriston,  under  the  signatcue  of 
D.  H.  Ae  final  letters  of  his  name,  which  signatune  he  Pe« 
tainad  tft  the  ilaat,  bait  not  altogether  uvifornly,  nor  is 
anotber  aigsature  in  some  later  Tolames,  with  the  same 
ktters^  to  be  mistaken  for  his.  On  the  <leath  of  his  fel* 
lew-e«l)e^taB,  Mr.  Duncombe,  in  i7S€,  l^be  d^fiartmeat 
citlm  xemew  m  that  miscellaoy  was  for  the  oMMt  part  oooi- 
mitted  to  hint.  ^^  If,"  as  he  says  hiaciselfy  *'  he  criticised 
miA  warmth  and  severity  certain  innovations  atfeemp^d  in 
€ikva:cik  and  state,  he  wr<Me  his  sentuneBts  with  siocerity 
aaid  impadrtiality-^in  the  fnlloess  of  a  beast  deeply  im- 
pressed with  a  sense  of  the  excellence  «nd  happiness  ef 
the  Enghsb  constitution  both  in  church  and  state."  Such 
indeed  were  Mr«  Gough's  steady  principles  during  that 
period  of  itttelleot«al  delusion  which  followed  the  French 
sefoletion;  and'^hegave  his  aid  with  no  mean  effect,  to 
.a  saeiecotts  body  of  writers  and  thinkers^  many  of  whom 
(and  ^e  wish  his  name  <ould  hare  been  added  to  the 
number)  have  lived  to  enjoy  the  full  gratification  of  their 
hcqses^.  We  cannot,  howevac*,  quit,  ^is  subject  without 
noticiiig  that  extensive  knowledge  which  Mr,  Gough  dis- 
played ifi  his  critical  labours  in  the  Magazine ;  he  seems 
never  to  have  undertaken  any  thing  of  the  kind  without 
such  an  acquaintance  with  the  subject  as  siiowed  that  his 
studies  had  been  almost  universal,  a^nd  even  occasionally 
directed  to  those  points  of  literature  which  could  be  least 
expected  to  demand  his  attention ;  we  allude  to  the  sub- 
jects of  theology  and  criticism,  both  sacred  and  classical. 
The  perusal  of  the  classics  in  particular  appears  frequently 
to  hav«  relieved  his  more  regular  labours. 

126  G  O  U  G  H. 

la  1768  be  published  in  1  vol.  4to,  his  '^Anecdotes  of 
British  Topography^,"  which  was  reprinted  and  enlarged 
in  2  vols.  1780.     To  have  published  a  third  edition.  With 

'  the  improvements  of  twenty-six  years,  would  have  afforded 

..him  a  high  gratification;  and  in  fact  a  third  edition  was 
put  to  press  in  1806,  and  was  rapidly  advancing,  when  the 
destructive  fire  (of  Feb.  8,  1808,)  in  Mr.  Nicholses  print- 
ing-office, and  the  then  declining  state  of  theauthor^s 
health,  interrupted  the  undertaking.  The  corrected  copy^ 
with  the  plates,  was  given  by  him  to  Mr.  Nichols,  who  has 
since  relinquished  his  right ;  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  de- 
legates of  the  Oxford  press  will  speedily  undertake  a  new 
edition.  On  the  utility  of  this  work  to  British  antiquaries 
it  would  be  unnecessary  to  make  any  remark.  It  points 
the  way  to  every  future  effort  to  illustrate  local  history. 

In  1773  he  first  formed  the  design  of  a  new  edition  of 
Camden's  Britannia,  which  he  had  partly  begun  to  trans-* 

-  late  before,  and  accomplished  in  abotit  seven  years,  and 
wlfich  was  at  length  published  in  three  large  folio  volmAes, 
in  1789.  Whatever  incorrectness  may  appear  in  this  la- 
boriotis  and  extensive  undertaking,  no  trouble  or  expence 
was  spared  by  the  liberal  editor  in  obtaining  information. 
Added  to  his  own  personal  inspection  of  every  county, 
proof  sheets  of  each  were  forwarded  to  those  gentlemen 
who  were  likely  to  be  most  actively  useful.  Nor  could 
any  man  be  more  fastidious  than  Mr.  Gough  in  revising 
and  correcting  his  labours ;  and  whatever  discoveries  some 
critics  may  affect  to  have  made,  it  is  certain  that  he  always 
found  it  more  difficult  to  satisfy  himself  than  his  readers^ 
and  that  a  strict  scrutiny  by  any  person  qualified  for  the 
task  was  to  him  the  highest  obligation.  This  may  be  safely 
averred,  while  at  the  same  time  it  is  allowed  that  he  knew 
how  to  repel  petulant  remarks  with  a  proper  sense  of  whiat 
was  due  to  his  character,  the  extent  o'f  his  industry,  and 
the  munificence  of  his  expences.  Of  this  valuable  work 
it  may  not  be  superfluous  to  observe  that  Mr.  Gough  traris- 
lated  it  from  the  original,  and  supplied  his  additions  mth 

.so  little,  interruption  of  the  ordinary  intercourse  of  life^ 

*  «  It  was  printed  at  Mr,  Kichanl-  The  sale  was  rapid  beyond  -  expecto- 

son's  press — on  credit;  my  allowance  tioo;,and  I  was  on  the  balance  be- 

pot  permitting^  any  advance  of  money  tween  me   and   honest  Tom   Piayne» 

before  publication.    Mr.  Richardson*'  gainer  of  sef  en  pounds."     Ptacmeil 

(this  was  the  nephew  to  the  celebrated  of  Meiuoirs. 
writer}  '*  refused  interest  on  his  labour. 

G  O  U  G  H-  127 

that  none  of  his  family  were  aware  that  he  was  at  all  en- 
gaged in  so  laborious  an  undertaking.  The  copyright  be 
gaye  (without  any  other  consideration  than  a  few  copies 
for  presents)  to  his  old  and  worthy  friend  Mr.  Thomas 
Payne,  who  defrayed  the  expence  of  engraving  the  cop- 
per plates ;  and  afterwards  disposed  of  the  whole  of  his 
interest  in  the  work  to  Messieurs  Robinsons.  Mr.  Gough 
superintended  the /rx^  volume  of  a  new  edition  ;  but  in 
1806,  finding  that  the  copyright  had  devolved  from  Mes- 
sieurs Robinsons  to  another  person,  he  declined  proceed- 
ing any  farther  than  to  complex  the  first  volume,  which 
they  bad  begun  to  print.  Of  this  he  announced  his  deter- 
mination in  th§  newspapers,  that  no  improper  use  might 
be  made  of  his  name ;  and  added,  that  it  was  now  ^*  of  im- 
portance to  his  health  to  suspend  such  pursuits." 

Having  heard  of  the  difficulties  under  which  Mr.  Hutchins 
laboured  respecting  his  **  History  of  Dorsetshire,"   Mr. 
Gough  set  on  foot  a  subscription,  and  was  the  means  of 
advancing  a  very  valuable  county  history,  which  he  super- 
intended through  the  press.     It  was  published  in  1774, 
2  vols.  fol.     Twenty  years  after,  he  contributed  his  aissist- 
ance  to  a  second  edition,  three  volumes  of  which  have 
been'  published,  and  a  fourth  is  in  a  state  of  great  for- 
wardness, under  the  superintendance  of  Mr.  Nichols.     In 
1779  Mr.  Gough  was  the  improver  and  editor  of  Martinis 
<'  History  of  Thetford,''  1 7  80,  4to ;  published  a  new  edition 
of  Vertue^s  Medals,  Coins,  and  Great  Seals,  by  Simon  ;  and 
in  the  same  year  contributed  to  Mr.  Nichols's  ^'  Collection 
of  Royal  and  Noble  Wills.^'    The  .preface  and  glossary  are 
by  him.     In  1786  he  published  the  first  volume  of  the 
/'  Sepulchral  Monuments  of  Great  Britain,  applied  to  iU 
lustrate  the  history  of  Families,  Manners,  Habits,  and  Arts, 
at  the  different  periods  from  the  Norman  Conquest  to  the 
Seventeenth  Century.''     This  splendid  folio  volume,  which 
contains  the  first  four  centuries,  was  followed  in  1796  by 
a  second,  containing  the  fifteenth  century  ;  and,  in  1791^, 
by  an  introduction  to  it,  with  which  he  thought  proper  to 
conclude  bis  labours,  instead  of  continuing  them  to  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  as  originally  intended.     Of 
this  truly  magnificent  work  it  is  but  justice  to  say,  with  his 
biographer,  <'  that  it  would  alone  have  been  sufficient  to 
perpetuate  his  fame  and  the  credit  of  tl|p  arts  in  England, 
where  few  works  of  superior  splendour  have  appeared.^* 
The  independent  master  of  an  ample  fortune,  he  was  in 

US  G  O  U  G  H. 

nU  respects  {M^e-enunentljr  qualified  for  tfae  Idboavs  of  tin 
4U[itiq.u«ry,  which  rarely  ^meet  with  an  adequate  renfonerH* 
lioii.  Indeed  this  work  must  iiave  convinced  )ibe  ^R^Mid 
that  be  possessed  not  only  the  most  indefatigable  perse- 
■  Vterance^  but  an  ardour  which  no  expence  coiild  possibly 
deter.  One  great  object  of  Jiis  wishes  was  to  pitepanne 
^^  The  Sepuldbral  Monuments"  for  a  new  edition.  Wiwh 
ihis  constantly  in  v«iew,  he  spared  neither  troofale  oor  ex- 
pellee in  obtaining  an  aai|irie  store  of  new  and  accarate 
doamogs  by  tbe  (first  artists,  aH  wirioh,  with  the  nuoAerous 
Md  beautiful  plates  already  engraved;  fonm  pant  of  1ms  {lo- 
Ue  bequest  %o  tiie  .univetisity «of  Oxford.  Among  bis  kuiedt 
Mfttrate  pvcUieations  weve,  an  Aooewtit  of  the  beMitiftil 
Msaul 'preseated  to  Henty  VL  by  4;be  dwcbcus  of  Bedford^ 
purchased  at  die  dvcbess  of  Portland's  sale  by  Janes  G4- 
;  wa^ds^  esq.  in  whose  possession  it  remains ;  ^  Tbe  History 
«f  Plediy^  in  Essex/'  1 803,  4to ;  and  tbe  same  year,  and 
in  the  same  form,  tbe  '^  Plates  4>f  the  Coins  of  ike  Seleii- 
•  eidss."  A  few  c^faer  sepanU)e  publications^  previous- lo 
these,  will  be  noticed  at  the  end  of  this  article. 

Mrw'  Goiugh  drew  up,  at  tbe  united  reqi»est  of  tbe  pres4- 
ident  and  fiellows,  the  Histi»ry  of  the  Society  of  Antiqisaries 
4»f  Xoodon,  prefixed  to  tbe  first  volume  of  their  *^  Arebseo-* 
logia,"  in  1770,  and  to  the  eleven  succeeding  vcritunes  of 
that  irork,  as  well  ^s  to  the  ^  Vetustn  MooifNBienta,"  eon- 
tributed  a  great  many  curious  articles  *.  He  was  equally 
liberal  in  his  communications  to  Mr.  Nichols's  *^  Biblio* 
tbecft  Topograpbica,"  and  to  bis  ^  History  of  Leicester- 
shire." Mr.  Nichols  relates  with  just  feeling,  that  <<  for  a 
ioiig  series  of  years  he  had  experienced  in  Mr.  Gough  tbe 
kind,  disinterested  friend ;  the  prudent,  judicious  adviser, 
the  firm,  unshaken  patron.  To  bim  every  material  event . 
iu  liie  was  codfideotially  imparted.  In  those  that  were 
prosperous,  no  man  more  heartily  rejoiced  ;  in  such  as 
.viene  less  propitious,  no  man  more  sincerely  condoled^  or 

*  His  Papers  in  the  *'  Archsologia^'  On  an  antient  Mosaic  Pavement  at 

are,  On  the  Giants'  Grave  in  Penrith  Ely,  p.  121;    On  a  Roman  Horolo- 

Cliui«h.3|Gard,  to\.  If.  p.  ISS  ;  On  the  gium,  p.  172;  On  P^nts,  p.  163;  On 

Bese  Matrei^  vol.    III.   p.  105;    On  the   Analogy  between  certain .  Moiw-^ 

Four  Roman  Altars  found  in  Graham's  ments,  vol.    XI.  p.  33;  On  a  Greek 

Dyke,  p.  116;   On  the  Invention  ot  Inscription  in  London,  p.  48. 

Card-playing*  vol.  Vltf.  p.  152;  On  la  the  «*  Vetusta  MonumtUta/'  lie 

the  Parian  Chronicle,  vol.  IX.  p.  157;  wrote  the  Descriptions  of  vaUII.  Platea 

On  the  Stamps  of  the  antient  Oculists,  XXXVI.  XXXVll.  XXXIX.  XL.  XlA. 

p.  8S7;   On  aotieat  Mansioftwhouses  XLII.  XLIII.  XLV.    L.    LlU.   LlV. 

in  Northampton  and  Doreet  Shires^  LV.    Vol.    I|L   PSb|lM  I-*-V.  iKU^ 

tol.  X.  p.  7 i  On  Belalucader,  p,  1 1 3  j  XVII.  XXV. 

G  O  U  G  H.  123 

itobre  readily  endeavoured  td  alleviate.'^  The  deep  con<* 
cern  which  be  feH  at  the  dreadful  fire  that  destroyed  Mr. 
Nichols's  valuable  property  in  1806,  was  shewn  in  a  series 
of  the  kindest  consolatory  letters,  which  were  among  the 
last  be  ever  wrote.  In  one,  dated  September  of  that  year, 
he  requested  Mr.  Nichols  to  execute  a  confidential  com* 
mission,  '*  which,''  he  emphatically  adds,  *^may  be  the 
last  office  you  will  have  to  do  for  your  sincere  friend.'^ 
This  was  nearly  prophetic,  for  there  was  little  now  to  be 
done  that  could  contribute  to  his  comforts.  '^  The  bright 
gem  of  intellect,"  says  bis  affectionate  biographer, 
*^  though  frequently  clouded,  had  intervals  of  its  formei: 
splendour ;  and  the  frequent  emanations  of  benevolenee 
displayed  through  a  long  and  painful  illness,  whilst  they 
comforted  and  delighted  those  around  him,  added  poig« 
tiancy  to  the  regret  they  experienced  for  those  bitter  suf^ 
ferings  which  threatened  to  overwhelm  a  noble  mind  with 
total  imbecility ;  from  which,  however,  he  was  mercifoliy 
relieved,  without  any  apparent  struggle  at  the  last,  oa 
Feb.  20,  1809,  and  was  buried  on  the  28th,  in  the  church* 
yard  of  Wormley,  in  Herts,  in  a  vault  built  for  that  pur- 
pose, on  the  south  sideof  the  cbanceF,  not  far  from  the 
altar  which  for  several  years  he  had  devoutly  frequented.^* 
The  funeral,  although,  in  conformity  to  his  own  directions^ 
as  little  ceremonious  as  propriety  would  permit,  was  fol- 
lowed from  Enfield  to  Wormley  by  crowds  whose  lamenta* 
tions  and  regrets  were  unequivocally  shown.  The  poor 
and  the  af&icted  had  indeed  lost  in  Mr.  Gough  a  father, 
protector,  and  benefactor.  Enfield  and  its  neighbourhood 
must  loi^  cherish  a  lively  and  graiteful  remembrance  of  his 
benevolence,  which  was  at  once  extensive,  judicious,  and 
unostentatious.  It  was  in  him  a  principle  and  a  system  ; 
it  began  early,  and  continued  to  the  last ;  it  embraced  not 
only  the  present,  but  the  future,  and  he  had  provided  that 
bis  charity  should  continue  to  be  felt  long  after  the  heart 
that. dictated  it  had  ceased  to  beat.  His  faithful  domestics, 
when  unable  to  continue  their  services,  continued  to  re-* 
ceive  their  pay,  in  the  shape  of  annuities ;  and  as  he  pos** 
sessed  the  attribute  ascribed  to  '^  the  merciful  man,'*  the 
generous  steed,  exempt  by  age  from  labour,  and  the  cov« 
Jio  longer  useful  in  the  dairy,  were  permitted  to  close  theiff 
useful  lives  in  a  luxuriant  meadow  reserved  for  that  express 
purpose.  The  genuine  personal  character  of  Mr.  Gough 
eotttd  only  be  appreciated  by  those  who  witnessed  him  ia 
Vol.  XVI.  K 

130  O  O  U  G  H. 

bis  domestic  and  familiar  circle.  Tbougb  bigbly  and  de- 
servedly distinguisbed  as  a  scbolar,  tbe  pleasantry  and  the 
easy  condescension  of  bis  convivial  hours  still  more  en«* 
deared  him,  not  only  to  his  intimates,  but  even  to  those 
with  whom  the  forms  and  customs  of  tbe  world  rendered  it 
necessary  that  be  should  associate. 

In  1774^  soon  after  tbe  death  of  bis  mother,  an  event 
by  which  he  came  in  possession  of  an  excellent  family  re- 
sidence at  Enfield,  with  the  large  estate  bequeathed  to  him 
in  reversion  by  bis  father,  be  iadded  greatly  to  all  his  other 
comforts,  by  marrying  Anne,  fourth  daughter  of  Thomas 
Hall,  esq.  of  Goldings,  Herts ;  a  lady  of  distinguisbed 
merit,  who  after  a  long  and  affectionate  union,  has  to 
lament  tbe  loss  of  him  whose  object  through  life  was  to 
increase  her  happiness. 

It  is,  however,  as  the  learned  and  acute  antiquary  that 
he  will  be  banded  down  to  posterity ;  and  from  the  epitaph 
written  by  himself,  he  appears  desirous  to  rest  his  fame  on 
his  three  publications,  tbe  "  British  Topography,*'  the 
edition  of  "  Camden,"  and  tbe  "  Sepulchral  Monuments  ;*^ 
sufficient  indeed  to  place  him  in  the  very  first  rank  of  the 
antiquaries  of  tbe  eighteei^th  century.  But  while  he  gave 
a  preference  in  point  of  value,  labour,  and  utility  to  those 
works,  be  was  ia  no  respegt  ambitious  of  personal  honours. 
He  took  no  degree  at  Cambridge,  and  resisted  the  solici- 
tations of  many  members  of  the  university  of.  Oxford  to 
'receive  an  honorary  degree;  and  when  be  withdrew  from 
tbe  Royal  Society  and  that  of  the  Antiquaries,  from  causey 
on  which  we  shall  not  enter,  but  must  ever  regret,  be  no 
longer  appended  to  his  name  the  usual  initials  of  fellow- 
ship. In  politics,  he  was  a  firm  friend  to  tbe  house  of 
Brunswick,  and  a  stranger  to  the  mutability  of  his  con* 
temporaries.  *^  That  independence,"  he  informs  us  him- 
self, *^  which  he  gloried  in  possessing  as  his  inheritance, 
and  which  be  maintained  by  a  due  attention  to  his  income, 
discovered  itself  in  bis  opinions  and  bis  attachments.  A9 
he  could  not  hastily  form  connexions,  he  may  seem  to  have 
indulged  strong  aversions.  But  be  could  not  accommodate 
himself  to  modern  manners  or  opinions ;  and  he  bad  re- 
sources within  himself,  to  make  it  less  needful  to  seek 
them  from  without.  And  perhaps  the  greatest  inconve- 
nience arising  from  this  disposition  was  the  want  of  oppor- 
tunities! to  serve  his  friends.  But  he  saw  enough  of  tbe 
generi^I  temper  of  mankind,  to  convince  him  that  fayour^ 

G  O  U  G  H.  131 

should  not  be  too  often  asked :  and  that  as  to  be  too  much 
under  obligation  is  the  worst  of  bondage,  so  to  confer 
obligations  is  the  truest  liberty.''  Such  sentiments  and 
fiuch  conduct  do  no  discredit  to  men  like  Mr.  Gough.  His 
talents,  bis  rank  in  society,  and  bis  years,  gave  him  claims 
to  respect,  which  were,  what  he  thought  them,  undeniable  ; 
and  feven  where  he  shewed  any  symptoms  of  resentment, 
they  were  never  beyond  the  limits  which  his  superior  cha- 
racter and  long  services  amply  justified. 

His  library,  with  the  exception  of  his  legacy  to  the  Bod-^ 
leian,  was  sold,  agreeably  to  his  own  direction,  by  Messrs. 
Leigh  and  Sotheby,  in  twenty  days,  April  5 — 28,  1810, 
and  produced  3552/.  3^.  His  prints,  drawings,  coins,  nie<» 
dais,  &c.  were  sold  July  19,  1812,  and  the  two  following 
days,  and  produced  517/.  6s,  6d.  By  his  last  will,  he  be- 
queathed to  the  university  of  Oxford  all  his  printed  books 
and  manuscripts  on  Saxon  and  Northern  literature,  for  the  use 
of  the  Saxon  professor;  all  his  manuscripts,  printed  books, 
and  pamphlets,  prints,  and  drawings,  maps,  aud  copper- 
plates relating  to  British  topography,  (of  which,  in  1808, 
be  had  nearly  printed  a  complete  catalogue) ;  his  inter- 
leaved copies  of  the  **  British  Topography,'*  "  Camden^s 
Britannia,"  and  the  ^*  Sepulchral  Monuments  of  Great 
Britain,*'  with  all  the  drawings  relative  to  the  latter  work ; 
and  all  the  copper- plates  of  the  '^  Monuments"  and  the 
"Topography;"  with  fourteen  volumes  of  drawings  of 
sepulchral  and  other  monuments  in  France.  All  these  he 
wills  and  desires  may  "  be  placed  in  the  Bodleian  library, 
id  a  building  adjoining  to  the  picture  gallery,  known  by 
the  name  of  the  *^  Antiquaries  closet."  These  were  ac- 
cordingly deposited  in  the  closet,  and  a  catalogue  has  since 
been  printed  in  a  handsome  quarto,  under  the  care  of  the 
rev.  B.  Banidinel,  librarian  of  the  Bodleian.  A  more  va- 
luable or  extensive  treasure  of  British  topography  was 
never  collected  by  an  individual.  The  MSS.  are  very  nu- 
merous, and  many  of  the  most  valuable  printed  books  are 
illustrated  by  the  MS  notes  of  Mr.  Gough  and  other  emi- 
nent antiquaries.  The  remainder  of  his  will,  for  which  we 
refer  to  our  authority,  is  not  less  in  proof  of  his  liberality, 
affection,  and  steady  friendship.  Such  was  the  life  of  Mr. 
Gough,  of  which  he  says,  in  a  memoir  already  quoted, 
*^  If  I  have  rietieved  the  wants  and  distresses  of  the  unhappy 
without  ostentation,  have  done  justice  without  interest,' 
have  iserved  the  common  cause  of  literature  without  vanity, 

K  2 

\^  G  O  U  G  H. 

{aaiotained  my  own  independence  without  pride  or  fntd«? 
ence,  bs^ve  moderated  my  attacbinent  to  external  objecls^ 
and  placed  my  affections  on  the  virtuoui^  and  honest  cha-» 
^acterj,  and  may  trust  to  have  so  passed  tbrough  things 
^^;mporal  as  finally  not  to  lose  things  eternal — I  shall  have 
Uvf^d  enough,^^ 

•  A  few  of  ]V|r.  Gough's  publications  yet  remain  to  be  no- 
ticed :  1.  Nevtr editions  of  ^^  Description  des  Royaulmes  d'An- 
gleterre  et  d*Ecosse,  composed  par  Etienne  Perlin,"  Paris^ 
][558 ;  and  of  ^^  Histoire  de  Ten  tree  de  la  Heine  Mere  dans 
1$  Grandt  Bretagne,  par  de  laSerre,"  Paris,  1639;  \yhich 
he  illustrated  with  cuts,  apd  English  notes ;  and  introduced 
by  historical  prefacec^  in  1775.  2.  '^  A  Csitalpgue  of  the 
Coins  of  Canute,  king  of  Denmark  and  jglngland,  with 
lyi^i^^iMSly"  1777,  4^0.  3.  "  An  Essa^y  on  the  Rise,  and 
l^rogre^  of  Geogrs^phy  in  Gipeat  ]p!i^itain  and  Ireland ;  illus^^r 
trs^^edt  with  specimens  of  our  oldest  ^»aps,"  17^0,  4to ;  and 
^*  CaitiJogue  of  Sarum  anid  Yorl^  Missals,"  17^0,  both  ex- 
tracted from  the  seqond  ^^itipn  of  fajs^  ^*  Britis^h  Topogram 
phy."  5.  "  A  gomparative  view  of  th^.  ar\pieot  ]V{p(MimeQts 
of  jlndiV  he.  1785,  4to.  6.  ^^  U&t  of  ^h^  i^embers  of 
^e  Society  of  Antiquaries  o(  j^ondon,  from  thieir  revival 
in  1717  to  June  ]|796;  arriang^4  in  cbroix<?logical  and  al- 
phabetical order,"  1798^  4to.  7.  In  the  sanxe  year  he 
amended  a^d  considerably  enlarged,  from  the  Paris  edition 
qi  17&9,  ac^  finglish  tranij^tion  of  the  '*  Arabian  Night» 
Entertainments,"  to  ^hicb  he.  added  notes  of  illustration, 
an4  9r  preface,^  in  which  the  supplementary  tales  published 
%  Pom-  Chavis,  are  prove4  to  be  a  palpable  forgery, 
8.  ".  A  Letter  to  the  Loi;d  5i^o.P  of  l^on^xxy  by  a  Lay- 
iopa^n^"  1799,  dvo,  on  various  subjects  connected  with  the 
prosperity  c^  %\^  church.  9.  "  Rev.  Kentiett  Gibson^a 
CQipm^nt  upoa  part  of  the  §fth  journey  of  Antoninus 
^pugh  Biit^Q/'  ^c«  I^OQ,  4to.  10.  '^  liiUcriptioii  of  th^ 
]Byeauch^mp  chapel^  adjoining  to  the  chui;ch  of  Sit.  Mary  at 
Warwick,"  l^acH,  4to«  As  to  his  assistai^e  to  his  friendu 
engaged  in  liter^f^y  pursuits, .  it  was.  more  extensive  tbaa 
probably  will  ev/^c  be  known;  but  some,  particulars  are 
stated  by  his  biographer,  to  which  wa  re^r,  and  many  other 
acknowledgments  n^ay  be  found  in  yario.u3  works  published 
within  the  last  forty  3^ars.  It  i^  to  be  regretted  that  no 
portrait  of  Mr.  Gough  exists,  nor  is  it  known  that  he  ever 
would  oonsent  to  sit  to  any  of  the  many  artists  with  whom 
he  was  ^onne<?te,d,  and  to  some  of  whom  be  was  a  ateady 
patron.     His  person  was  ahor^  iucUning  to  corpulence. 

G  O  U  G  H.  ISt 

His  features  bespoke  the  enet-gy  and  activity  of  his  miti^. 
In  youth  be  was  {Peculiarly  shy^  which  he  attributed  to  & 
late  entrance  into  the  World,  and  an  irresistible  habit  bf 
Application  to  books.  As  his  intercourse  with  society  ad- 
vanced^ his  manner  became  niore  easy,  and  his  convena« 
tioU  was  always  lively,  often  with  a  pleasant  flow  of  hu- 
mour,  and  his  disposition  communicative.  ^ 

GOUJET  (Claude  Peter),  a  canon  of  St  James  d^ 
I'Hopital,  and  an  associated  academician  of  Marsek4es> 
Roueti,  Angers^  and  Auxerre,  was  born  at  Paris,  \  Oct.  19^ 
1697.  His  father  was  a  taylor,  with  a  tradesman-like 
averision  to  learning,  in  the  pursuit  of  which,  however,  he 
foil^nd  it  impossible  to  prevent  hts  son  from  einploying  bib 
fearly  years,  tie  beg^n  his  studies  at  Paris,  and  carried 
tbetti  on  principally  in  the  Jesuits*  college^  and  in  the 
tbngregation  of  the  oratory.  In  1720  be  obtained  a  ek- 
lionry  of  St  Jauies  de  THojiital.  He  died  at  Paris,  Feb* 
2i  1767.  His  whole  lifb  appears  to  haVe  bten  a  tcetie  of 
literary  laboUr^  always  Useful^  and  ofteh  condubted  with 
great  judgmeht.  In  otdbr  to  pursue  his  studies  withoet 
interruption  at  home,  or  the  necessity  of  having  recourse 
to  foreign  assistance)  he  acCtinlulated  a  fine  libiltry  of 
10,000  volumes,  in  all  branches  df  IttefatUre>  but;  parti- 
cularly litisrary  hrstory  and  biography.  For  fifty  years  he 
continued  to  publish  one  toluihinou«  compilatibn  after 
andther;  and  by  close  application^  sb  impaired  his  sight 
that  he  was  almost  blind  ^eme  titue  before  his  death.  The 
last  editbt  of  Moreri  divides  hi6  publications  into  transla- 
tions, wbrks  of  piety,  Wdrkii  of  literary  history,  lives  and 
eloge^,  papers  in  the  literaty  Journals,  and  lastly  prefaces ; 
in  all  antounting  to  eighty-three  articles.  Of  these  the 
most  useful  appear  to  be^  l.  **  Les^  Vies  des  Saints/'  Parity 
1730,  7  vols.  12mo,  dften  reprinted  in  4to,  and  other 
forms.  2.  ^<  Bibliotheque  des  autetirs  ecclesiastlques  du 
XVIII.  siecle,  pout*  servif  de  .eoniinuation  a  celledeM. 
du  Pin,  &c."  ibid.  1736,-  S  fols.  8i^o.  S.  «  Supplefttent'* 
to  Moreri*s  Dictionary,  ibid.  1735,  2  vols.  fol.  He  alio 
pointed  dut  many  hundred  errbrs  ifi  the  early  (editions  df 
that  wdA.  ♦.  «  Nouvfeau  Supplement'*  td  (he  same  dic- 
tionary, ibid.  1749,  fol.  With  a  volume  df  «<  Additiofis," 
1750^  fol.     5.  «  Bibliotheque  F^ati^oi^e^  bn  himidire  de  la 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer,  vol.  VI.  where,  aad  id  the  other  Tolnmet  of  that  intt* 
rettiog  serie*  of  litorftrt  history,  will  be  found  miny  particulars  relative  to  Mr. 
Gough'k  connexioiit,  «q4  a  very  oojuiderable  eoUection  of  his  epistolary  conrt<^ 

134  G  O  U  J  E  T. 

Ktterature  Fraii5aise,"  from  the  invention  of  printing,  21 
▼ol&  12mo9  ibi^*  ^'^^^ — 1759.  This  is  the  most  useful  of 
all  bis  works.  It  was  undertaken  at  the  request  of  M. 
D^  Argenson,  the  secretary  of  state.  It  in  some  measure 
resembles  Niceron,  whom  he  also  assisted  in  his  useful 
^^Memoires,^'  and  wrote  bis  life.  6.  '^  De  Tetatdes  Sciences 
en  France,  depuis  la  mort  de  Charlemagne  jusqu'aeelle 
du  roi  Robert,"  1737,  12mo«  This  learned .  dissertation 
chained  the  prize  of  the  academy  of  belles  lettres,  and  the 
members  of  this  academy  are  said  to  have  done  for  Goujet 
what  they  had  never  done  for  any  other  man.  Withput 
any  solicitation,  or  knowledge  of  the  matter  on  his  part^ 
they  sent  a  deputation  of  six  of  their  number  to  him,  re* 
questing  the  honour  of  choosing  him,  in  the  room  of  the 
deceased  abb6  de-Vertot.  7.  A  new  edition  of  Richelet^s 
Dictionary,  Lyons,  1756,  3  vols.  fol.  8.  "  L'Histoire  du 
College  Royal  de  France,*'  4to.  9.  ^^  Hist,  du  Pontificat 
de  Paul  V«"  Amsterdam  (Paris)  1765,  2  vols.  12mo.  This 
was  his  last  work,  in  which  he  is  much  less  favourable  to 
the  Jesuits  than  might  have  been  expected  from  one  edu- 
cated among  them.  * 

GOUJON  (John),  an  eminent  sculptor  and  architect 
of  Paris,  lived  under  Francis  I.  and  Henry  II.  and  is  sup- 
posed to  have  designed  the  fronts  of  the  old  Louvre.  This 
artist's  figures,  in  demi-relief,  have  never  been  surpassed ; 
nor  can  any  thing  of  that  kind  be  more  beautiful  than  his 
Fountain  of  the  Innocents,  in  the  street  of  St.  Denis  at 
Paris.  The  cariatides  which  support  a  tribune  in  the  hall 
of  the  Hundred  Swiss  at  the  Louvre  are  no  less  so.  Many 
more  of  his  works  may  be  seen  in  that  city,  which  are  the 
admiration  of  connoisseurs,  and  remind  us  of  the  simple 
and  sublime  beauties  of  the  antique  style ;  for  which  rea- 
son he  is  justly  called  the  Corregio  of  sculpture.  * 

GOULART  (Simon),  a  protestant  divine,  and  volu* 
mtnous  writer,  was  born  at  Senlis,  Oct.  20,  1543,  and 
studied  divinity  at  Geneva,  where  he  was  ordained  in  Octo- 
ber 1566,  and  i^a^  appointed  one  of  the  ministers  of  that 
city,  a  situation  which  he  filled  for  the  long  space  of  sixty* 
two  years.  His  residence  at  Geneva  was  never  discontinued 
but  on  account  of  three  journies  be  took  to  France,  on 
matters  relating  to  the  protestant  churches,  the  one  in 
1576,  when  he  went  to   Forez;  the  second  in  1582,  to 


1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist  •  Diet.  Hiat 

G  O  U  L  A  R  T.  135 

Cbampagnei  and  the  third  in  1 600,  to  Grenoble.  The  rest 
of  bis  life  he  devoted  to  his  pastoral  duties,  and  to  his  nu-* 
inerous  works,  which  prove  him  one  of  the  most  indefati- 
gable writers  of  his  time.  He  died  Feb.  3,  1628,  in  his 
eighty-fifth  year,  and  in  full  possession  of  his  faculties. 
He  preached  but  seven  days  before  his  death.  Scaliger, 
who  had  a  great  esteem  for  him,  says  he  was  an  ingenious 
man,  who  learnt  all  he  knevy  without  the  assistance  of  a 

Among  the  works  which  be  edited  and  commented  upon,, 
were  those  of  Plutarch,  St  Cyprian,  Seneca,  &c.  ,  He 
made  a  collection  of  **  Hemarkable  Histories,^'  in  2  Vols, 
8vo,  and  wrote  several  pieces  relating  to  the  history  of  his 
own  times,  particularly  a  *^  Collection  of  the  most  memo* 
rable.  events  which  bccurred  during  the  League,  with  notes 
and  original  documents,"  in  6  vols.  4to.  Many  of  his 
pieces  were  anonymous,  but  to  these  he  usually  affixed  the 
initials  S.  G.  S.  signifying  ^*  Simon  Goulart  Senlisien.''  He 
was  so  well  acquainted  with  the  secrets  of  literary  history^ 
and  of  anonymous  publications,  that  Henry  III.  of  France, 
wishing  to  know  the  author  of  a  piece  published  under  the 
assumed  name  of  Stepbanus  Junius  Brutus,  and  intended 
to  propagate  republican  doctrines,  sent  a  person  to  Geneva 
to  consult  Goqiart,  but  the  latter  refused  to  communicate 
the  fact,  for  fear  of  exposing  the  author  to  serious  injury. 
He  had  a  son,  who  was  a  minister  of  the  Walloon  church 
at  Amsterdam,  and  a  strenuous  assertor  of  Arminian  tenets, 
but  did  not  attain  bis  father^s  reputation.  * 

GOULSTON,  GOULSON,  or  GULSON  (Theodore), 
an  eminent  English  physician  in  the  seventeenth  century, 
was  born  in  Northamptonshire,  and  was  son  of  Mr.  William 
Goulston,^  rector  qf  Wymondham,  in  Leicestershire.  He 
became  probationer  fellow  of  Merton  college,  Oxford,  in 
1596,  where  he  took  the  degrees  of  B.  and  M.  A.  and  after- 
wards applied  himself  to  the  study  of  physic,  which  he 
practised  first  in  Oxford,  and  afterwards  at  Wymondham, 
where  he  was  much  resorted  to  for  hi^  advice.  On  April 
30,  1610,  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  and  be- 
came candidate  of  the  college  of  physicians  at  London^ 
being  well  approved  by  the  president,  censors,  and  fellows; 
and  the  year  following  he  was  made  a  fellow  and  censor 
of  that  college.    He  wi^  sgon  introduced  into  very  e:isten«» 

1  Cjen,  Dict«-NictroD,  voK^PUX. 

IS«  G  O  U  L  S  T  O  N. 

iite  practice  in  the  city  of  London,  and  distingui&hed  hita^ 
self  likewise  to  great  advantage  by  his  skill  in  the  Latin 
arid  Greek  languages,  and  divinity,  and  by  his  writings. 
His  affection  to  the  public  good  and  to  the  advancemetit  of 
the  fabulty  of  physic  was  such,  that  by  his  last  will  and 
testament  he  gave  two  hundred  pounds  to  purchase  a 
rent-charge  for  the  maintenance  of  an  annual  ]ectur6 
within  the  college  of  physicians  of  London.  This  lecture 
was  to  be  read  from  time  to  time  by  one  of  the  four 
youngest  doctors  in  physic  of  the  college,  and  to  be  upon 
two,  or"  three,  or  more  diseases,  as  the  censors  should 
direct ;  and  to  be  read  yearly,  at  a  convenient  season  betwixt 
Michaelmas  and  Easter,  upon  some  dead  body  (if  pro- 
curable) on  three  days  successively,  in  the  forenoon  and 
afternoon.  He  left  likewise  several  books  to  Merton  col- 
lege, besides  several  other  donations,  which  legacies  wer^ 
punctually  paid  by  his  widow  Ellen,  who  being  possessed 
of  the  impropriate  parsonage  of  Bardwell  in  Suffolk,  pro- 
cured leave  from  the  king  to  annex  the  same  to  the  vi- 
carage, and  gave  them  both  to  the  college  of  St.  John's,  in 
Oxford.  Our  author  died  at  his  house  within  the  parish 
of  St.  Martin  Ludgate,  May  4,  1632,  and  was  interred 
^th  great  solemnity  in  the  church  of  that  parish. 

The  public  has  been  indebted  on  several  occasions  to 
the  Gulstonian  institution  for  ingenious  dissertations,  de- 
livered as  lectiires ;  as  tho$e  of  Dr.  Musgrave ;  Dr.  For- 
dyce's  treii«ise  on  digestion  ;  Dr.  Saunders,  &c.  Dr.  GouU 
ston  wrote,  L  ^^  Versip  Latina  et  paraphrasis  in  Aristotelis 
rhetoricam,"  London,  1619,  1623,  &c.  in  4to.  2.  "Aris- 
totelis de  Poetic^  liber  Latin^  conversus,  et  analytic^ 
methodo  illustratus,'^  London,  1623,  4tQ.  3.  "  Versio, 
varisB  Lectiones,  et  Annotatiohes  criticce  in  opuscula  varia 
Galeni,*^  London,  164p,  4to^  published  by  his  friend  Mr. 
Thomas  Gataker,  reotor  of  Rotberhithe,  inSurrej'. ' 

GOULU  (Jqhn),  a'Frehch  writer  pf  some  note,  was  the 
son  of  Nicholas  Goulu,  royal  professor  of  Greek  in  the 
university  of  Paris,  in  1567,  and  author  of  a  translation 
from  Greek  into  Latin  of  Gregentius's  dispute  with  the  Jew 
Herbanus,  which  De  Noailles,  the  French  ambassador,  bad 
brbiight  from  Constantinople,  and  of  other  works,  a  col-* 
lection  of  which  was  printed  at  Paris  in  158Q.  His  son 
was  born  at  Paris  Aug.  25,  1576,  and  educated  for  tdie  bar ; 

\  Aih.  Oz.  Tolf  I.— Gen.  Diet. 

G  O  U  L  U.  137 

buty  having  foiled  in  the  first  cause  he  pleaded,  he  felt  the 
disappointment  so  acutely  as  to  relinquish  the  profession^ 
and  retire  into  a  convent.  He  chose  the  order  of  the 
Feuillans,  and  entered  amongst  them  in  1604.  He  was  so 
much  esteemed  in  his  order  that  he  always  enjoyed  soma 
office  in  it,  and  was  at  last  made  general.  The  name  he 
took  when  he  became  a  monk,  was  Dom  John  of  St.  Fran- 
cis. As  he  understood  the  Greek  tongue,  he  translated 
into  French  Epictetus's  Manual,  Arrian^s  Dissertations^ 
some  of  St.  BasiPs  treatises,  and  the  works  of  Dionysius 
Areopagita;  to  which  he  added  a  vindication  of  this  St. 
Dionysius*s  works.  He  also  revised  his  father^s  Latin 
translation  of  St.  Gregory  Nyssen  against  Eunomius,  and 
published  it.  He  also  wrote  a  book  against  Du  MouKn's 
treatise  of  the  calling  of  pastors,  <<  De  la  Vocation  des 
Pasteurs ;''  the  Life  of  Francis  de  Salts,  bishop  of  Geneva; 
and  a  Funeral  Oration  on  Nicholas  le  Fevre,  preceptor  to 
Lewis  Xni. ;  but  it  is  said  that  he  never  delivered  it^  He 
did  not,  however,  gain  so  great  reputation  by  all  those 
writings  as  by  his  angry  controversy  with  Balzac,  already 
noticed  in  our  account  of  ^hat  writer.     Goulu  died  Jan. 


GOURNAY  (Mary  db  Jars,  lady  of),  a  French  female 
wit,  the  daughter  of  William  de  Jars,  lord  of  Neufoi  and 
Gournay,  was  bom  either  in  Paris,  or  in  Gascony,  about 
1565.  From  her  infancy  she  had  a  strong  turn  to  litera- 
ture ;  and  Montagne  publishing  his  first  essays  about  this 
time,  she  conceited  an  enthusiastic  veneration  for  the 
author.  These  declarations  soon  reached  the  ears  of  Mon-* 
tagne,  who  returned  her  compliments  by  corresponding 
regard  for  her  talents.  Her  esteem  by  degrees  growing 
into  a  kind  of  filial  affection  for  Montagne,  when  her  father 
died  she  adopted  him  in  his  stead,  even  before  she  had 
seen  him;  and,  when  he  was  at  Paris  in  1588,  she  paid 
him  a  visit,  and  prevailed  upon  him  to  accompany  her  and 
her  mother  the  lady  Gournay,  to  their  country  mansion, 
where  be  passed  two  or  three  months.  In  short,  out 
young  devotee  to  the  muses  was  so  wedded  to  books  of 
])olite  literature  in  general,  and  Montagne^s  Essays  in  par-' 
ticular,  that  she  resolved  never  to  hate  any  other  associate 
to  her  happiness.  Nor  was  Montagne  sparing  to  pay  the- 
just  tribute  of  his  gratitude,  and  foretold,  in  the  second 

)  Qm.  Dict.^-'Morerl. 

ISS  G  O  U  R  N  A  Y. 

book  of  his  EssayS|  that  she  would  be  capable  of  great 
eminence  in  the  republic  of  letters.  Their  affectionate 
regard  extended  through  the  family ;  Montagne^s  daughter, 
the  viscountess  de  Jamaches,  always  claimed  mademLoiselle 
<le  Jars  as  a  sister ;  and  the  latter  dedicated  her  piece,  *^  Le 
Bouquet  de  Pinde,^'  to  this  sister.  Thus  she  passed  many 
years,  happy  in  her  new  alliance,  until  she  received  the 
melancholy  news  of  Montague's  death,  when  she  crossed 
almost  the  whole  l^ingdom  of  France  to  mingle  her  tears 
and  lamentations,  which  were  excessive,  with  those  of  his 
widow  and  daughter.  Nor  did  her  hlial  regard  stop  here. 
She  revised,  corrected,  and  reprinted  an  edition  of  his 
^'  Essays*'  in  1634 ;  to  which  she  prefixed  a  prieface,  full 
of  the  strongest  expressions  of  devotion  for  his  memory. 

jShe  wrote  several  things  in  prose  and  verse,  which  were 
•collected  into  one  volume,  and  published  by  herself  in 
1^36,  with  this  title,  -^  Les  avis  et  les  presens  de  la 
Pemoiselle  de  Qournai.^'  She  died  at  Paris  in  1645,  and 
epitaphs  were  oopiposed  for  h^r  by  Menage,  Valois,  Patin, 
La  Motbe  Vayer,  and  others.  It  is  not,  however,  very 
leasy  to  appreciate  her  real  character  from  these.  Living 
at  a  time  when  literature  was  not  much  cultivated  by  the 
females  in  France,  it  is  prqbable  that  she  earned  her  re- 
putation at  no  great  ^xpence  of  talents,  and  it  is  certain 
that  her  writing?  are  little  calculated  to  perpetuate  her 
fame.  It  appears  equally  certain  that  she  was  as  frequently 
the  subject  of  ridipu|e  fimpng  the  wits,  as(  qf  admiration 
among  the  courtiers.  Those,  however,  who  think  her  cha- 
racter an  object  of  curiosity,  qiay  find  ^mple  information 
in  our  authorities. ' 

GOURVII^LE  (JpHN  l{£|iAyLD  D£),  a  French  politician, 
was  born  at  Rochf^foucauld  in  1625,  and  was  taken  by  the 
celebrated  duke  of  that  name  into  his  service  as  valet  de 
phambre,  from  which  situation  be  cos^  to  be  his  confidential 
friend.  He  was  also  equally  honoured  by  the  great  Conde, 
and  was  employed  by  the  superiqtendant  Fouquet,  in  pub-^ 
lie  business,  and  was  involved  in  his  disgrace.  But  such 
w$is  the  value  put  upon  his  political  talents  and  integrity, 
that  he  was  at  pne  time  pvoposied  to  the  king  as  successor 
to  Colbert  in  the  ministry.  JJe  died  in  1705,  leaving 
<<  Memoirs  of  his  Life  from  1642  to  1698,"  2  vols,  l^mo, 
written  with  frankness  and  siinplicity ;  and  containing  very 

>  Gea.  I>ict.-*Moreri  in  trt.  J%n  de  Gonmai.— NiceroDi  vol.  XVI. 

G  O  U  R  V  I  L  L  £•  n^ 

lively  characters  of  the  ministers  and  principal  persons  of 
his  time,  of  which,  it  is  said,  Voltaire  made  much  use  ia 
^is  «  Siecle  de  Louis  XIV." 

It  was  on  Gourville  that  Boileau  was  said  to  have  written 
an  epitaph,  in  which  he  described  him  as  speakingr  well^ 
though  be  knew  little ;  as  being  a  gentleman  in  manners^ 
although  of  low  birth ;  and  as  caressing  all  the  world,  al- 
though he  loved  nobody.  He  proved  himself,  however, 
the  most  sincere  of  all  Fouquet's  friends ;  not  only  lending 
madame  de  Fouquet  upwards  of  100,000  livres  for  her  sup- 
port, but  settling  the  same  sum  on  her  son.  ^ 

GOUSSET  (James),  an  eminent  protestant  divine,  was 
born  Oct.  7,  1635,  of  a  good  family  at  Blois,  and  was 
iCousin*gerqaan  to  the  celebrated  I^aac  Papin.  He  was 
appointed  minister  at  Poitiers  in  1662,  and  remained  there 
till  the  revocajtion  of  the  edict  of  Nantes  in  1685.  He  then 
went  to  England,  aivd  afterwards  to  Holland,  where  he  was 
phosen  ininister  of  the  Walloon  church  at  Dort  Five  yeara 
after  he  was  appointed  professor  of  Greek  and  divinity  at 
Groningen,  where  he  died  Nov,  4,  17Q4,  leaving  a  great 
number  of  works,  both  printed  and  in  MS.  :  the  principal 
are,  a  Hebrew  dictionary,  or  "  Commentarii  Linguae  He- 
braicae  ;^'  a  valuable  work,  the  best  edition  of  which  is  that 
of  Leipsic,  1743,  4to;  a  refutation,  in  Latin,  of  rabbi 
Isaac's  '^  Chi^zouck  Emounak,'*  or  Shield  of  Faith,  Dort, 
1688,  Svp,  and  Amsterdam,  1712,  fol.  This  refutation 
has  been  much  praised  by  several  among  the  learned  ;  but 
others  doubt  whether  it  merits  such  high  encomiums :  the 
book  against  which  it  was  written  may  be  foOnd  in  Wa- 
gensal's  **  Tela  ignea  Satanae."  He  also  published  "  Con- 
siderations th^ologiques  et  critiques  centre  le  Projet 
4'm?e  nouyelle  Version  de  la  Bible,"  1698,  12mo.  This 
last  was  written  against  Charles  le  Cene's  project  of  it 
translation  of  the  Bible,  which  should  favour  the  Arminiaa 
doctrines. : 

GOUSSIER  (John  James),  a  leari)ed  French  physician^ 
professor  of  mathematics,  and  a  member  of  several  learned 
societies,  was  born  at  Paris  March  7,  1722.  His  first  pub» 
lie  services  in  the  literary  world  wefe  the  arrangement  and 
preparation  for  the  pre^s  of  M.  la  Condamine^s  memoir 
on  the  measure  of  the  first  three  degrees  of  the  meridian 
in>  the  Southern  hemisphere*    In  the  Encyclopaedia  he  was 

1  Morcri.— Diet.  Hiit.  «  Niceron,  wot.  11.  and  X.— Morcri, 

liO  G  O  U  S  S  I-£  R. 

chosen  fbr  the  department  of  the  mechanic  arts^  and  his 
Dumereni  articles  are  remarkable  for  accuracy  and  perspiw 
cuity.  He  had  a  great  turn  for  mechanics^  and  ihveht^d 
A&veral  machines  still  employed  in  agriculture  and  che« 
inistryj  &c.  in  France.  In  connexion  with  the  unfortunate 
b^ron  de  Marivetz^  he  published  a  learned  and  elaborate 
work  entitled  "  Physique  du  monde,"  five  voluriifes  of 
i^hich  he  published  duritig  the  life  of  his  cdtleagiie,  and 
afterwards  three  others.  The  whole  Was  to  havfe  been 
comprized  in  14  Vols.  4to,  but  of  these  eight  only  have 
appeared.  In  1779  he  published  "Prospectus  d'un  trait6 
de  geomietrie  physique  particuliere  du  royaume  de  France,'* 
4to.     He  died  at  Paris  in  1 800.  * 

GOUTHIER,  or  GUTHIERES  (James),  in  Latin  Gt;- 
THEitiuSy  £i  learned  and  judicious  antiquary,  and  l^nvybt, 
was  born  at  Chaumont  in  Bassigny,  and  was  admitted  kd« 
▼ocate  to  the  parliament  of  Paris.  After  having  attended 
the  bar  with  honour  for  forty  years,  he^retihed  into  the 
couiitry,  and  devoted  himself  wholly  to  study.  He  died 
in  1638.  His  principal  works  ate,  1.  "  De  Vetere  Jurfe 
Pontificio  urbis  Romee,"  1612,  4to,  which  gave  so  much 
-satisfaction  at  Rome,  that  the  senate  conferred  the  rank  of 
Konian  citizen  on  him  and  his  posterity.  2.  **  De  Oflficiiis 
domCls  Augustae,  publicsB  et  privatsfe,"  1628,  4to,  and 
Leipsic,  1672,  8vo,  &c.  3.  "  De  jnre  Manium,**  Leip- 
*ic,  1671,  8vo.  He  wrote  also  two  small  tracts,  one  "  De 
Orbkafe  toleranda ;"  the  other,  **  Laus  caecitatis,'*  &c. 
These  works  are  all  esteemed,  and  ^otne  Latin  verses  which 
he  wrote  have  been  admired  for  their  elegance.  • 


GOUX  (Francis  le)  De  la  BouLaye,  a  celebrated  tra- 
veller in  the  17th  century,  wa^  the  son  of  a  gentleman  af 
Batig^,  in  Artjou,  where  h6  w£ls  hbtn  abbut  161Q.  How, 
or  for  what  profession  he  was  educated,  does  not  appear, 
but  he  seems  to  have  been  of  a  rambling  disposition,  and 
ifpent  ten  yeats  in  visiting  most  parts  of  the  world.  He 
published  an  account  of  his  travels,  1653,  4to,  which  c<7d-* 
tain  sortie  particulats  that  are  not  miinteresting.  Whea 
he  returned  from  his  first  voyage,  he  was  so  altered,  that 
his  mother  would  not  own  him,  and  he  was  obliged  to  cotti- 
Hience  a  suit  against  her  to  recover  his  right  of  eldetdbip. 
B6ing  i^ent  ambassador  to  the  Turks,  and  the  great  mogul, 
in  1668,  he  died  in  Persia  during  his  journey.  I 

1  Diet.  Bifl.  9  Moi9eri.^Dict.  Hiit  f  Moreri.— Did.  Hift. 

G  O  U  Y  E.  141 

GOUYE  (Thomas),  a  French  mathematician^  was  bom 
JSept.  18,  1650,  at  Dieppe,  and  entered  among  the  Jesuits 
in  1667.  He  early  acquired  reputation  for  his  skill iix  ma- 
ibematics,  and  was  admitted  into  the  academy  of  sciences 
in  16S9.  He  assisted  constantly  at  the  meetings  pf  that 
academy,  whose  members  entertained  a  high  opinion  of 
his  geniusu  He  died  at  Paris,  in  the  professed  house  of 
the  Jesuits,  March  24, 172^,  aged  seventy>five.  His  prin- 
cipal work  is  entitled,  **  Observations  Physiques  et  Mathe*- 
tnatiques  pour  servir  h  la  perfection  de  PAstronomie,  et  de 
la  geogifa^phie,  envoy6es  de  Siam,  a  1'  aoademi^  des  sciences 
de  Paris,  par  les  P.  P.  Jesuites  missionaires  ;*'  with  notes 
and  remarks,  in  2  vols,  the  first,  8vo,  the  second,  4to. 
These  remarks  may  also  he  found  in  torn.  7.  of  the  ^^  Me- 
B^oires'^  qi  the  above  academy.  ^ 

GOVEA  (Andrew),  in  Latin  GoViEAKi^s,  a  learned 
Portuguese,  of  the  fourteenth  century,  was  born  at  Bej^ 
and  appointed  principal  of  the  college  of  St.  Barbe  at  Paris, 
where  be  educated  three  nephews,  who  became  celebrated 
for  their  learning.  Martial  Govea,  ^he  e>dest,  was  a 
good  Latia  poet,  and  published  a  *^  Latin  Grammar'^  at 
Paris.  Andrew,  his  next  brother,  a  pviest,  born  m  14d^ 
succeeded  his  uncle  as  principal  of  St.  Barbe,  and  gained 
so  grcsat  a  reputation  there,  that  he  was  invited  to  acoept 
the  same  office  in  the  college  of  Gnienne,  at  Bour-deaux* 
This  invitatioD  be  accepted  in  1534,  and  coatia»ued  at 
BourdeaucK  till  1547,  when  John  HL  king  of  Portugal,  re- 
called him  to  his  dominions,  to  establish  a  college  at  Cqim- 
bra^  similar  to  that  of  Guienne ;  and  Govea  took  with  him 
into  Portugal  the  celebrated  Buchanan,  Grouchi,  Guerenti^ 
Fabricius,  la  Costa,  and  other  men  of  learning,  well  qua- 
lified to  iusti^uct  youth.  He  died  June  1548,  at  Coimhpa> 
leavingi  no  printed  work,  Anthony  Govea^  the  youngest 
of  these  three  brothers,  and-  the  most  eminent  of  all,  wrote- 
several  pieces  on  phijo'sopby  and  law,  and  is  mentioned 
with  great  encomiums  by  l%uanu8^  Rons^rd^  and  all'lhe 
learned*  He  taught  with  reputation  «t  Bourdeaux,  after- 
wards at  Gahors,  and  Valence  in  Dauphiny,  and  died  in 
1565,  aged  sixty,  at  Turin,  to  which  place  Phiiibert  had 
invited  him.  His  principal  works  are,  an  ^'  Apologetical 
Discburse''  against  Calvin,  who  bad  accused'  him  of  atheism 
iu  his  treatise  on  scandal^  some  works  on  law,  fol.;  ^<  Va- 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hiit. 

142  G  O  V  E  A. 

liarum  lectionum  Libri  duo/'  fol. ;  editions  of  Virgil  stnc( 
Terence,  with  notes ;  "  Epigrammatum  Libri  duo,'*  and 
'^  Epistoiss."  The  whole  was  printed  at  Rotterdam,  lt6($f 
fol.  Manfred  Govea,  his  son,  born  at  Turin,  became 
distinguished  for  his  knowledge  of  the  belles  lettres,  civil 
and  canon  law,  and  was  counsellor  of  stale  at  the  court  of 
Turin.  He  died  in  1613,  leaving  "  Consilia;"  "Notes 
on  Julius  Florus ;"  some  "Poetry,"  and  a  funeral  oration 
on  the  death  of  Philip  II.  king  of  Spain.  ^ 

GOWER  (John),  one  of  the  few  poets  who  floarished 
in  the  first  periods  of  our  poetical  history,  is  supposed  to 
have  been  born  before  Chaucer,  but  of  what  family,  or  in 
what  part  of  the  kingdom  is  uncertain.  Leiand  was  in* 
formed  that  he  was  of  the  ancient  family  of  the  Gowers  of 
Stitenham,  in  Yorkshire^  and  succeeding  biographers  ap* 
pear  to  have  taken  for  granted  ^hat  that  eminent  antiquary 
gives  only  as  a  report.  Other  particulars  from  Leiand  are 
yet  more  doubtful,  as  that  he  was  a  knight  and  some  time 
chief  justice  of  the  common  pleas;  but  no  information  re* 
specting  any  judge  of  that  name  can  be  collected  either  in 
the  reign  of  Edward  II.  during  which  he  is  said  to  have 
been  on  the  bench,  or  afterwards.  Weever  asserts  that  he 
was  of  a  Kentish  family;  and,  in  Caxton's  edition,  of  the 
<^  Confessio  Amantis,"  he  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  of 

He  appears,  however,  to  halve  studied  law,  and  was  a 
member  of  the  society  of  the  Middle  Temple,  where  it  is 
supposed  he  met  with,  and  acquired  the  friendship  of 
Chaucer.  The  similarity  of  their  studies,  and  their  taste 
for  poetry,,  were  not  the  only  bonds  of  union.  Their  poli- 
tical bias  was  nearly  the  same.  Chaucer  attached  himself 
to  John  of  Gaunt,  duke  of  Lancaster,  and  Gower  to  Thomas 
of  Woodstock,  duke  of  Gloucester,  both  uncles  to  king 
Richard  II.  The  tendency  of  the  ^^  Confessio  Amantis,'' 
iti  censuring  the  vices,  of  the  clergy,  coincides  with  Chau« 
cer's  sentiments,  and  although  we  have  no  direct  proof  of 
those  mutual  arguings  and  disputes  between  them,  which 
Leiand  speaks  of,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  their  friend* 
ship  was  at  one  time  interrupted.  Chaucer  concludes  his 
Troilus  and  Cressida  with  recommending  it  to  the  correc- 
tions of  ^  moral  Gower,"  and  ^<  philosophical  Strode  ;'*  and 

^  Moreri  ia  Goutrea. — Gen.  DicL-^-Clement  BibL  Curieufe.— Freheri  Th«a«<'^ 
inim.— ^xii  Ooomast. 

G  O  W  E  IL  14* 

Gdwer^  ih  the  Coiifessio  Amantis,  introduces  Yiinus  prais^^ 
ing  Chaucer  *^  as  her  disciple  and  poete.''  Such  was  their 
mutual  respect ;  its  decline  is  less  intelligible.  Mr.  Tyr* 
whit  says,  *^  If  the  reflection  (in  the  prologue  to  the  Man  of 
Lawes  Tale,  ver.  4497)  upon  those  who  relate  suchstoriei 
as  that  of  Canace,  or  of  ApoUonius  Tyrius,  was  levelled  at 
Gower^  as  I  very  much  suspect,  it  will  be  difficult  to  re* 
concile  such  an  attack  to  our  notions  of  the  strict  friend- 
ship which  is  generally  supposed  to  have  subsisted  between 
the  two  bards.  The  attack  too  at  this  time  must  appear 
the  more  extraordinary  on  the  part  of  our  bard,  as  he  is 
just  going  to  put  into  the  mouth  of  his  Man  of  Lawe  a  tale, 
of  which  almost  every  circumstance  is  borrowed  from 
Gowen  The  fact  is,  that  the  story  of  Caoace  is  related 
by  Gower  in  his  Confessio  Amantis,  B.  III.  and  the  story, 
of  ApoUonius  (or  Apollynus,  as  he  is  there  called)  in  the 
Vlllth  book  of  the  sam6  work  :  so  that,  if  Chaucer  really 
did  not  mean  to  reflect  upon  his  old  friend,  his  choice  of 
these  two  instances  was  rather  unlucky." 

"  There  is  another  circumstance,"  says  the  same  critic, 
'^  which  rather  inclines  me  to  believe  that  their  friendship 
suffered  some  interruption  in  the  latter  part  of  their  lives. 
In  the  new  edition  of  the  '  Confessio  Amantis,^  which 
Gower  published  after  the, accession  of  Henry  IV.  the 
verses  in  praise  of  Chaucer  (fol.  190,  b.  col.  1,  ed.  1532) 
are  omitted.  See  MS.  Harl.  3869.  Though  perhaps  the 
death  of  Chaucer  at  that  time  had  riendered  the  compliment 
contained  in  those  verses  less  proper  than  it  was  at  first, 
that  alone  does  not  seem  to  have  been  a  suflicient  reason 
for  omitting  them,  especially  as  the  original  date  of  thd 
work,  in  the  r6th  of  Richard  II.,  is  preserved.  Indeed  the 
only  other  alterations  which  I  have  been  able  to  discovery 
are  towards  the  beginning  abd  end,  where  every  thing 
which  had  been  said  in  praise  of  Richard  in  the  first  edi- 
tion, is  either  left  out  or  converted  to  the  use  of  his 

As  this  is  the  only  evidence  of  a  difference  between 
Chaucer  and  Gower,  we  may  be  allowed  to  hope  that  no 
violent  loss  of  friendship  ensued;  As'  to  their  poetical 
studies,  it  is  evident  that  there  was  a  remarkable  difference 
of  opinion  and  pursuit.  Chaucer  had  the  courage  to  eman- 
cipate bis  muse  from  the  trammels  of  French,  in  which  it 
was  the  fashion  to  write,  and  the  genius  to  lay  the  founda- 
tipn  of  English  poetry,  taste,   and   imagination.     Gower, 

144  G  O  W  £  R. 

probably  from  bis  closer  intimacy  with  the  French  and  La- 
tin poets,  found  it  more  easy  to  follow  the  beaten  track* 
Accordingly  the  first  of  bis  works  was  written  in  French 
measure.  It  is  entitled  <'  Speculum  Meditantis.  Un  Trait* 
iit6f  selonc  les  aucteurs,  pour  ensampler  les  amants  ma-> 
rietz,  au  fins  qils  la  foy  de  lour  seints  espousailies,  pour- 
roBt  per  fine  loyalte  guarder,  et  al  boneur  de  Dieu  salve- 
ment  tener.''  Of  this,  which  is  written  in  ten  books,  there 
are  two  copies  in  the  Bodleian  library.  It  is  a  compilation 
of  precepts  and  examples  from  a  Variety  of  authors,  in 
&vour  of  the  chastity  of  the  marriage  bed. 

Hid  next  work  is  in  Latin,  entitled  <^  Vox  Clamantis.** 
Of  this  there  are  many  copies  extant ;  that  in  the  Cot- 
tonian  library  is  more  fully  entitled  **  Joannis  Gower  Chro- 
nica, qusB  Vox  Clamantis  dicitur,  sive  Poema  de  Insur- 
rexione  Rusticorum  contra  ingenuos  et  nobiles,  tempore 
regis  Richardi  IL  et  de  Causis  ex  quibus  talia  contingunt 
Enormia;  libris  septem."  Some  lesser  pieces  are  annexed 
to  this  copy,  historical  and  moral.  That  in  the  library  ot 
All  Souk  college,  Oxford^  appears  to  have  been  written^ 
or  rather  dictated,  when  he  was  old  and  blind.  It  has  an 
epistle  in  Latin  verse  prefixed,  and  addressed  in  these 
words:  Hanc  epistolam  subscriptam  corde  devoto,  roisit 
senex  et  csecus  Johannes  Gower,  reverendissimo  in  Christo 
patri  ac  domino  suo  principi  D.  Thorns  Arundel  Cantuar. 
Archiepiscopo,  &c.  Pr.  Successor  Thomas,  Thomas  humi- 
lem  tibi  do  me.*'  This,  therefore,  is  supposed  to  have 
been  the  kst  transcript  he  made  of  this  work,  probably 
near  the  close  of  bis  life.  Mr.  Warton  is  of  opinion  that 
it  was  first  written  in  1397. 

The  '^  Confessio  Amantis,*'  which  entitles  him  to  a  place 
among  English  poets,  was  finished  probably  in  1393,  after 
Chaucer  had  written  most  of  his  poems,  but  before  he 
composed  the  Canterbaiy  Tales.  It  is  said  to  have  been 
begun  at  the  suggestion  of  king  Richard  It.  who  meeting 
him  accidentally  on  the  Thames,  called  him  into  the  royal 
barge,  and  enjoined  him  ^'  to  booke  some  new  thing."  It 
was  first  printed  by  Caxton  in  1 49 S.  In  15 1 6,  Barclay,  the 
author  of  the  Ship  of  Fools,  was  requested  by  sir  Giles 
Alyngton  to  abridge  or  modernize  the  Confessio  Amantis; 
Barclay  was  then  old  and  infirm,  and  declined  it,  as  Mr. 
Warton  thinks,  very  prudently,  as  he  was  little  qualified 
to  correct  Gower.  This  anecdiote,  however,  shews  that 
Gower  had  already  become  obsolete.     Skelton^  in  the 

G  O  W  E  R.  145 

**  Bote  of  Philip  Sparrow,**  says,  "  Gower's  Englitihe  is 
t)lcl."  Dean  Colet  studied  Gower,  as  well  as  Chaucer  and 
Lydgate,  in  ofdef  to  improve  his  style.  In  Puttenham's 
age,  about  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  their  lan- 
guage was  out  of  use.  In  the  mean  time  a  second  edition 
of  the  Confessio  Amantis  was  printed  by  Bartbelet  in 
1532,  a  third  in  1544,  atid  a  fourth  in  1554.  At  the  dis- 
tance of  two  centuries  and  a  balf>  a  fifth  was  published  in 
the  late  edition  of  the  English  Poets.  The  only  stain  on 
his  chafactef,  which  Mr.  Ritson  has  urged  with  asperity, 
but  which  is  obscurely  discernible,  is  the  alteration  he 
made  in  this  work  on  the  accession  of  Henry  IV.  and  his 
consequent  disrespect  for  the  menifofy  of  Richard,  to  whom 
he  formerly  looked  up  as  to  a  patron. 

The  only  other  circumstances  of  his  history  are,  that  he 
Was  esteemed  a  man  of  great  learning,  and  lived  and  died 
in  afBuence.  That  he  possessed  a  munificent  spirit,  we 
have  a  most  decisive  proof  in  hi«  contributing  largely,  if 
not  entirely,  to  the  rebuilding  of  the  conventual  church  of 
St.  Mary  Overy,  or,  as  it  is  now  called,  St.  Saviour*s 
churcB,  Southwark,  and  he  afterwards  founded  a  chauntry 
in  the  chapel  of  St.  John,  now  used  as  a  vestry.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  lost  his  sight  in  the  first  year  of  Henry  IV. 
and  did  not  long  survive  this  misfortune,  dying  ac  ah  ad- 
vanced age  in  1402.  He  was  interred  in  St.  Saviour's 
church,  and  a  monument  was  afterwards .  erected  to  his 
memory,  which,  although  it  has  suffered  by  dilapidations 
and  injudicious  repairs,  still  retains  a  considerable  portion 
of  antique  magnificence.  It  is  of  the  gothic  style>  covered 
with  three  arches,  the  roof  within  springing  into  many 
angles,  under  which  lies  the  statue  of  the  deceased,  in  a 
long  purple  gown  ;  on  his  head  a  coronet  of  roses,  resting 
on  three  volumes  entitled  Vox  Clafnantis,  Speculum  Medi^ 
tantUj  and  Confessio  Amantis,  His  di^ess  has  given  rise  to 
some  of  those  conjectures  respecting  his  history  which  can* 
not  now  be  determined,  as  his  being  a  knight,  a  judge,  &c. 

Besides  these  larger  works,  some  small  poems  are  pre- 
served in  a  MS.  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge;  but,  pos- 
sessing little  or  no  merit,  are  likely*  to  remain  in  obscurity. 
Mr,  Wartpn  speaks  more  highly  of  a  collection  contained 
in  a  volome  in  the  library  of  the  marquis  of  Stafford,  of 
which  he  has  given  a  long  account,  with  specimens.  They 
are  sonnets  in  French,  and  certainly  are  more  teiider,  par 
thetic,  and  poetical  than  bis  larger  poems.    As  an  English 

Vol.  XVI.  ^  L 

1|6  J&OW  E  R. 


•  poet,  however,  bis  reputation  must  still  rest  on  the  '^  Con- 
fessio  Amantis  ;^'  but,  although  he  coDtributed  in  some  de- 
gree to  bring  about  a  beneficial  revplution  in  our  ]an* 
guage,  it  appears  to  be  the  universal  opinion  of  the  critics 
that  he  has' very  few  pretensions  to  be  ranked  among  in«- 
yeiitors.  It  seems  Ip  have  been  his  ambition  to  crowd  all 
.his  erudition  into  his  f^  Confessio,''  and  therefore  the  most 
interjecting  parts  are  his  stories  brought  as  moral  examples 
from  various  authors.,^ 

GOZZOLI  (B£NOZZo),  an  artist,  boni  at  Florence  in 
.  1400,  was  the  disciple  pf  Fri  Angelico,  buttbe  imitator  of 
Masaccio,  tp  whom  he  was  little  inferior  ip  most,  and  sa- 
perior  in  some  parts  of  the  art^    He  lived  long  at  Pisa, 
where  his  best  wor^s  still  exist,  and  appear  less  loaded 
.  yrith  the  gaudy  ej^travagance  of  that  missal  style  which  de- 
luded the  age.    The  Bible-histories,  with  which  be  filled 
.  one  entire  side  of  the  Cs^mpo  Santo  at  Pisa,  are  by  Vasari 
styled  '^  a  terrible  work,  performances  to  intimidate  a  le- 
gion of  painters.^'     It  is  in  that  place  where  he  displays  a 
pow^r  of  coiQposition,  a  truth  of  imitation,  a  variety   of 
character  and  attitude,  a  juicy,  lively,  lucid  colour,  and  a 
.pathos  of  expression  that  places  him  next  to  Masaccio. 
The  inequality  of  the   work,  however,  s^ems  to  betray 
more  than  one  band.     He  died  at  Pisa  in  1478,  and  a  se- 
.piulchre,  erected  to  his  memory  by  the  gratitude  of  his 
.employers,  is  placed  near  the  above  work,  with  an  epitaph 
in  his  praise.     His  works  were  engraved  by  Lasinio,  and 
published  in  1805  and  1807.* 

,  GRAAF  (Reonier  be),  a  celebrated  physician,  was  born 
f^t  Schoonhaven,  •  in  Holland,  where  his  father  was  an 
eminent  architect,  July  30,  1641.  After  having  laid  a 
proper  foundation  for  classical  learning,  he  went  to  study 
jpbysic  at  Leyden ;  in  which  science  he  made  so  great  proi* 
gress,  that  in  1668  ,ke  published  a  treatise  f^  De  Succo 
Pancreiatico,"  which  did  him  the  highest  honour.  Two 
ye^Mfs  alter  he  went  to  France,  and  was  made  M.  D^  at 
Angers ;  but  returned  to  Holland  the  year  after,  and  settled 
At  v^lft,  where,  he  had  very  extensive  practice.  He  mar- 
ried in  16VS,  and  died* Aug.  17,  1673,  when  he  was  only 
thiity-twp  years  of  age.  He  published  three  pieces  upon 
.ibe.  organa  of  generation  both  in  men  and  wom^tiy  upon 

1  Biog.  Brit.-— WartOD's  Hist,  of  Poetry.— Johnson  and  Chalmers's  English 
Poefcs,  1610. 
/.  ^  Pitiu0gtQfi«<»*!Biog.  Universellc  in  Beaozza* 

G  R  A  A  F.  147 

which  subject  he  bid  a  very  warm  controversy  with  S wain-> 
inerdam.  His  works,  with  his  life  prefixed,  were  pubf 
lisbed  in  8vo^  at  Leyden,  in  1677  and  1705;  and  were 
translated  into  Flemish,  and  published  at  Amsterdam  ia 

GRA  AT,  or  GRAET  BARENT,  was  an  historical  painter* 
whose  name  is  remembered  principally  upon  account  of 
bis  close  imitation  of  the  works  of  Bamboccio,  and  of  his 
having  founded  an  academy  at  Amsterdam^  where  he  was 
boru.  The  best  artists  of  bis  time  resorted  here  to  study 
after  living  models;  by  which  means  much  improvement 
was  obtained  by  those  who  cultivated  taste  and  science  ia 
the  arts*     He  died  in  1709,  aged  eighty-one.* 

GRABE  (John  Ebnest),  the  learned  editor  of  the 
*^  Septuagint,''  from  the  Alexandrian  MS.  in  the  royal 
library  at  Buckinghamrhouse,  was  the  son  of  Martyn  SyU 
vester  Grabe,  professor  of  divinity  and  history  in  the  uni« 
versity  of  Koningsherg^  in  Prussia,  where  his  son  Ernest 
was  born  Jan.  10,  1666.  He  had  his  education  there,  and, 
took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in  that  university  ;  after  which^ 
devoting  himself  to  the  study  of  divinity,  he  read  the  worka 
of  the  fathers  with  the  utmost  attention.  These  he  took 
as  the  best  masters  and  instructors  upon  the  important 
subject  of  religion.  He  was  fond  of  their  principles  and 
customs,  and  that  fondness  grew>;  isio  a  kind  of  unreserved 
veneration  for  their  authority.  Jki&ohg  these  he  observed 
the  uninterrupted  succession  of  the  sacred  ministry  to  be 
universally  laid  down  as  essential  to  the  being  of  a  true 
church :  and  this  discoveary  so  powerfully  impressed  his 
mind,  that  at  length  he  thought  himself  obliged,  in  con* 
science,  to  quit  Lutheranism,  the  established  religion  of 
his  country,  in  which  he  had  been  bred,  and  enter  with-» 
in  the  pale  of  the  Roman  church,  where  that  succession 
was  preserved.  In  this  temper  he  saw  likewise  many  other 
|>articular8  in  the  Lutheran  faith  aiid  practice,  not  agrees 
able  to  that  of  the  fathers,  and  consequently  absolutely 
erroneous,  if  not  heretical. 

Being  confirmed  in  this  resolution,  he  gave  in  to  the 
electorid  college  at  Sambia  in  Prussia,  a  memorial,  con- 
taiuing  the  reasons  for  his  change,  in  1695  ;  and,  leaving 
Koningsberg,  set  out  in  order  to  put  it  in  esecotien  iit 

t  NiGeron,  vol.  XXXIV.— Foppeiii  Bibl.  BtL 
*  Pilking^ton.— Real's  Cyclopasdia. 


148  G  R  A  B  £. 

«oine  catholic  country.  He  was  in  the  road  to  Erfurt  in 
this  design,  when  there  were  presented  to  him  three  tracts 
ifi  answer  to  his  memorial,  from  the  elector  of  Bran  den* 
burgh,,  who  had  given  immediate  orders  to  three  Prussiark 
divines  to  write  them  for  the  purpose.  The  names  of  these 
divines  were  Philip  James  Spener,  Bernard  Van  Sanden, 
and  John  William\Baier.  The  fii*st  was  ecclesiasiical  coun- 
sellor to  the  elector,  and  principal  minister  at  Berlin  ;  and 
the  second  principal  professor  at  Koningsbergi  The  three 
answers  were  printed  the  same  year:  the  first  at  Berlin, 
the  second  at  Koningsberg,  both  in  4to,  and  the  third  at 
Jana,  in  8vo.  Grabe  was  entirely  disposed  to  pay  all  due 
respect  to  this  address  from  his  sovereign ;  and,  having 
peruised  the  tracts  with  care,  bis  resolution  for  embracing 
popery  was  so  much  weakened,  that  he  wrote  to  one  of 
the  divines,  Spener,  to*  procure  him  a  safe-conduct,  that 
he  might  return  to  Berlin,  to  confer  with  him.  This  fa* 
vour  being  easily  obtained,  he  went  to  that  city,  where 
Spener  prevailed  upon  him  so  far  as  to  change  his  design 
of  going  among  the  papists,  for  another.  In  England^ 
says  this  friend,  you  will  meet  with  the  outward  and  nnin* 
terrnpted  succession  which  you  want :  take  then  your  route 
thither  ;  this  step  will  give  much  less  dissatisfaction  to 
your  friends,  and  at  the  same  time  equally  satisfy  your 
conscience.  Our  divinei yielded  to  the  advice;  and,  ar* 
riving  in  England,  wasri^ceived  with  all  the  respect  due 
to  his  merit,  and  presently  recommended  to  king  William 
in  such  terms,  that  his  majesty  granted  hijn  a  pension  of 
100/.  per  annum,  to  enable  him  to  pursue  hts  studies. 

With  the  warmest  sense  ef  those  favours,  be  presently 
shewed  himself  not  unworthy  of  the  royal  bounty,  by  the 
many  valuable  books  which  he  published  in  England; 
which,  from  this  time,  he  adopted  for  his.  own  country ; 
and  finding  the  ecclesiastical  constitution  so  much  to  his 
mind,  he  entered  into,  priest's  orders  in  that  church,  and 
l^ecame  a  zealous  advocate  for  it,  as  coming  nearer  in  his 
opinion  to  the  primitive  pattern  than  any  other.  In  this 
spim  he  published,  in  1698,  and  the  following  year,  "Spi- 
eitegium  SS.  Patrum,  &c.'!  or  a  collection  of  tlie  lesser 
^orks  and  fragments,  rarely  to  be  met  with,  of  the  fathers 
and  herei^e&  of  .the  three,  first,  centuries;  induced  to  this 
compilation,  as  he  expressly  declared,  by  th^e  considera- 
tion, that  thei*e  could  be  no  better  ejipedient  for  healing 
the  divisions  of  the  Christian  churchy  than  to  reflect  on 

G  R  A  B  E.  149 

the  practice  and  opinions  of  the  primitive  fathers.  Both 
these  volumes  were  reprinted  at  Oxford  in  1700,  8.vo,  ahd 
some  remarks  were  made  upon  tb<e  first  in  a  piece  entitled 
"A  new  and  full  method  of  settling  the  Canonical  Authority 
of  the  New  Testament,  by  Jer.  Jones,  1726,"  8vo.  From 
the  same  motive  he  printed  also  Justin  Martyr's  "  First 
Apology'*  in  1700;  and  the  works  of  Irenaeus  in  1702; 
both  which  were  animadverted  upon  by  Thirlby,  the  editor 
of^Justin  Martyr,  and  Massuet,  the  editor  of  Ireneeus. 
Upon  the  accession  of  queen  Anne  to  the  throne  this  year^ 
besides  continuing  his  pension,  her  majesty  sought  an  oc- 
casion of  giving  some  farther  proofs  of  her  special  regard 
for  him  ;  and  she  was  not  long  in  finding  one. 

The  *<  Septuagint"  had  never  been  entirely  printed  from 
the  Alexandrian  MS.  in  St.  James's  library,  partly  owing 
^  to  tbe  great  difficulty  of  performing  it  in  a  manner  suitable 
to  its  real  worth,  and  partly  because  that  worth  itself  had 
been  so  much  questioned  by  the  advocates  of  the  Roman 
^opy>  that  it  was  even  grown  into  some  neglect.  To  peri 
form  this  task,  and  to  assert  its  superior  oierit,  was  an  honour 
marked  out  for  Grabe ;  and  when  her  majesty  acquainted 
him  with  it,  she  at  the  same  time  presented  him  with  a 
purse  of  60/.  by  the  suggestion  of  her  minister  Harley,  to 
enable  him  to  go  through  with  it.  This  was  a  most  arduous^ 
UBdertakiug,  and  he  sparied  no  pains  to  complete  it.  In 
the  mean  time  he  employed  such  hours  as  were  necessary 
for  refreshment,  in  other  works  of  principal  esteem.  In 
1705  he  gave  a  beautiful  edition  of  bishop  Bull's  work.^, 
in  folio,  with  notes ;  for  which  he  received  the  author's 
pariicutar  thanks ;  and  he  had  also  a  hand  in  preparing  for 
the  press  archdeacon  Gregory's  edition  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment in  Greek,  which  was  printed  the  same  year  at  Ox- 
ford, revising  the  scholia,  which  Gregory,  then  dead,  had 
collected  from  various  authors,  and  making  the  proper 

From  his  first  arrival  he  had  resided  a  great  part  of  hii 
time  in  that  university,  with  which  he  was  exceedingly  de- 
lighted. Besides  the  Bodleian  library  there,  he  met  with 
several  persons  of  the  first  class  of  learning  in  tiieologi* 
cal  and  sacred  criticism,  among  whom  he  found  th^t  free- 
dom of  conversation  and  communication  of  studies  which 
is  inseparable  from  true  scholars;  but  still  the  Alexandrian 
MS.  was  the  chief  object  of  his  labour.  He  examined  it 
with  his  usual  diligence,  and  ;:ompaiing  it  with  a  copy 

ISO  G  R  A  B  E. 

from  that  of  the  Vatican  at  Rome,  he  found  it  in  so  rvMi^ 
places  preferable  to  the  other,  that  be  resolved  to  print  ift 
as  soon  as  possible.  With  this  view,  in  1 704,  he  drew  tip 
a  particular  account  of  the  preferences  of  this  to  the  Vati-* 
can  MS.  especially  in  respect  to  the  book  of  '*  Judges,'*- 
and  published  it,  together  with  three  specimens,  contain-* 
ing  so  many  diflfei'ent  methods  of  his  intended  edition, 
wishing  to  be  determined  in  his  choice  by  the  learned. 
This  came  out  in  1705,  with  proposals  for  printing  it. by 
subscription,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  Dr,  Mill,  principal  of 
£dmund-hatl,  Oxford;  and  that  nothing  might  be  wanting 
which  lay  in  the  power  of  that  learned  body  to  promote  the 
work,  he  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of  D-  D.  early  the 
following  year,  upon  which  occasion  Dr.  Smalridge,  who 
then  officiated  as  regius  professor,  delivered  two  Latin 
speeches,  containing  the  highest  compliments  to  his  inerit. 
The  success  was  abundantly  answerable  to  bis  fondesi 
wishes :  besides  the  queen's  bounty,  he  received  anotbe? 
present  from  his  own  sovereign  the  king  of  Prussia ;  ancj 
subscription^^  from  the  principal  nobility,  clergy,  and  gen-« 
try,  crowded  daily  upon  him  from  all  parts. 

In  the  midst  of  these  encourageqiients,  the  first  volume 
of  this  important  work  came  out  in  1707,  at  Oxford,  in 
folio  and  8vo.  This  volume  contained  the  Octateuch,  and 
his  design  was  to  print  the  rest,  according  to  the  tenor  of 
the  MS.  but,  for  want  of  some  materials  to  complete  the 
historical  and  prophetical  books,  he  chose  rather  to  change 
that  order^  and  to  expedite  the  work  as  much  as  possible. 
The  chief  materials  for  which  he  waited  not  yet  coming  to 
hand,  he  was  sensible  that  the  world  might  expect  to  see 
the  reasons  of  the  delay,  and  therefore  published  a  disser- 
t-ation  the  following  year,  giving  a  particular  account  of  it, 
under  the  title  of  "  Dissertatio  de  variis  viijis  LXX  Inter-^ 

Eretuqi  ante  B.  Origenis  aevum  illatis,  &  remediis  ab  ipso 
[eyapl^ri  ejusdem  versionis  additione  adhibitis,  deque  hu« 
jus  edition^  reliquiis  tam  manuscriptis  tam  pr^lo  excusis.'' 
The  hplps  h^  >vanted,  as  above  intimated,  were  a  Syriac 
MS.  of  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testaonent,  with 
Origenis  ms^rks  i^poi^  th^m ;  besides  two  MSS.  one  bdong-* 
jng  to  caifdinal  Cbig^,  and  the  other  to  the  college  of  Lewis 
le  Grand.  He  receivecj  iiU  afterwards,  and  made  collations 
from  them^^  as  also  for  a  volume  of  annotations  upon  the 
whqle  work,  as  well  asf  for  the  prolegomena;  all  which 
xequirio^  some  tune  to  digest  into  a  proper  method j|;  the 

G  R  A  B  E;  15] 

iOMDd  voloiiie  did  not  come  oat  till  171 9,  when  the  fourth 
also  aippeared,  and  was  followed  by  the  third  the  ensuing  yean 

In  the  mean  time,  he  fell  into  a  dispute  with  WbistOD^ 
who  had  not  only  in  private  discourses^  in  order  to  support 
bis  own  cause  by  the  strength  of  our  author's  cbaracter^ 
but  also  in  public  writings,  plainly  intimated,  <^  that  the 
doctor  was  nearly  of  his  mind  about  the  Constitution  of 
the  Apostles,  written  by  St.  Clement,  and  that  he  owned 
in  general  the  genuine  truth  and  apostolical  antiquity  of 
that  collection/'  This  calumny  was  neglected  by  our  au-* 
thor  for  some  time,  till  he  understood  that  the  story  gained 
credit,  and  was  actually  believed  by  several  persons  wha 
were  acquainted  with  him.  For  that  reason  he  thought  it 
necessary  to  inform  the  public,  that  his  opinion  of  the 
Apostolical  Constitutions  was  quite  different,  if  not  oppo- 
site, to  Mr.  Whiston^s  sentiments  about  them ;  this  he  did 
in  '^  An  Essay  upon  two  Arabic  Manuscripts  in  the  Bod- 
leian Library,  and  that  ancient  book  called  the  Doctrine 
of  the  Apostles,  which  is  said  to  be  extant  in  them,  whereia 
Mr.  Whiston's  mistakes  about  both  are  plainly  proved." 

This  piece  was  printed  at  Oxford,  1711,  8  vo.  In  tbe- 
dedication,  he  observes,  that  it  was  the  first  piece  which 
be  published  in  the  English  tongue,  for  the  service  of  the 
church.  He  was  assisted  in  it  by  Gagnier,  who,  about  ten 
years  before,  had  come  over  to  the  church  of  England  front 
that  of  France,  and  then  taught  Hebrew  at  Oxford ;  and^ 
being  well  skilled  in  most  of  the  Oriental  languages,  bad 
been  appointed  the  year  before,  by  Sharp,  archbishop  of 
Yotkf  to  assist  Grabe  in  perusing  these  MSS.  having  en-^ 
gaged  the  doctor  to  write  this  treatise  against  Whiston's 
notion.  But  as  the  result  of  the  inquiry  was,  that  the 
Arabic  **  Didascaliu"  were  nothing  else  but  a  translation  of 
the  ffrst  six  entire  books  of  the  ^'  Clementine  Constitu- 
tionsy^'  with  only  the  addition  of  five  or  six  chapters  not  in 
the  Greek,  Whiston  immediately  sent  out  *^  Remarks  upon 
Grabe^s  Essay,''  &c.  1711;  in  which,  with  his  usual  perti- 
nacity he  claims  this  MS.  for  a  principal  support  of  hi^ 
own  opinions,  and  declares,  the  doctor  could  not  have' 
served  him  better  than  he  had  done  in  this  essay.  Nor  has 
almost,  says  he,  any  discovery,  I  think,  happened  so  for- 
tunate to  me,  and  to  that  sacred  cause  I  am  engaged  in 
f«pm  the  beginning,  as  this  essay  of  his  before  us.  How- 
ever this  may  be,  Grabe's  essay  was  his  last  publication,  ' 
being  prevented  in  the  desigu  he  bad  of  publishing  many 

152  G  KA  B:E) 

othem  by.  his!  death,  wWdi  happened  Nov.  12,  1712>  in 
the  vigour  of  his  age.     He  was  interred  in  Westniiu3ter-« 
abbey,  where  a  marble  monumeot,  with  his  effigy  at  full 
length,  in  a  sitting  posture,  and  a  suitable  hi«cription  un- 
derneath, was  erected  at  the  expence  of  the  lord-treasurec 
Harley.     He  was  attended  in  his  last  illness  by  Dr.  Smal- 
ridge,  who  gave  ample  testimony  of  his  sincere  piety,  and 
fully  refuted  the  aspemons  cast  on  bis  moral  character  by 
Casiiiiir  Oudin.     He  desired  upon  his  death-bed  that  his 
dying  in  the  faith  and  communion  of  the  church  of. England 
might  he  made  public.     He  thought  it  a  sound  anH  pure 
part  of  the  catholic  church,  notwithstanding  some  defects 
which  be  thought  he  perceived  in  the  reformation.     He 
expressed  also  his  most  hearty  wishes  for  the  union  of  all 
Christians,  according  to  the  primitive  and  perfect  model. 
He  was,  however,  a  little  scrupulous  about  communicat- 
ing publicly  in  the  English  church,  at  least  unless  he  pould 
place  an  entire  confidence  in  the  priest  that  was  to  offioi- 
ate,  or  ejccept .  in  case,  of  necessity.     Yet,  with  all  these 
scruples,  which  in  our  days  will  not  be  clearly  understood, 
he  always  professed  more  esteem  for  the  church  of  Eng- 
land than  for  any  other  part  of  the  catholig  church.     He 
had  so  great  a  zeal  for  promoting  the  ancient  government 
and  discipline  of  the  church,  among  all  those  who  had  se- 
parated themselves  from  the  corruption  and  superstitions 
of  the  church  of  Rome,  that  he  formed  a  plan,  and  made 
i^ome. advances  in  it,  for  restoring  the  episcopal  order  and 
office  in  the  territories  of  the  king  of  Prussia,  his  sove* 
reign  ;  and  he  proposed,  moreover,  to  introcTuce  a  liturgy 
much  after  the  model   of  the   English  service,  into  that 
king's  dominions.     He  recommended  likewise  the  use  of 
the  English  liturgy  itself,  by  means  of  some  of  his  f rife nds,^ 
to  a  certain  neighbouring  court.     By  these  methods,  his 
intention  was  to  unite  the  two  main  bodies  of  Protestants 
in  a  more  perfect  and  apostolical  reformation  than  that  upon 
which  either  of  them  then  stood,  and  thereby  fortify  the 
common  cause  of  their  protestation  against  the  errors  of 
popery,  against  which  he  left  several  MSS,  finished  and 
unfinished,  in  Latin,  of  which  the  tithes  in  English  are  to 
be  found  in  Dr.  Hickes's  account  of  his  MSS.     Among 
these  also  were  several  letters,  which  he  wrote  with  success 
to  several  persons,  to  prevent  their  apostacy  to  the  cburcti 
gf  Rome,  when  they  were  ready  to  be  reconciled  to  it  j 
apd  in  his  letters  be  challenged  the  priests  to  meet  h^^m  ix\ 

G  B  A  B  E.  153 

eonferences  before  the  persons  whom  they  bad  led  astra}' ; 
bat  ihey  knowing,  says  Dr.  Uickes,  the  Hercules  with  whom 
they  mujst  have  conflicted,  wisely  declined  the  challenge. 

He  left  a. great  naniber  of  MSS.  behind  him,  which  he 
bequeathed  to  Dr.  Hick«s  for  his  life,  and  after  his  decease 
to  Dr.  George  Smalridge.     Th&  former  of  these  divines 
carefully  performed  his  request  of  making  it  known,  that 
he  had  died  in  the  faith  and  comniunion  of  the  church  of 
England,  in  an  account  of  his  life,  prefixed  to  a  tract  of 
our  author's,  which  he  published  with  the  following  title  : 
^^  Some  Instances  of  the  Defects  and  Omissions  in  Mr. 
Whiston's  Collections  of  Testimonies,  from  the  Scriptures 
aiid  the  Fathers,  against  the  true  Deity  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
and  of  misapplying  and  misinterpreting  divers  of  them,  by 
Dr.Grabe.     To  which  is  premised,  a  discourse,  wherein 
some  account  is  given  of  the  learned  doctor,  and  his  MSS. 
and  of  this  short  treatise  found  among  his  English  MSS.  by 
George  Hickes,  D.  D."  1712,  8vo.     There  came  out  afters- 
wards  two  more  of  our  author's  posthumous  pieces :   1 .  <<  Li* 
turgta   Graeca  Johannis  Ernesti   Grabii."      This  liturgy, 
drawn  up  by  our  author  for  bis  own  private  use,  was  pub- 
lished by  Christopher  Matthew  Pfaff,  at  the  end  of  ^Mre* 
nasi  Fragmeata  Anecdota,"  printed  at  the  Hague,   1715, 
Svo.     2.  '^  De  Forma  Consecrationis  Eucharistia^,  hoc  est, 
Defensio  Ecclesiae  Gr8ec8B,"'&c.  i.  e.  *^  A  Discourse  con- 
cerning the  Form  of  Consecration  of  the  Eucharist,  or  a 
defence  of  the  Greek  church  against  that  of  Rome,  in  the 
article  of  consecrating  the  Eucfaaristioal  Elements ;  written 
in  Latin,  by  John  Ernest  Grabe,  and  now  first  published 
with  an  English  version."     To  which  is  added,  from  the 
sama  author's  MSS.  some  notes  concerning  the  oblation  of 
the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  with  the  form  and  effect  of 
the  eucharistical  consecration,  and  two  fragments  of  a  pre- 
face designed  for  a  new  ^ition  of  the  first  liturgy  of  Ed- 
ward VL  with  a  preface,  of  the  editor,  shewing  what  is  the 
opinion  of  the  church  of  England  concerning  Uie  use  of  the 
fathers,  and, of  its  principal  members,  in  regard  to  the  nmt* 
ter  defended  by  Dr.  Grabe  in  this  treatise,  1721,  8vo. 

Tbirlby  and  Le  Clerc  are  the  only  writers  of  reputation 
who  have  endeavoured  to  undervalue  Grabe's  abilities, 
which  have  received  due  tribute  from  bis  other  learned- 
contemporaries.  It  is,  however,  with  regret  we  find  by  a 
letter  lately  published  from  the  Harleian  MSS.  that  the 
ye^r  before  bis  d^atb|  he  was  sinking  udder  %k§  oomplU 

I5i  G  B  A  B  £) 

cated  Ipad  of  {penury  and  iU*^ealtb«  We  eia^nly  bop^ 
that  the  lord  treasurer,  Hadiey,  to  whom  the  letter  fra»  ad- 
dressed,  administered  such  relief  as  was  in  bis  pofwer ;  and 
this  is  the  more  probable  from  his  having  honoured  bis  re* 
mains  by  a  monument  in  Westminster-abbey.  It  remain* 
yet  tQ  be  noticed  that  bis  '^  Collatio  codtcis  Cottoniani 
Geue3eds  cum  editione  Romana,''  which  lay  long  unnoticed 
in  the  Bodleian  library,  had  ample  justice  done  to  it  in 
}778,  hy  the  attention  and  accuracy  of  Dr.  Henry  Owenj 
and  that  the  whole  of  the  Alexandrian  MS.  has  since  been 
very  accurately  published  in  fac-simile  by  the  late  rev.  Or. 
Woide  of  the  British  Museum.^ 

GRACIAN  (Baltasar),  a  celebrated  Spanish  Jesuit^ 
was  born  at  Catalaiud,  formerly  Bilbilis.  He  taught  the 
belles-lettres,  philosophy,  and  theology,  in  his  society » 
preached  during  some  years,  and  was  rector  of  the  college 
at  Tarragona,  where  he  died  December  6,  1658,  leaving  a 
considerable  number  of  works  in  Spanish,  published  at 
Madrid  in  1664,  but  which  are  not  much  suited  to  the  pre-^ 
sent  taste,  2  vols.  4to.  The  chief  of  those  that  have  been- 
translated  into  French  a?e^  <*  Le  Heros/'  by  P.  de  Gourhe-^ 
ville,  a  Jesuit j  Rotterdam,  1729,  12mo;  ^'  Refiexion& 
politiqqes  sur  les  plus  grands  princes,  et  particulierement 
sur  Ferdinand  le  Catholiqtte,'*  by  M.  de  Silhouette,  Am- 
sterdam, 173],  12m6,  translated  also  by  P.  de  Courbeville> 
under  the  title  of  ^^  Le  Politique  Dom.  Ferdinand  le  Ca^ 
thpjique,"  Paris,  1732,  12mo,  with  notes.  >*  L' Homme' 
Universel,**  by  P.  de .  Courbeville,  12mo.  **  L' Homme" 
detromp6,  ou  le  Criticon,"  by  Maunoy,  3  vols^  12iDO, 
•^  UHomme  de  Cour,'*  by  Amelot  de  la  Houssaye^  with 
notes,  ]  2mo.  P.  de  Courbeville  has  likewise  translated  it, 
with  the  title  of  ^^  Maximes  de  Balthasar  Gracian,  aveO' 
des  Reponsesaux  Critiques  de  L'Homme  Universel/'  Paris, 
)730,  12mo.  His  ^^  Manual  on  the  Art  of  Prudence,'*  was 
published  in  English,,  in  1694,  8vo,' 

G&SMK  (John),  a  young  man  of  Scotland  whose  ge<# 
nius  i^nd  learning  have  been  most  injudiciously  heightened, 
was  born  at  Carnwarth,  in  Lanarkshire,  in  1748.  He  waa 
the  youngest  of  the  four  sons  of  a  poor  farmer^  and  having 
discovered  an  uncommon  proficiency  in  the  learning  taught 
at  the  school  of  the  village,  it  was  resolved  to  educ^e  him' 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Gen.  Dict,i-*Nidiolft'K  Bowjer.-*>Ssxii  ^noaast* 
?  M«reru«»Pict.  Hist* 


O  n  M  tA  E;#  155 

for  the  church.  At  the  age  of  foarteeu  h0  was  placed  at 
the  school  of  Lanark,  where  bk  progress  in  grammatical 
learning  is  said  to  have  been  rapid,  and,  considering  his 
earJy  disadvantages,  incredible.  In  1766  he  was  removed 
fo  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  where,  we  are  likewise  told 
that  in  classii?al  learning  be  surpassed  the  most  industrious 
and  accomplished -students  of  bis  standing,  and  spoke  and 
Composed  in  L^tin  with  a  fluency  and  elegance  that'  had 
few  examples.  And,  of  mathematics,  natural  philosophyi 
and  metaphysics,  his  knowledge  was  considerable.  To  this 
was  owing  a  certain  proneoess  to  disputation  and  metaphy- 
sical refinement,  for  which  he  was  remarkable,  and  which 
be-oft0n  indulged  to  a  degree  that  subjected  him  to  the 
imputation  of  iipprudence,  and  of  free^tbinking.  His  torn 
for  elegant  composition  first  appeared  in  the  solution  of  a 
philosophic  question,  proposed  as  a  college-exercise,  which 
^  he  chose  to  exemplify  in  the  form  of  a  tale,  conceived  and 
executed  with  all  the  fire  and  invention  of  eastern  imagi- 
nation. This  happened  in  1769 ;  and  his  first  attempts  in 
poetry  are  of  no  earlier  date. 

About  this  time  be  was  presented  to  an  eKhibition  (or 
bursary,  as  it  is  called)  in  the  university  of  St.  Andrew^ 
which  be  accepted,  but  found  reason  soon  after  to  decline, 
upon  discovering  that  it  subjected  him  to  repeat  a  course 
of  languages  and  philosophy;  which  the  extent  of  his  ac« 
quisitions,  and  the  ardour  q(  his  ambition,  taught  him  to 
bold  in  no  great  estimation.  In  1770,  therefore,  he  re- 
stimed  bis  studies  at  E^dinburgh,  and,  having  finished  the 
usual  preparatory  (^ourse^  was  admitted  into  the  theologi-^ 
cal  class :  bqt  the  state  of  his  health,  which  soon  after  be^* 
gan  to  decline,  did  not  allow  him  to  deliver  any  of  the  ex- 
ercises usually  prescribed  to  students  in  that  sdciety.  In 
autumn  1771,  bis  ilUhealtb,  that  bad  been  increasing 
almost,  unperceived,  terminated  in  a  deep  consumption } 
the  complicated  distress  of  which,  aggravated  by  the  indi- 
gence of  bis  situation,  be  bore  with  an  heroic  composure 
and  magnanimity,  and  continued  at  intervals  to  compose 
verses,  and  to  correspond  witb  bis  friends,  until  after  a 
tedious  struggle  of  ten  months,  he  expired  July  26,  1772y 
in  the  24th  year  of  bis  age.  His  poenaa,  consisting  of  ele- 
gies and  miscellaneous  pieces,  were  collected,  and  printed 
at  Edinburgh,  1773,  Svo.  There  are  few  of  tbem  entitled 
to  superior  praise,  and  certainly  none  that  can  justify  the 
leqgth  to  which  the  detail  of  bis  life  and  opinions  has  been 

156  G  R  JE  M  E; 

extended.  Unfortunately  als®,  thiese  poems  were  reprinted 
in  a  late  collection,  and  among  them  a  specimen  of  his 
Latin  poetry,  called  a  Sapphic  ode,  and  styled  *[  a  correct 
and  manly  performance  for  a  boy  of  fifteen.**  But  so  far 
from  being  correct,  it  is  not  even  a  decent  attempt,  and  the 
lines  are  formed  with  such  total  ignorance  of  the  Sapphic 
measure,  that  it  has  justly  been  said,  "  a  boy  producing 
such  at  one  of  our  public  schools  could  only  be  considerea 
as  intending  to  insult  the  master."  It  seems  difficult,  there- 
fore, to  form  any  judgment  of  the  illiteracy  of  those  **  most 
industrious  and  accomplished  students  of  his  standing,*' 
whom  he  surpassed  in  "  classical  learning.'** 

GR.EVIUS,  or  GREVIUS  (John  George),  a  cele- 
brated Latin  critic,  was  born  January  29,  1632,  at  Naum- 
bourg,  in  Saxony ;  and,  having  laid  a  good  foundation  of 
classical  learning  in  his  own  country,  was  sent  to  finish  his 
education  at  Leipsic,  under  the  professors  Rivinus  and 
Straucbius.  This  last  was  his  relation  by  the  mother*s  side^ 
and  sat  opponent  in  the  professor*s  chair,  when  our  author 
performed  his  exercise  for  his  degree ;  on  which  occasion 
he  maintained  a  thesis,  "  De  Moribus  Gerraanorum.*'  As 
bis  father  designed  to  breed  him  to  the  law,  he  applied 
himself  a  while  to  that  study,  but  not  without  devoting 
much  of  his  time  to  polite  literature,  to  which  he  was  early 
attached,  and  which  he  afterwards  made  the  sole  object  of 
his  application.  With  this  view  he  removed  to  Deventer 
in  Holland,  attended  the  lectures  of  John  Francis  Grono- 
vius,.  whose  frequent  conversations  and  advice  entirely 
fixed  him  in  his  resolution.  He  was  indeed  so  much  pleased 
with  this  professor,  that  he  spent  two  years  in  these  stijdies 
under  his  direction,  and  frequently  used  to  ascribe  all  hia 
knowledge  to  his  instructions.  Being  desirous  in  the  mean 
time  of  every  opportunity  of  enlarging  his  acquaintance 
with  the  ablest  men  of  his  time,  be  went  from  Deventer, 
first  to  Leyden  to  hear  Daniel  Heinsius,  and  next  to  Am- 
sterdam ;  where,  attendfng  the  lectures  of  A  lexander  Monus 
and  David  Blondel,  this  last  persuaded  him  to  renounce 
the  Lutheran  religion,  in  which  he  had  been  bred,  and  to 
embrace  Calvinism. 

His  reputation  for  literary  talents  and  acquirements  wad 
so  high  before  he  had  reached  his  twenty-fourth  year,  that 
he  was  judged  qualified  for  the  chair;  and,  upon  tbe'deatti 

,.    '  *  Anderson's 4>oet8.— British Criiici  to),  VJIr     . 


G  R  iE  VI  V  fi.  I5t 

of  Schnltingi  actually  hominsfcted  to  the  professofsbip  bf 
Duisburg  by  the  elector  of  Brandenburgh :  who  at  the 
same  time  yielded  (o  his  desire  of  visiting  Antwerp,  Brus- 
sels, Lorrain,  and  the  neigbbouiing  countries ;  in  order  to 
complete  the  plan  he  had  laid  down  for  finishing  his  studies 
before  he  entered  upon  the  exercise  of  bis  office.  Young 
as  he  was,  he  appeared  every  way  qualified  for  this  office, 
but  held  it  no  longer  than  two  years  ;  when  he  closed  with 
an  offer  of  the  professorship  of  Deventer,  which,  though  of 
less  value  than  Duisburg,  was  more  acceptable  to  him  on 
many  accounts.  He  had  a  singular  affection  for  thef  place 
where  first  he  indulged  his  inclination  for  these  studies, 
and  he  had  the  pleasure  of  succeeding  his  much-beloved 
Groi>ovius,  and  that  too  by  a  particular  recommendation, 
on  his  removal  to  Leyden.  It  must  be  remembered  also, 
that  be  was  a  proselyte  to  Calvinism,  which  was  the  esta- 
blished religion  at  Deventer,  and  scarcely  tolerated  at 
Duisburg ;  and  in  Holland  also  it  might  occur  to  him  that 
there  was  a  fairer  prospect  of  preferment,  and  in  this  he 
was  not  disappointed,  as  in  1661,  the  States  of  Utrecht 
made  him  professor  of  eloquence  in  that  university,  in  the 
room  of  Paulus  JEmilius. 

,  Here  be  fixed  his  ambition,  and  resolved  to  move  no  more, 
and  rejected  solicitations  both  from  Amsterdam  and  Ley- 
deo.  The  elector  Palatine  lik^wi^e  attempted  in  vain  to 
draw  him  to  Heidelberg,  and  the  republic  of  Venice  to 
Padua,  but  he  bad  become  in  some  degree  naturalized  to 
Holland  :  and  the  States  of  Utrecht,  being  determined  not 
to  part  with  him,  added  to  that  of  eloquence  the  profes- 
sorship of  politics  and  history  in*  1673.  In  these  stations 
be  had  the  honour  to  be  sought  after  by  persons  of  different 
countries ;  several  coming  from  Germany  for  the  benefit  of 
his  instructions,  many  from  England.  He  had  filled  all 
these  posts,  with  a  reputation  nothing  inferior  to  any  of 
bis  time,  for  more  than  thirty  years,  when  he  was  suddenly 
carried  off  by  an  apoplexy,  Jan.  1 1,  1703,  in  his  71st  year. 
.  He  bad  eighteen  children  by  his  wife,  whom  he  married 
in  1656,  .but  was  survived  only  by  four  daughters.  One 
of  bis  sons,  a  youth  of  great  hopes,  died  1692,  in  his  23d 
year,  while  he  was  preparing  a  new  edition  pf  Callima- 
cbus,  which  was  finished  afterwards  by  his  father,  aqd 
printed  in  1697. 

.  .  GjTtievitts  did  great  service  to  the  republic  of  letters,'  not 
80  much  by  original  productions  of  his  own,  as  by  proc.ur- 


15$  Q  n  JEV  IM  S. 

*  «  ■ 

ing^  many  editions  of  9utborS|  which  he  enriched  \vith  notes 
and  excellent  prefaces,  as  Hesiod,  Callimachus^  Suetonius, 
Cicero,  Fiorus,  Catullus,  Tibullus,  Propertius,  «f  ustin,  C»« 
sar,  Lucian.  He  published  also,  of  the  moderns,  Casau*^ 
bon^s  "Letters,"  several  pieces  of  Meursius,  Huet^s  "  Poc- 
roata,'*  Junius  "  De  pictura  veterum,"  £remita  "  De  Vita 
aulica  &  civili,''  and  otliers  of  less  Tkote.  But  his  chef 
jd'ceuvre  is  his  ''  Thesaurus  Antiquitatum  Komanarum,"  in 
12  vols,  folio;  to  which  he  added  afterwards  "  Thesaortrs 
Antiq.  &  Histor.  Italise,^"  which  were  printed  after  hi«  death, 
J 704,  in  3  vols,  folio.  There  also  came  oot  in  1707,  "  J. 
G.  Graevii  Preelectiones  &  CXX  Epistolds  colleotic  ab  Alb. 
Fabricio;'*  to  which  was  added  '^  fiurmanni  Oracio  dicta 
in  Graevii  funere,''  to  which  we  are  obliged  for  tlie  parti^ 
culars  of  this  memoir.  In  1717  was  printed  "  J.  G.  Grae^ 
vii  Orationes  quas  Ultrajecti  habuit,'*  8vo.  A  great  num^ 
ber  of  his  letters  were  published  by  Burman  in  his  **  Syl- 
loge  Epistotarum,"  in  5  vols.  4to.  And  the  late  Dr.  Mead, 
who  had  been  one  of  his  pupils,  was  posi>es6ed  of  a  collec-* 
lion  of  original  letters  in  MS.  written  to  GrsBvlus  by  the 
most  eminent  persons  in  learning,  as  Basnage,  Bayle,  Bur- 
man,  Le  Clerc,  Faber,  Fabricius,  Gronovius,  Kuster,  Lien* 
boFch,  Puffeadorff,  Salms^iusi,  Sp^nheim,  Spinosa,  Tollius^ 
iBeutley,  Dodwell,  Locke,  Potter,  Abb6  Bossuet,  Bignp% 
]9arduin,  Huet,  Menage,  Spon,  Vaillant,  &c.  from  1670  to 
the  year  of  his  death.* 

GRAFIGNY  (Frances  d^Isembourg  D'HAPPONCotjRT, 
Dame  de),  a  French  lady  of  literary  reputation,  was  tb^ 
daughter  of  a  mihtary  oiEcer,  and  born  about  the  year  1€94« 
She  was  married,  or  rather  sacrificed  to  Francis  Hugot  de 
Grafigny,  chamberlain  to  the  duke  of  Lorraine,  a  man  c^ 
violent  passions,  from  which  she  was  often  in  danger  of  her 
life ;  but  after  some  years  of  patient  suffering,  she  was  al 
length  relieved  by  a  legal  separation,  and  her  husband 
finished  his  days  in  confinement,  which  his  improper 
conduct  rendered  necessary.  Madame  de  Grafiguy  now 
came  to  Paris,  where  her  merit  was  soon  acknowledged, 
although  her  first  performance,  a  Spanish  novel,  did  not 
pass  without  some  unpleasant  criticisms,  to  wbidi,  says 
our  authority,  she  gave  the  best  of  all  possible  answers,  by 

'  >  Botvtianni  Oratio  ubt  supra. — Niceron,  vols.  II.  and  X.*— Gen.  Diet.— ->Bnr.. 
manni  Trajectum  Eruditum. — Saxii  Onomasticon. — Dr.  Mead's  coilection  of 
letters,  meutioDed  above,  were  sold  at  bis  sale  for  twenty-x)iie  g^uin^as,  but  we 
have  not  learned  who  was  the  purchaser.  They  amouated  to  tbrte  Ibottsand 
tw«  huadrad  letters,  all  orisinals. 

O  R  A  F  I  G  N  y.  159 

rwriting  a  batter,  which  ivss  tor  **  Lettres  d*utte  Peruvicnhe,^* 
•2  vols.  l2ino.    This  bad  great  success,  being  written  with 
spirit,  and  abounding  in  those  delicate  sentiments  which 
are  so  much  admired  in  the  French  school,   yet  an  air 
of  metaphysical  speculation  has  been  justly  objected,  as 
jthrovving  a  chill  on  her  descriptions  of  love.     She  aUo 
wrote  some  dramatic  pieces,  of  which  the  comedies  of 
^*  Cenie''  &  "  La  Fille  d'Aristide"  were  most  applauded. 
Having  resided  for  some  tio^e  at  tlie  court  of  Lorraine,  she 
became  known  to  the  emperor,  who  had  read  her  ^^  Pe- 
ruvian Letters''  with  much  pleasure,  and  engaged  her  to 
.write  some  dramatic  pieces  proper  to  be  performed  before 
.the  empress  and  the  younger  branches  of  the  royal  family 
at  court.     This  she  complied  with,  and  sent  five  or  six 
:Sucb  pieces  to  Vienna,  and  in  return  received  a  pension  of 
1500  livres,  but  with  the  express  condition  that  she  was 
not  to  print  thes^^dramas,  nor  give  copies  to  any  other 
theatre.     She  long  retained  the  esteem  and  patronage  of 
the  court  of  Vienna,  and  was  chosen  aix  associate  of  the 
acadeo^y  at  Florence.     She  died,  much  esteemed  by  all 
classes,  at  Paris  in  1758,     A  complete  edition  of  her  works 
.was  published  at  Paris  in  17S8,  4  vols.  12mo;  and  her 
:*^  Letters  of  a  Peruvian   Pi^ncess,'*    were   published  iii 
.English,  by  F.  Ashworth,  1782,  2  vols.  JJvo.* 

CRAETON  (Richard),  an  English  printer  and  historian, 
was  descended  of  a  good  family,  and  appears  to  have  beea 
brought  up  a  merchant,  and  his  works,  as  an  author,  evince 
him  to  have  had  a  tolerable  education.  He  tells  us  him«^ 
self  that  he  wrote  the  greatest  part  of  Hallos  chronicle 
•(who  died  in  1547),  and  next  year  printed  that  work,  en- 
titled ^^  The  anion  of  the  two  noble  and  illustre  fameliey 
of  Lancastre  and  Yorke,"  foe.  continued  to  the  end  of  the 
Feign  of  fienry  VIIL  from  Hall's  MSS.  according  to  Ant. 
\Vbod.  It  had  been  printed  by  Berthelat  in  1542,  but 
br^Hight  down  only  to  1532.  In  1562  Grafton's  ^^  Abridge 
ment  of  the  Chronicles  of  England,*'  was  printed  by  R. 
Tottyl,  and  reprinted  the  two  succeeding  years,  and  in 
1572.  And  as  Stowe  had  published  his  ^'  Summarie  of  the 
flnglyshe  Chronicles''  in  1565,  Grafton  sent  out,  as  a 
rival,  an  abridgement  of  bis  abridgement,  which  he  entitled 
<f  A  M^Quell  of  the  Chronicles  of  England ;"  and  Stowe, 
not  lo  be  behind  with  hisa^  published  in  the  same  year  bis 

i  Diet,  Hilt. 

*J60  tJ  R  AFT  ON. 

***  Summarie  of  Chronicles  abridged.**  This  rivalship  was 
accooipained  by  harsh  reflections  on  each  other  in  their  re- 
spex^tive  prefaces.  In  1569  Grafton  published  his  "  Chro- 
nicle at  large,  and  meere  History  of  the  affaires  of  Eng- 
land," &c.  some  part  of  which  seems  to  have  been  unjustly 
Censured  by  Buchanan.  In  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  soon 
after  the  death  of  lord  Cromwell)  Grafton  was  imprisoned 
six  weeks  in  the  Fleet,  for  printing  Matthews's  Bible^  and 
what  was  called  "The  Great  Bible"  without  notes,  and, 
before  his  release,  was  bound  in  a  penalty  of  lOO/.  tbat  be 
should  neither  sell  nor  print,  or  cause  to  be  printed,  any 
more  bibles,  until  the  king  and  the  clergy  should  agrefe 
upon  a  translation.  As  Whitchurch  was  concerned  with 
him  in  printing  those  Bibles,  he  very  probably  shared  the 
same  fate.  Grafton  was  also  called  before  the  council,  oil 
a  charge  of  printing  a  ballad  in  favour  of  lord  Cromwell ; 
and  his  quondam  friend  bishop  Bonner  "being  present,  ag- 
gravated the  cause,  by  reciting  a  little  chat  between  them, 
in  which  Grafton  had  intimated  his  "  being  sorry  to  hear 
of  Cromwell's  apprehension  ;"  but  the  lord  chancellor  Aud** 
ley,  disgusted  probably  at  this  meanness  .of  spirit  in  Bon- 
ner, turned  the  discourse,  and  the  matter  seems  to  have 
ended.  In  a  few  years  after,  Grafton  was  appointed  prin- 
ter to  prince  Edward,  and  he  with  his  associate  Whitchurch 
had  special  patents  for  printing  the  church-service  books, 
and  also  the' Primers  both  in  Latin  and  English. 

•  In  the  first  year  of  Edward  VI.  Grafton  was  favoured 
with  a  special  patent  granted  to  him  for  the  sole  printing  of 
air  the  statute  books,  or  acts  of  parliament;  and  in  Dec. 
154S,  he  and  Whitchurch  were  authorized  by  another 
patent,  to  take  up  and  provide,  for  one  year,  printers, 
compositors,  &c.  together  with  paper,  ink,  presses,  &c.  at 
reasonable  rates  and  prices.  Ames  seems  to  be  of  opinion 
that  he  was  also  a  mentfoer  of  parliament,  but  Herbert,  ap- 
parently on  good  grounds,  doubts  this.  It  does  not  appear 
with  certainty  in  what  circumstances  he  died.  Strype  sup- 
poses him  to  have  been  reduced  to  poverty,  and  tliere  is 
not  much  reason  to  think  that  he  died  in  affluent  circum- 
stances. No  particulars,  however,  have  been  handed  down 
to  us  of  bis  sickness,  death,  or  interment,  nor  do  we  find 
any  account  qf  him  after  1572,  when*  by  an  accidental  fall 
he  broke  his  leg.>  He  printed  .seme  of  the  earliest,  most 
correct,  and  splendid  of  the  English  Bibles,  and  many 
otjher  works  of  great  importance  in  the  infancy  of  the 

G  E  A  F  T  O  N.  161 

r^foi'iiiation.  His  ^<  Chronicle''  has  not  preserve  its  re- 
putation^ and  has  been  usually  sold  at  a  price  very  inferior 
to  that  of  the  other  English  Chronicles;  but  upon  that 
account,  howeyer,  it  appears  to  have  obtained  a  wider  cir« 
Gulation. ' 


GKAHAM  (George),  clock  and  watch  maker,  the  most 
ingenious  and  accurate  artist  in  his  time,  was  born  at  Hors- 
gills,  in  the  parish  of  Kirklinton  in  Cumberland,  in  1675. 
In  1688  he  came  up  to  London,  and  was  put  apprentice 
to  a  person  in  that  profession ;  but  after  being  some  time 
w^th  his  master,  he  was  received,  purely  on  account  of , his 
merit,  into  the  family  of  the  celebrated  Mr.  Tompion,  who 
treated  him  with  a  kind  of  parental  affection  as  long  as  l^ie 
lived.  That  Mr.  Graham  was,  without  competition,  the 
most  eminent  of  his  profession,  is  but  a  small  part  of  his 
Ghai*acter :  he  was  the  best  general  mechanic  of  his  time,^ 
and  had  a  complete  knowledge  of  practical  astronomy ;  so 
that  he  not  only  gave  to  various  movements  for  measuring 
time  a  degree  of  perfection  which  had  never  before  been 
attained,  but  invented  several  astronomical  instruments, 
by  which  considerable  advances  have  been  made  in  that 
science:  he  also  ojiade  great  improvements  in  those  which 
had  before  been  in  use ;  and,  by  a  wonderful  manual  dex- 
terity, comtructed  them  with  greater  precision  and  accu- 
racy than  any  other  person  ia  the  world. 

.A  great  mural  arch  in  the  observatory  at  Greenwich  was 
made  for  Dr.  Halley,  under  Mn  Graham^s  immediate  inspec*! 
tion,  and  divided  by  bis  own  hand :  and  from  this  incomparable 
original,  the  best  foreign  instruments  of  the  kind  are  copies, 
made  by  English  artists.  The  sector  by  which.  Dr.  Brad- 
ley first  discovered  two  new  motions  in  the  fixed  stars,  was 
of  his  invention  and  fabric.  He  comprised  the  whole 
planetary  system  within  the  compass  of  a  small  cabinet; 
from  which,  as  a  model,  all  the  modem  orreries  have  beea 
constructed^  And  when  the  French  academicians  were 
sent  %o  the  north,  to  make  observations  for  ascertaining 
the  figure  of  the  earth,  Mr.  Graham  was  thought  the  fittest 
person  in  Europe  to  supply  them  with  instruments;  by 
which  means  they  finished  their  operations,  in  one  year; 
wk^e  those  who  went  to  the  jiouth, .  not  being  so  well  fur*** . 

*  Ames  and  Herbert's  Typoi^aphjical  Antiquities.  « 

Vol.  XVI.  IVI 

t«3  C  K  A  H  A  M. 

nished)  were  very  mnch  embarrassed  and  retarded  in  tbeitf^ 

Mr.  Graham  was  many  years  a  member  of  the  royal  soei^ty« 
to  which  he  communicated  several  ing^iLous  and  important 
discoveries,  viz.  from  the  31st  to  the  42d  volume  of  thdi 
Philos.Transactions,  chiefly  on  astronomical  and  philosophi- 
cal subjects ;  particularly  a  kind  of  horary  alteratifOR  of  the 
magnetic  needle ;  a  quicksilver  pendulum,  and  many  cu-» 
rious  particulars  relating  to  the  true  length  of  the  simplei. 
pendulum^  upon  which  he  continued  to  make  esrperiment^ 
till  almost  the  year  of  his  death,  which  happened  Nov.  20^ 
1751,  at  his  house  in  Fleet^street.  He  was  inlerved  inf 
Westminster  abbey  in  the  same  grave  with  his  predeeestoi^ 

His  temper  was  tiot  less  communicative  than  his  genian 
was  penetrating ;  and  his  principal  view  was  the  advance^ 
ment  of  science,  and  the  benefit  of  mankind.  As  be  wa^r 
.  perfectly  sincere^  he  was  above  suspicion  ;  as  he  was  above 
envy,  he  was  candid ;  and  as  be  bad  a  relish  for  true  plea^*- 
sure,  he  was  generous.  He  frequently  lent  money^  but 
could  never  be  prevailed  upon  to  take  any  interest ;  and  for 
diat  reason  be  never  placed  out  any  money  upon  govern*^ 
ment  securities.  He  had  bank*notes,  which  were  thirty 
years  old,  in  his  possession,  when  he  died }  and  his  whole 
property,  except  his  stock  in  trade,  was  found  in  a  strong* 
box,  which,  though  less  than  would  have  been  headed  by 
avarice,  was  yet  more  than  would  have  remained  to  pro* 
digality.  ^ 

GRAIN  (John  Baptist  le),  a  French  historian^  waa 
born  in  1^65,  and,  after  a  liberal  education,  beeame  ooun^i* 
seller  and  master  of  the  requests  to  Mary  de  Medieis,  queeti 
of  France.  He  frequented  the  court  in  his  youtb^  and  d^ 
voted  himself  to  the  service  of  Henry  IV.  by  whom  be  wal^ 
much  esteemed  and  trusted.  Being  a  man  of  probity,  andl 
void  of  ambition,  he  did  not  employ  his  interest  witk^ 
Henry  to  obtain  dignities^  but  6pent  the  greatest  part  of 
bis  life  in  literaiy  retirement.  Among  other  w^rks  wbiclit 
be  composed,  are  "  The  History  of  Henry  IV,"  and  "  The 
History  of  Lewid  XIII.  to  the  death  of  the  Marshal  d'An-^ 
ere,"  in  1617;  both  which  were  published  in  folio,  tinder 
the 'title  of  <<  Deteade6."  The  former  he  pi-esented  «q 
LewijB  XIII.  who  read  it  over,  and  was  infinitely  charmed 

I  QtaL  May.  toI.  liXI»— Butcbioioa'i  Hiit  of  Cuab^iUftOi 

G  RvA  I  N*  168 

mth  tbe  fraokaess  of  tbe  author :  but  the  Jesuits^  who 
never  were  friendly  to  liberality  of  sentiment^  found  means 
to  have  'this  work  castrated  in -several  places.    They  served 
"  The  Hist(H-y  of  Lewis  XIII."  worse ;  for,  Le  Grain  hav- 
ing in  that  performance  spoken  advantageously  of  the 
prince  of  Cond^,  hisi  protector,  they  had  the  cunning  and 
malice  to  suppress  those  passages,  and  to  insert  others, 
where  they  made  him  speak  of  the  prince  in  very  indeco« 
rous  terms.     Cond6  was  a  dupe  to  this  piece  of  knavery, 
till  Le  Grain  had  ti$ne  to  vindicate  himself,  by  restoring 
this  as  well  as  his  former  works  to  their  original  purity. 
He  di€fd  at  Paris  in  1643,  and  ordered  in  his  will,  that 
none  of  his  descendants  should  ever  trust  the  education  of 
their  children  to  the  Jesuits ;  which  clause,  it  is  said,  ha(» 
been  punctually  observed  by  bis  family.  ^ 

GftAINDORGE  (Andrew),  an  ingenious  Frencliman, 
was  a  native  of  Caen  in  the.  seventeenth  century,  and  tha 
discoverec  of  the  art  of  making  figured  diaper..  He  did  not^ 
however,  bring  it  to  perfection,  for  he  only  wove  squares 
and  flowers;  but  his  son  Richard  Graindorge,  living  to^ 
tbe  age  of  eigtity-two,  had  leisure  to  complete  what  his ' 
fsither  bad  begun,  and  found  a  way  to  represent  all  sorts 
of  animals,  and  other  figures.  This  work  he  called  Haute" 
lice,  perhaps  because  the  threads  were  twisted  in  the 
woof.  They  are  now  called  damasked  cloths,  from  their 
resemblance  to  white  damask.  This  ingenious  workman 
also  invented  the  method  of  weaving  table  napkins ;  and 
bis  son,  Michael,  established  several  manufactures  in  dif-* 
ferent  parts  of  France,  where  these  damasked  cloths  are 
become  very  common.  Tbe  same  family  has  produced  se- 
veral other  persons  of  genius  and  merit ;  ^among  these  is 
James  Graindorge,  a  man  of  wit  and  taste,  and  well  skilled 
in  antiquities :  he  is  highly  spokei\  of  by  M.  Huet,  who 
was  bis  intimate  friend.  His  brother  Andrew,  also, 
doctor  of  physic  of  the  faculty  at  Montpellier,  was  a  learned 
phtloi^opberj  who  followed  the  principles  of  JCpicurus  and 
Gassendi.  He  died  January  13,  1676,  aged  sixty.  He 
left,  ^'  Traits  de  la  Nature  du  Feu,  de  la  Lumi^re,  et  des 
Couleurs,^^  4to  j  "  Traits  de  I'Origine  des  Macreuses,'^ 
1680,  l'2mo,  and  other  works.  M.  Huet  dedicated  bi$ 
book  '^  De  Interpretatione"  to  this  gentleman.* 

U  2 


'  GRAIN6ER  (James)^  an  English  poet  and  physicianr, 
was  botn  at  Dunse,  a  small  town  in  the  southern  part  of 
Scotland,  about  1723.  His  father,  a  native  of  Cumber- 
land, and  once  a  man  of  considerable  property,  had  re- 
moved to  Dunse,  on  the  failure  of  some  speculations  in 
mining,  and  there  filled  a  post  in  the  excise.  His  son, 
after  receiving  such  education  as  his  native  place  afforded, 
went  to  Edinburgh,  where  he  was  apprenticed  to  Mr.  Law- 
der,  a  surgeon,  and  had  an  opportunity  of  studying  the 
various  branches  of  medical  science^- which  were  then 
begun  to  be  taught  by  the  justly  celebrated  founders  of  the 
school  of  medicine  in  that  city.  Having  qualified  himself 
for  such  situations  as  are  attainable  by  young  men  whose 
circumstances  do  not  permit  them  to  wait  the  slow  returns 
of  medical  practice  at  home,  be  first  served  as  surgeon  to 
lieut.-general  Pulteney^s  regiment  of  foot,  during  the  re- 
bellion (of  1745)  in  Scotland,  and  afterwards  went  in  the 
same  capacity  to  Germany,  where  that  regiment  composed 
part  of  the  army  under  the  earl  of  Stair.  With  the  repu- 
tation and  interest  which  his  skill  and  learning  procured 
abroad,  he  came  over  to  England  at  the  peace  of  Aix-la«* 
Chapelle,  sold  his  commission,  and  entered  upon  practice 
as  a  physician  in  London. 

In  1753  he  published  the  result  of  his  experience  in 
some  diseases  of  the  army,  in  a  volume  written  in  Latin, 
entitled  **  Historia  Febris  Anomalse  Batavce  annorum  1746, 
1747,  1748,^'  &c.  Id  this  work  he  appears  to  advantage 
as  an  acute  observer  of  the  phenomena  of  disease,  and  as 
a  man  of  general  learning,  but  what  accession  he  had 
been  able  to  make  to  the  stock  of  medical  knowledge  was 
unfortunately  anticipated  in  sir  John  Pringle's  recent  and 
very  valuable  work  on  the  diseases  of  the  army.  During 
his  residence  in  London,  his  literary  talents  introduced 
him  to  the  acquaintance  of  many  men  of  genius,  particu- 
larly pf  Shenstone,  Dr.  Percy  the  late  bishop  of  Dromore, 
Glover,  Dr.  Johnson,  sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  and  others^ 
who  by  Mr.  BoswelPs  comprehensive  biography,  are  now 
known  to  have  composed  Dr.  Johnson^s  society,  and  it  is 
no  small  praise  that  every  member  of  it  regai-ded  Dr. 
Grainger  with  affection.  He  was  first  known  as  a  poet  by 
bis  **  Ode  oti  SoliQide,*'  which  has  been  universally  praised, 
and  never  beyond  its  merits;  but  professional  success  is 
aeldom  promoted  by  the  reputation  of  genius.  Grainger's 
practice  was  insufficient  to  employ  his  days  or  to  provide 

(3  R  A  I.N  G  S  R»  US 

for  tbem,  aid  be  is  said  to  h$^e  accepted  the  office,  of  ttitor 
to  a  young  gentleo^an  who  se^itled  an  annuity  \ipon  M91 ;  tipr 
did  he  disdain  such  literary  employment  as  the  booksellers 
suggested.  Smollett,  in  the  coi^rse  of  a  controversy  which 
will  be  noticed  hereafter,  accuses  him  of  working  for  bread 
in  the  lowest  employments  of  literature,  and  ai  the  lowest 
prices.  This,  if  it  be  not  the  loose  assertion  of  a  calum- 
niator, may  perhaps  refer  to  the  assistance  he  gave  in  pre- 
paring the  second  volujne  of  Maitland's  ^^  History  of  Scot* 
land,^'  in  which  he  was  employed  by  Andrew  Millar,  who 
has  seldom  been  accused  of  bargaining  with  authors  for 
the  lowest  prices.  Maitland  had  left  materials  for  the  vo* 
lume,  and  as  Grainger's  business  was  to  arrange  them,  and 
contin^e  the  work  as  nearly  as  possible  in  Maitland's  plan- 
ner and  style,  much  fame  could  not  result  from  his  best 

In  1758  be  published  a  translation  of  the  *^  Elegies  of 
Tibullus,^'  begun  during  the  hours  he  snatched  from  busi- 
ness or  pleasure  when  in  the  army,  and  finished  in  Lon- 
don, where  he  had  more  leisure,  and  the  aid  and  encou- 
rageoient  of  his  literary  friends.     This  work  involved  him 
in  the  unpleasant  contest  with  Smollett,  to  which  we  have 
just  referred.     Its  merits  were  canvassed  in  the  ^^  Critical 
Review^*  with  much  severity.    The  nates  are  styled  <^  a 
huge  farrago  of  learned  lumber,  jumbled  together  to  Very 
little  purpose,  seemingly. calculated  to  display^the  trans- 
lator's reading,   rather  than   to  illustrate  the  sense  and 
beauty  of  the  original.^'    The.  Life  of  Tibullus,  which  the 
translator  prefixed,  is  said  to  contain  *^  very  little  either  to 
inform,  interest,  or  amuse  the  reader.'*     With: respect  to 
the  translation,  ^'  the  author  has  not  found  it  an  easy  task 
to  preserve  the  elegance  and  harmony  of  the  original.'* 
Instances  of  harshness  and  inelegance  are  quoted,  as.  well 
as  of  the  use  of  words  which  are  not  English,  or  not  used 
by  good  writers,  as  noiseless^  redoubtablet  /eudf  ^&c.     The 
author  is  likewise  accused  of  deviating  not .  only  frpm  the 
meaning,  >but  from  the  figures  of  the  original.     Of  these 
objections  some  are  groundless,  and  some  are  just,  yet 
even  the  latter  are  by  no  means  characteristic  of  the  whole 
work,  hut.excepttans  which  a  critic  of  more.Oiandour  would 
have  had  a  right  to  state,  after  be  h^  bestowed  the  praise 
due  to  its  general  merit     Ju  this  review,  however,  although 
unqualified  censure  was  all  the  Critic  had  in  view,  no  per- 
sonal attack  is  made  on  the  author,  nor  are  there  any  allu^ 
sions  to  his  situation  in  life. 

U6  ti^RAINGElt 

This  appeared  in  tbe  *^  Critical  Review**  for  Decetnlber 
1758.     In  the  subsequent  ilamber  for  January  1759,  the 
reviewer  takes  an  opportunity,  as  if  answerits-g  a  corre- 
apondent,  to  retract  his  objection  agai nvt* the  word  n^ff« 
iessj  because  it  is  found  in  Sbakspeare,  ^t  observes  very 
fairly,  that  the  authority  of  Shakspeare  or  Mikon  will  not 
justify  an  author  of  the  present  times  for  intradcicing  harsh 
or  antiquated  words.     He  acknowledges  himself  likewise 
^o  blame  in  having  omitted  to  consntt  the  errata  subjoined 
'(prefixed)  to  Dr.  Grainger's  performance,  where  some  things 
are  corrected  which  the  reviewer  mentioned  as  inaccuracies 
in  the  body  of  tbe  work.    But  this  acknowledgment, -so  ap* 
pairently  candid,  is  immediately  followed  by  a  wretched  at- 
tetupt  at  wit,  in  these  words :  '<  Whereas  one  of  the  Owis 
bekmging  to  the  proprietor  of  the  M(on)ihly  R(erie)Wy 
which  answers  to  the  name  of  Grainger,  hath  suddenly  broke 
from  his  mew,  where  he  used  to  hoot  im  darkness  and  peace, 
and  now  screeches  openly  in  the  faee  of  day,  we  shall  take 
the  first  opportunity  to  chastise  this  troublesome  owl,  and 
*4iive  liim  back  to  his  original  obscmrity.^     The  allusion 
here  is  to  Dr.  Grainger's  •*  Letter  to  Tobias  BmoHett,  M.13. 
looeasioned  by  his  <;riticism  on  a  late  Translation  of  Ttbul- 
kis,*'  a  perfoftmance  some  parts  of  which  every  friend  to 
the  author  must  wish  had  not  been  published.    In  tfhis 
letter,  however,  Grainger,  after  quoting  a  passage  from 
tbe  plan  or  prospectus  of  the  "  Critical  Review,"  in  which 
the  authors  promise  to  revive  the  true  spirit  of  cjriticism, 
to  act  without  prejudice,  &c.  &c.  endeavourS'  to  proye, 
that  they  have  forfeited  their  word,  bycnotoriously  depart- 
ing from  the  spirit  of  just  and  candid  criticism,  and  by  in- 
troducing gross  partialities  and  malevolent  censures.     And 
these  assertions,  which  are  certainly  not  without  founda* 
«tion,  are  intermixed  widi  reflections  on  Dr.  SmoHettHt 
loose  novels,  aud  insinuations  that  his  partialities  arise  from 
causes  not  very  honourable  to  the  cfharacter  of  an  indepen- 
dent reviewer. 

But  whatever  truth  ma^  be  iu  all  this,  the  letter  was  an 
<iHrwise  and  hasty  prc^action,  written  in  the  moment  of  tlie 
strongest  inritation.  The  review  appeared  in  December^ 
tad  the  letter  in  January.  There  was  no  time  to  cod,  and 
perhaps  no  opportunity  of  consulting  his  friends,  who  could 
liave  told  him  that  notbityg  was  to  be  gained  hy  an  ^- 
cbange  of  personalities  with  Smollett  The  'latter  required 
He  f;reat  kngtfi  -of  time  ot  -consideration  to  prepare  an  an- 

fiwer,  whioh*  appe^urjed  9i»}ordiiigly  in  ibe  review  for  Fe*^ 
bruary,  and  in  which  every  insinuation  or  accii^ation  is 
iQtFCKlucecl  that  coutd  ieod  to  lessen  Dr«  Grainger  in  the 
^yea  of  ihe  puNic^  both  as  a  writer  and  as  a  man.  But 
the  objections  which  Grainger  took  are  by  lU)  meaoB  satis» 
foctoiily  answered,  and  the  "review  is  stiU  liaUe  to  «he 
suspicion  of  partiality.  No  reader  of  candour  ox  of  taste 
ca9  peruse  the  Translation,  without  allowing  that  the  aui(> 
tbor  deserved  praise,  not  only  for  the  attempt,  but  for  the 
elegant  manner  in  which  he  has  in  general  transmitted  the 
tender  sentiments  of  Tibullus  into  our  Ungua^.  But  this 
the  Reviewer  has  wholly  overlooked,  confining  himself  te 
the  censure  of  a  few  defects,  part  of  which  he  has  not 
proved  to  be  so,  and  part  were  typographical  errors. 

It  has  been  supposed  that  some  personal  animosity 
prompted  Smollett  to  such  hoaitlity,  but  of  what  nature, 
or  excited  by  what  provocation,  is  not  known.  All  wje  cam 
learn  fropn  the  Lettei^  and  the  Answer  is,  that  the  parties 
were  once  upon  friendly  terms,  but  that  mutual  respect 
bad  now  ceased.  One  circumstance,  indeed,  we  find, 
.which  may  account  for  much  of  Smollett's  animosity :  he 
siipposed  Grainger  to  be  one  of  the  Monthly  Reviewers, 
«nd  this  was  provocation  enough  to  the  mind  of  a  man,  wlie 
from  the  commencement  of  the  Critical  Review  toQk  everjr 
opportunity,  whether  in  his  way  or  not,  of  ^reviling  the  pro- 
prietor and  writers  of  >  that  journal.  As  the  latter  selddm 
deigned  to  notice  these  attacks,  no  better  reason,  we  are 
ftfraid,  can  be  assigned  for  Smollett's  conduct  than  the 
jealousy  of  rival  merit  and  success,  in  both  which  respects 
•the  Monthly  Review  had  a  decided  superiority.  Whether 
Grainger  was  a  Monthly  Reviewer  is  not  an  unimportant 
question,  in  collecting  the  inaterials  of  his  literary  life ; 
yet  his  biographers  have  hastily  subscribed  to  Smollett's 
assertion,  without  examining  the  Review  in  question.  The. 
article  of  his  Tibullus  in  the  Monthly  Review  may  convince 
any  person  that  Grainger  could  have  little  or  no  interest  or 
influence  with  the  .proprietors.  Although  woitten  with 
^lecency  apd  urbanity,  it  has  nothing  of  partiality  or  kind^ 
4iess ;  the  reader  is  left  to  judge  from  the  specimens  ez)- 
4;raoted,  and  what  praise  we  find  is  bestowed  with  that 
iaint  reluclaoce,  which  is  more  blasting  to  the  .hopes  of  an 
authcr  than  open  hostility.  —  Even  the  opinion  of  the 
-Monthly  Reviewer  on  HGrrainger's  letter  to  Smollett,  is  ex- 


pressed  with  the  brevity  of  one  who  wishes  not  to  interfere . 
in  the  contest. 

Soon  after  the  publication  of  TibuUus,  Dr.  Grainger 
embraced  the  o6er  of  an  advantageous  settlement  as  phy- 
sician on  the  island  of  St  Christopher^ s.  During  his  pas- 
sage^  a  lady  on  board  of  one  of  the  merchant-men  bound 
for  the  same  place^  was  seized  with  the  sma)i>-poXy  attended 
with  some  alarming  symptoms.  He  was  sent  for,  and  not 
only  prescribed  with  success^  but  took  the  remainder  of 
his  passage  in  the  same-  ship,  partly  to  promote  the  reco- 
very of  his  patient,  but  principally  to  have  an  opportunity 
of  paying  his  addresses  to  her  daughter,  whom  he  married 
soon  after  their  arrival  at  St.  Cbristopher^s.  By  his  union 
with  this  lady,  whose  name  was  Burt,  daughter  to  Matthew 
William  Burt,  esq.  governor  of  St.  Christopher^ s,  he  be- 
came connected  with  some  of  the  principal  families  on  the 
island,  and  was  enabled  to  commence  the  practice  of  phy- 
sic with  the  greatest  hopes  of  success.  It  is  probable^ 
however,  that  this  was  not  his  first  attachment  In  his 
preface  to  the  translation  of  TibuUus,  he  insinuates  that 
his  acquaintance  with  the  passion  of  love  gives  him  a  pre- 
ference over  Dart,  who  had  attempted  to  transfuse  the  ten- 
der sentiments  of  that  poet  into  English  without  the  same 

The  transition  from  London  to  a  West  India  island  must 
have  been  very  striking  to  a  reflecting  mind.  The  scenery 
and  society  of  St  Christopher^s  was  new  in  every  respect, 
and  Grainger  seems  to  have  studied  it  witlr  those  mixed 
and  not  very  coherent  feelings  of  the  poet  and  the  planter, 
which  at  length  produced  his  principal  work,  ^^  The  Sugar 
Cane.*'  On  his  return  to  England,  at  the  conclusion  of  the 
war,  he  submitted  this  poem  to  his  literary  friends,  and 
having  obtained  their  opinion  and  approbation,  publishecl 
.it  in  a  handsome  quarto  volume,  in  1764.  To  the  asto- 
nishment of  all  who  remembered  his  dispute  with  Smollett, 
the  ^^  Sugar  Cane"  was  honoured  with  the  highest  praise 
in  the  '<  Critical  Review."  But  Sraiollett  was  now  on  his 
travels,  and  the  Review  was  under  the  care  of  Mr.  Hamil- 
ton, the  proprietor  and  printer,  a  man  who  took  no  plea- 
sure in  perpetuating  animosities^  and  who,  with  great  re- 
spect for  Dr.  Smollett's  memory,  did  not  deny  that  his 
vindictive  temper  was  of  no  great  service  to  the  Review; 

Mr.  Bos  well,  in  his  life  of  Johnson,  informs  us  that  when 
the  Sugar  Cane  ^  was  read  in  manuscript  at  sir  Joshua 


Reynolds's^  tbe  assembled  wits  burst  out  into  a  laugb,  when^ 
after  much  .blank*verse  pomp,  tbe  poet  began  a  new  para» 
graph  thus : 

'  Now  Muse,  let*s  sing  of  rats  J/ 

And  what  increased  the  ridicuie  was,  that  one  of  the  com- 
pimy, .  who  slyly  overlooked  the  reader,  perceived  that  th$ 
word  had  originally  been  vnce,  and  had  been  altered  to  rats 
as  more  dignified."  **  This  passage/'  adds  Mr.  Boswell, 
«  does  .not  appear  in  the  printed  work.  Dr.  Grainger,  or 
some  of  his  friends,  tt  shmdd  seeml  having  become  sensible 
that  introducing  even  rats^  in  a  grave  poem,  might  be 
liable  to  banter.  He,  however,  could  not  bring  himself 
to  relinquish . the  idea;  for  they  are  thus,  in  a  still  more 
ludicrous  manner,  paraphrastically  exhibited  in  his  poem 
as  it  now  stands  : 

'  Nor  with  less  waste  the  whiskered  vermin  race, 
A  countless  clan,  despoil  the  lowland  cane*.** 

Of  this  incident.  Dr.  Percy  furnished  Mr.  Boswell  with 
ihe  following  explanation.     ^'  The  passage  in  question  was 
not  originally  liable  to  such  a  perversion  ;  for  the  author 
having  occasion  in  that  part  of  his  work  to  mention  the 
havoc  made  by  rats  and.mice^  had  introduced  tbe  subject 
in  a  kind  o^mock  heroic^  and  a  parody  of  Homer's  battle  of 
the  frogs  and  mice,  invoking  the  muse  of  the  old  Grecian 
bard  in  an  elegant  and  weiNturned  manner.     In  that  state 
I  had  seen  it ;  but  afterwards,  unknown  to  me  and  other 
friends,  he  had  been  persuaded,    contrary  to  his  better 
judgment,  to  alter  it  so  as  to  produce  the  unlucky  effect 
above  mentioned.''     Mr.  Boswell  tells  us  that  Dr.  Percy 
bad  not  the  poem  to  refer  to,  when  he  wrote  this  explana- 
tion ;  and  it  is  equally  evident  that  Mr.  Boswell  bad  not 
read  the  whole  passage  with  attention,  or  considered  tbe 
nature  of  the  poem,  when  he  objected  to  the  introduction 
of  rats*    If  we  once  allow  that  a  manufacture  may  be  sung 
in  heroics,  we  must  no  longer  be  choice  in  our  subjects; 
as  to  the  alteration  of  mice  to  ratSj  the  former  was  pro- 
bably an  error  of  the  pen,  for  mice  are  not  the  animals  in 
question,  nor  once  mentioned  by  the  poet.    But  it  is  some- 
what strange  that  Grainger  should  have  ever  thought  it 
prudent  to- introduce  an  episode  of  the  mock-htroxc  kind 
in  E  poem  which  his  utmost  care  can  scarcely  elevate  to  so« 

In  the  same  year  (1764)  Dr.  Grainger  published  '<  An 
JBssay  «ii  the  more  common  West  India  Diseases ;  and  the 

17(1  G  R  A  I  N  6  E  ft. 

irem^dies  wbich^tliat  coantry  ksieU^  jfroivBces:  To  whk^ 
are  Ad4e<i,  aome  hmts  on  the  managiement  of  Negroes.*' 
To  this  pamphlet  he  did  not  affix  his  name.  Many  of  di^ 
remarks  it  container,  particularly  those  which  concern  the 
choice  and  t]>eataieni  of  the  negroes,  may  be  found  id  ^^Th^ 
Sugar  Calne/'  After  a  short  residence  in  Engkad,  he  re<*' 
tiurqed  to  St.  Christopher's,  to  which,  it  appears  by  bia 
poeiB}  he  became  much  attached;  and  continued  his  prac«- 
ticeas  a  physician  until  bis  death,  Dec.  24,  1767,  whidi 
wa^  occasioned  by  one  ctf  those  epidemic  fevers  that  fre* 
qaently  rage  in  the  West  India  islands. 

Although  k'  is  impossible  to  deny  Grainger  the  credit  of 
poetical  genius,  it  must  ever  he  regretted  that  where  be 
willed  mcMTt  to  excel,  he  was  most  unfortunate  in  the 
choice  of  a  subject.  The  effect  of  his  **  Sugar  Cane,** 
either  as  to  pleasure  or  utility,  mlist  be  toeal.  Connected 
as  an  English  enerchaiRt  may  be  with  the  produce  of  the. 
West  Indies,  it  wiUl  not  be  easy  to  persuade  the  reader  of 
Soglish  poetry  to  study  the  cultivation  of  the  sugar  plant 
merely  that  he  may  add  some  new  imagery  to  the  more 
ample  stores  whioh  he  can  contemplate  ^without  study  or 
trocible.  In  the  West  Indjses  this  poem  might  have  charms, 
if  readers  could  be  found  ;•  but  what  poetical  fancy  can 
dwell  on  the  'Oeconomy  of  canes  and  copper- boilers,  Or  find 
interest  in  the  transactions  of  planters  aod  sugar- brokers? 
His  invocations  to  his  muse  are  so  freq^uent  and  abrupt,  thaet 
*^  the  assembled  wits  at  sir  Joshua  Reyndlds's'^  migbt  have 
found  many  passages  as  ludicrous  us  that  wjiiph -excited 
their  mirth.  The  solemnity  of  these  iuvocations  ejuiitei 
expectation,  which  generally  ends  in  disappointment,  and 
at  best  the  reader's  attention  is  bespoke  w^hout  being  re- 
warded. He  is  induced  to  look  for  sometbing  grand,  and 
is  told  of  a  contrivance  for  destroying  monkies,  or  a  recipe 
to  poison  rats.  He  smiles  to  fintt  the  da^es  called  by  the 
happy  poetical  name  of  swmnsy  and  the  plantieirs  itrged  to 
devotion !  The  iinages  in  this  poem  are  in  general  low, 
and  the  allusions,  where  tbe  poet  would . bye  minutely  de* 
scriptive,  descend  to  things  tittle  and  Tamilian  Yet  this  is 
4n  some  measure  forced  upon  him.  His  mu&e  sings  of 
.matters  so  new  and  uncouth  to  her,  that  it  is  impos^ble 
^^  her  heavenly  plumes''  should  ^escape  being  ^^  soiled.'* 
What  muse,  indeed,  could  give  a  receipt  for  a  con^ost  df 
*^  weeds,  mouldy  duJig;,  and  s^e,"  or  a  lively  descrifition 
of  tjbe :syQ»p(0!B)s and  cui:eof  the  yaws;  and >preierye iuu: 

G  R  A  I  N  Q  E  R.  'itl 

4^gattce  'Or  porky  ?  Wiere,  howei«er,  he  quit^  fhe  plain 
track  ^  n^chanical  instraetions,  we  have  maay  of  diose 
effasiotis  of  faney  whicfi  wilt  yet  preserve  this  poem  in  our 
collections.  The  description  of  the  hiarricane,  and  of  the 
earthquake,  are  truly  grand,  and  heightened  by  circnm- 
«taiices  of  Jiorror  that  are  new  to  Europeans.  The  episode 
of  Montano  in  the  first  book  arrests  the  attention  very 
forcibly,  and  many  of  the  occasional  reflections  are  elegant 
and  pathetic,  nor  ought  the  taleof  Junioand  Theaua  to  be 
omitted  in  a  list  of  the  beauties  of  this  poem.  The  '^  Ode 
to  Solitude,'^  already  noticed,  and  the  ballad  of  ftryan  and 
Pereene,"  are  sufficient  to  attest  our  au thorns  claim  lo 
poetical  4ionours ;  and  the  translation  of  Tibullus  gives  proofs 
of  clas»ical  taste  and  learning.  * 

GRAMAYE  (John  Baptist),  an  eminent  antiquary,  was 
a  native  of  Antwerp,  and  bom  in.  Ifhe  end  of  the  six- 
teenth century.     He  studied  at  Louvain,  where  he  toofk 
his  inaster^s  degree  in  1596,  and  became  professor  ot  rhe« 
toric  and  law  ia  that  university.     He  was  afterwards  his« 
toriographer  to  the  Low  Countries,  and  for  three  years 
employed  himself  in  examining  their  records.     He  then 
travelled  through  tbe  greater  part  of  Germany  and  Italy, 
bin,  wlifle  proceeding  from  the  latter  country  to  Spain,  he 
was  ui^foptunately  made  captive  by  an  Algerine  corsair,  «ntl 
carried  to  Africa.     How  he  obtained  his  release  does  not 
appear,  %ut  upon  hrs  return  to  his  native  land  he  was  pre- 
ferred by  the  archduke  Albert  to  be  dean  of  the  collegiate 
church  of  Leusa,  in  Heinault,  and  afterwards  by  the  same 
•patronage  was  made  president  of  t\e  college  at  Loifvain. 
Some  years  after  he  travelled  into  Moravia  and  Silesia,  and 
in  the  latter  province  he  was,  by  cardinal  Dietrichstein, 
placed  at  the  head  of  a  college.     He  died  at  Lubec  in  1635. 
He  published  many  Latin  poems,  and  theses  on  a  variety 
ef  wbjects ;  but  his  historical  and  topographical  works  have 
been  found  of  most  value.     These  are,  1.  ^'  Asia,  sive  his- 
-toria  universalis  Asiaticarum  gentium,  &c.''  Antwerp,  1 604, 
4ito.    ^.  .'^Bruzeila  cum  suo  coraitatu,'*  Brux.,16a6,  4to. 
3.  ^^  Arscotum  Ducatus  cum  suis  Baronatibus,''  ibid.  1606, 
•4to.     4.^  Then®  et  Brabantias  ultra  Velpem,  qute  olim 
•HarfbaniiB  pars,"  ibid.  1606,  4to.     5.  "  Grallo-Brabantia,'* 
8  part»  or  Tols.  ibid.  1 606.     6.  "  Antwerpiae  Antiquitates,'* 
ibid«  1610.     7.  **  Antiquitates  ducatus  Brabaatiae/'    ibid. 

\  Johnson  and  Chalmerses  English  Poets,  1810* 

172  G  R  A  M  A  Y  E. 

1«10^  4to.  8.  «  Taxandriai,**  ibid.  1610,  4to.  9.  "  Antiqui- 
tates  Gaudenses/*  Ant.  1611, 4to.  10.  ^*  Africa  illustrata/' 
Torn.  1622,  4to.  11.  '^  Diarium  rerum  Argel®  gesta- 
rum,"  Col.  1623,  12ibo.  These  are  bis  obsertations  da* 
ring  his  captivity.  1 2.  ^^  Respublica  Namurcensis,"  Am^ 
1634,  24^.  ]^.  ^^  Specimen  Litterarum  et  Linguarum 
universi  orbis,'*  Athi.  4to.  * 

GRAMM  (John),  a  learned  philologist,  antiquary,  and 
bifttcM'ian  of  Copenhagen,  was  born  at  Aalburg  in  Jutland, 
Oct.  2S,  1685.    His  father,  who  was  a  clergyman,  carefully 
superintended  bis  education  until  he  was  £t  to  go  to  the 
university.     He  went  accordingly  in  1703  to  Copenhagen, 
where   he  very  soon  distinguished  himself  as  a  classical 
scholar  and  critic.     In  1 705  he  took  his  bachelor's  degree 
'With  great  credit,  and  in  1707  published  the  first  speci* 
men  of  his  learned  researches,  entitled  *^  Arcbytae  Taren- 
tini  fragpientum  s-^i  td;  fiadnfialutng,  cum  disquisitione  chro-» 
nologica  de  setate  Arcbytae.''     This  was  followed  by  other 
dissertations,  which  raised  bis  fame  so  highly  that  he  was 
made  professor  of  Greek  at  Copenhagen,  and  was  also 
appointed  counsellor  of  justice,  archivist,  historiographer, 
and  Ubrarian,  to  the  king,  whom  he  had  taught  when  a 
youtb.     In  1745,  he  was  made   counsellor  of  state,  and 
died  March  19,  1748,  leaving  an  elaborate  work,  ^^  Corpus 
diplomatum  ad  res  Danicas  facientium."  This  work,  which 
be  undertook  by  order  of  Christian  VI.  is  still  in  MS.  and 
probably  consists  of  several  folio  volumes.     Gramm  laid 
the  first  foundation  of  the  academy  at  Copenhagen,  and 
contributed  very  frequently  to  the  literary  journals  of  his 
time.     He  was  a  man  of  very  extensive  learning,  but  par- 
ticularly skilled  in  Greek  and  Latin,  and  in  history,  and 
of  such  ready  memory  that  he  was  never  consulted  oo 
books  or  matters  of  literature  without  giving  immediate 
information.     He  corresponded  with  many  of  the  literati  of 
Germany,  England,  Italy,  and  France,  but  was  most  ad- 
mired by  those  who  were  witnesses  of  his  amiable  private 
character,  his  love  of  literature,  and  his  generous  patronage 
of  young  students.* 

GRAMONT  (Gabriel  Bartholomew,  Seignbur  de), 
in  Latin,  Gramondus,  president  of  the  parliament  of 
Toulouse,  and  son  of  the  dean  of  the  counsellors  to  the 

>  Foppen  Bibl.  Belg. — Clement  BibU  Curieuse.     ' 
*  BiAtM  de  Vitis  Philologonim^  toI.  IIL 


e  R  A  M  o  N  T.  ni 


same  parliament^  descended  from  an  ancient  family  in 
Rouergue^  who  were  long  in  possession  of  the  estate  of 
Gramont.  He  wrote  in  Latin  a  History  of  the  reign  of 
Louis  XIIL  from  the  death  of  Henry  iV.  to  1629.  This 
history,  the  best  edition  of  which  is  1643|  fot.  may  be  con* 
sidered  as  a  supplement  to  that  of  the  president  du  Thou» 
although  much  inferior  both  as  to  style  and  fidelity :  the 
author  flatters  cardinal  de  Richelieu  because  he  hoped  for 
his  favour;  andabusesArnauldd'Andilly,  and  others,  from 
whoni  he  had  no  expectations.  He  died  in  1654.  In  1623 
be  publii^ed  his  M  Historia  prostratae  a  Ludovico  XHL 
Sectariorum  in  Gallia  rebellionis/'  4to,  which  contains 
^me  curious  and  interesting  facts,  mixed  with  strong  pre- 
judices i^ainst  the  protestants,  which  lead  him  to  such 
excess, of  bigotry  as  to  vindicate  the  hcNrrible  massacre  of 
St.  Bartholomew.  ^ 

GRAMONT.  {Philibert,    Count  of),   scm  of  Antony 
duke  of  Gramont,.  served  as  a  volunteer  under  the  prince 
of  Cond6,  and  Turenne,  and  came  into  England   about 
two  years  after  the  restoration.     He  was  under  a  necessity 
of  leaving .  France  for    having    the    temerity  to  pay  his 
addresses,  to  a  lady  to  whom  Lewis  XIV.  was  known  to  have 
a  tender  attachment.     He  possessed  in  a  high  degree  every 
qualification  that  could  render  him  agreeable  to  the  licen- 
tious court  of  Charles  IL  .  He  was  gay,  gallant^  and  per- 
fectly well-bred,  had  an  inexhaustible  fund  of  ready  wit, 
and  told  a.  story  with  extraordinary  humour  and  effect. 
His  vivacity  infused  life  wherever  he  came,  and  was  ge- 
nerally inoffensive.     He  had  also  another  qualification  very 
well  suited  to. the  company  he  kept.     He  had  great  skill 
and  success  in  play ;  and  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  in- 
debted to  it  for  suppbrt.     Several  of  the  ladies  engaged 
his  attention  upon  his  first  coming  over;  but  miss  Eli- 
zabeth Hamilton,  whom,  he  afterwards  married,  seems  to 
have  been  his  favourite,  though  some  say  he  endeavoured 
to  break  ofi*  the  connection.     She  was  the  daughter  of  sir 
Creorge  Hamilton,  fourth  son  of  James  first  earl  of  Aber- 
corn.     His  ^*  Memoirs'*  were  written  from  his  own  infor- 
mation, and  probably  in  much  the  same  language  in  which 
they  are  related,  by  his  brother-in-law,  Anthony,  who,  fol- 
lowing the  fortunes  of  James  IL  entered  the  French  ser* 
vice^  and  died  at  St.  Germain's,  April  21,  1720.     He  was 

1  Gen.  DiGt.«T»Moreri,«-*Clemeitt  BibU  Curieuse^ 

174  O  R  A  M  Q  N  T. 


*  9 

generatty  called  Coimt  Haiinilton.     CoHixt  Oramont  dieil 
Jan,  10,  17Q7.     There  have  lately  been  geveral  editions  of 
the  ^^  Memoira"  printed  here,  both  in  French  and  Englisb, 
and  in  a  splendid  form,  illustrated  with  portraits.    They 
contain  many  carious  particulars  respecting  the  intrigaes 
and  amusements  of  the  court  of  Charles  II.  but  present 
vpon  the  whole  a  disgusting  picture  of  depraved  manners.  ^ 
GRANCOLAS  (John),  a  Parisian,  doctiDr  of  the  Sor- 
bonne^  to  which   honour  he  was  adncritted  in  1685,  waa^ 
author  of  many  works  on  eccle^astical  rites,  cerenionies, 
and  general  history,  the  principal  of  which  are,  1.  ^  De 
TAntiquit^  des  Ceremonies  des  Sacreroens."    2.  "  Trait^ 
de  Liturgies."     3,  ^<  L'Ancien  Sacramentaire  de  PEglise.'* 
4.  ^  Traduction  FVangoise  de  Cat^cheses  de  S*  CyrilJe  de 
J^usalem."     5.  ^'  Commeiitaire  historique  sur  le  Btieviaire 
Romain,"  &c.     This  last  is   much  esteemed.     6.  ^  Cri- 
tiqite  des  Auteurs  Eeclesiastiques,"  2  vols.  8vo.     7.  ^^  La 
Science  dea  Confesseurs,"  2  vols.  J2mo.     8.  ^^  Hist^  abv6« 
g6e  de  TEglke  de  Paras,'^  2  vols.  i2Qio.    This  history  was 
suppressed  because  of  ihe  freedoms  the  author  took  with 
the  cardinal  de  Noailles.      He  died  August'  1,  173^,  at 
Paris.    The  whole  of  bis.  works  are  more  valuable  for  the; 
matter  than  tlie  manner;  ^ 

GRAND  (Ax^THONY  Lfi),  a  Franciscan  friar,  was  born 
at  Douay,  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  oentmry, 
and  has  been^styled  the  abbreviator  of  Descartes.  He  was 
an  eminent  professor  both  of  philosophy  and  divinity  in  the 
university  of  Ikouay,  where  he  associated  much  with  the 
English,  and  was  sent  by  them  as  a  missionary  into  £ng« 
land.  His  residenee  was  chiefly  in  Oxfordshire,  where  he 
led  a  retired  life.  He  is  said  to  have  ^en  the  first  who 
ileduced  the  Cartesian  system  to  the  method  of  the  schools, 
and  his  work  on  this  subject,  which  was  frequeiuly  printed 
in  England,,  first  in  1671,  12mo,  and  afterwards,  much 
enlarged  in  4to,  was  also  translated  and  published  in  folio^ 
He  carried  on  a  controversy  for  some  time  with  a  Mr.  John 
Serjeant  on  metaphysical  subjects.  H^  was  sUive  in  Ox- 
fordshire in  1695^  but  no  farther  particulars  of  his  history 
are  now  known.  Among  his  works  we  find  the  following 
mentioned:  1.  ^^  L'homme  sans  passion^  selon  les  semi« 
m^is  de  Seneque,''  Hague,  1662,  12mo«     %.  <'  Scydro* 

>  Moreri.-*Prefac«  to  the  Meinoirs.-*CoUini's  Peerage  by  sir  £«  Brydges. 
9  li^oreri. 

GRAND.  175 

fliecKa,  S6U  Seniio  quern  Alpboosus  de  la  Yida  habnit^  €D« 
ram  Comite  de  Falmouth,  de  manarcdiiia,''  1^69,  leino* 
B.  *^  Apologia  Renatt  des  Cartes  eoBira  Sam.  ParkemiD^'* 
London^  16t9,  12nx>r  4.  ^^  Historia  naturs  Tariia  expe^^ 
riotientid  ducidBtay''  dbid.  1G73,  8va,  reptfiated  there  in 
l€fH^j  and  at  Norimb.  1678.  5.  ^^  CompctrKliufn  rerom 
jucundarum,  et  meimnrabiltum  naturae/'  Notfioib.  16^1^ 
^vo.  €.  <<  Dissertatfo  de  carentia  s«mu0  et  cogniilioais  in 
Bfutis/'  Leyden,  1675,  8yo.  7.  ^<L'£pmtBe  Sf>Lritttal»  on 
Ptmpire  de  la  voiupd;^  snr  les  TertMs/'  Paris^  ftvo.  8.  <^  Hia-* 
toria  sacra^a  mundo  coodito  ad  Gondtantuiuiii  magnuai/* 
whicb  is  said  to  be  hit  best  perforfnance.  *■ 

GRANI>  (Joachim  Le),  a  French  lustarical  wnter,  wm 
bom  Feb.  6,  1653,  at  St.  Lo,  in  Normandy.  .  After  study* 
mg  philosophy  at  Caen,  he  entered  mto  the  coDgregatioa 
of  the  oratory  in  1671,  whete  he  applied  to  the  belies  lettrei 
and  tfae4ilogy,  hot  quitted  it  ia  1676,  and  went  to  Paiia^ 
where  he  engaged  in  the  edueafeion  of  two  young  mea  of 
Hank,  the  marquis  de  Vins,  and  the  duked'fistrees,  and 
at  the  satne  time  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  histoiry 
under  the  direction  of  father  Le  Coitite,  who  formed  a  very 
high  opinion  of  him.  He  first  appeared  as  a  visiter  in  1688, 
ill  ^^  A  History  of  the  Divorce  of  Henry  YIII.  aM  Caliban 
rine  of  Arragon,"  in  three  vols.  l2mo.  The  main  objest 
•ef  this  work  is  to  refute  certain  facts  and  ai)guments  con** 
taiaed  in  the  first  two  books  of  Burnet's  History  of  the  Re«* 
formation.  In  1685,  when  Burnet  was  at  Paris,  be  had  aa 
intetview  with  Le  Grand  in  the  presence  of  Messrs.  Thew 
iMinot  and  Auzout,  in  which  the  latter  proposed  his  doubts, 
and  the  former  answered  them,  both  preserving  a  tone  o£ 
elegance  and  mutual  respect.  The  publication  of  the 
4bove  work,  however^  produced  a  controversy,  in  the 
course  of  which,  in  1691,  Le  Grand  addressed  three  lettera 
to  the  bishop,  to  which  he  replied.  How  long  the  control* 
versy  might  have  continued  is  uncertain,  as  Le  Grand  was 
iieceseraruy  diverted  from  it  in  1692,  when  he  .received  the 
appoifittMnt  of  secretary  to  the  abbe  d'Estrees,  in  his  em« 
bassy  to  Portugal.  In  this  situation  he  continued  till  1697. 
The  leii(i)Ye  which  his  diplomatic  functions  allowed  waa 
employed  in  translations  of  voyages  and  travels  from  the 
P6rtuguese#  In  1702  he  accompanied  the  same  ministat 
i«  SpcUti)  trh^e  he  remained  about  two  years  as  secretary. 

17f  GRAN  D. 

Soon  after  this,  the  marquis  de  Torci,  minister  of  state,  took 
him  into  bis  service,  and  employed  his  pen  in  drawing  np 
several  memorials  concerning  the  Spanish  monarchy,  and 
other  political  topics,  in  which  h^  acquitted  himself  with 
great  ability,  but  most  of  them  were  printed  without  his 
name.  He  employed  much  of  his  time  in  writing  a  life  of 
Louis  XI.;  but,  although  this  was  quite  finished  in  1728,  it 
still  remains  in  manuscript.  In  that  year,  however,,  be 
published  his  translation  of  Lobo's  History  of  Abyssinia,  with 
many  additions ;  and  about  the  same  time  his  treatise  ^*  De 
I4  succession  a^  la  Couronne  de  France.'*  H&  died  of  an 
apoplectic  stroke,  April  30,  1733.  He  had  been  possessed 
of  church  preferment,!  and  had  held,  for  a  time,  the  office 
of  censor  royal  of  books.  ^ 

GRAND  (JoHK  Baptist  Le),  was  born  at  Amiens,  June 
S,  1737,  and  was  surnamed  d'Aussy,  because  his  father 
was  a  native  of  Auxy-le-Ch£lteau,  in  the  department  of 
Pas«de- Calais.  >  He  received  his  education  in  the  college 
of  the  Jesuits  •  at  Amiens  ;  at  the  age  of  eighteen  entered 
into  the  society  of  his  preceptors ;  and,  a  few  years  after* 
wards^  bad  the  honour  of  being  elected  to  the  rhetorical^ 
chair  at  Caen.     At  the  age  of  twenty-six  he  was  thrown  oh. 
the  world  by  the  dissolution  of  the  order^  and  was  soon 
employed  in  the  elaborate  work  of  the  French  Glossary, 
projected  by  Lacurne  de  Sainte-Palaye,  and  in  an.exami* 
nation  of  the  very  rich  library  ^f  the  marquis  de  Paulmy.* 
In  1770  he  was  appointed  secretary  in  the  direction  of  the. 
studies  of  the  military  school.     He  afterwards  co-operated,: 
under  the  marquis  de  Paulmy,  and  again  with  the  count 
de  Tressan,.  in  the  5<  Biblioth6que  des  Romans  ;'*  after 
which  he  became  still  deeper  engaged  in  collecting,  trans* 
lating,  extracting,  and. commenting  upon  the  ^^  Fabliaux^**, 
or  tales  of  the  old  French .  poets  of  the  twelfth  and  thir* 
teenth  centuries.     In  1782  he  published,  in  three  volumes, 
8vo,  his  '^Histoirede  la  Vie  priv^e  des  Fran$ais;''  and  ia 
1788  his  far  more  celebrated  *^Tour  to  Auvergne,''  which 
province  he  visited  the  preceding  year,  at  the  entreaty  of 
^is  Jesuit  brother  Peter  Theodore  Lewis  Augustin,  who 
was  then  prior  of  the  abbey  of  Saint  Andr6,  in  the  town  of 
Clermont.    This  Tour  he  first  published  in  one  volume, 
8vo;  but  he  afterwards  enlarged  and  republished  it,  in 
179iy  in  three  volumes  of  the  same  size.  His  contribution^^ : 

>  Nicttoo,  Vol.  XXVI.«*Morerk 

GRAND.  177 

to  the  Iiistityte  were  numerous^  and^  for  the  most  part, 
possessed  of  merit.  For  some  years  before  bis  death,  be 
had  conceived  the  plan  o(  a  complete  history  of  French 
poetry,  and  had  even  begun  to  carry  it  into  execution ;  an4 
as  he  stood  in  need  of  ail  the  treasures  of  the  national  li- 
brary, he  was  fortunately  nominated,  in  1796,  conservator 
of  the  French  MSS.  of  this  library  ;  and  he  now  not  only 
renewed  his  intention,  but  enlarged  his  scheme :  he  in^ 
eluded  in  it  the,  history  of  the  French  tongue  ;  that  of  lite- 
rature in  all  its  extent,  and  all  its  various  ramifications  ;  as 
well  as  that  of  science,  of  arts,  and  their  utility  in  different 
applications — a  monument  too  vast  for  the  life  and  power 
of  an  individual  to  be  able  to  construct.  He  bad,  however, 
accomplished  some  part  of  his  design,  when,  after  a  slight 
indisposition  which  caused  no  alarm,  he  died  suddenly  in 
l-SOi.  :  He  was  upon  the  whole  a  retired  and  taciturn  scho« 
lar.  "  His  life,"  says  his  biographer,  "like  that  of  most 
oth^r  men  of  letters,  may  be  comprized  in  two  lines  :  What 
were  his  places  of  resort  ?  The  libraries.  Among  whom  did 
he  live  ?  His  books.  What  did  he  ever  produce  ?  Books^ 
What  did  he  ever  say?  That  which  appears  in  his  books.'* 

In  1779,  he  published  his  "  Fabliaux,'^  or  Tales  of  the 
twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries,  Paris,  1779,  5  vols.  8vo. 
His  object  in  this  collection  appears  to  have  been  an  ar- 
dent zeal  for  the  reputation  of  his  country,  to  which  he 
has  successfully  restored  some  tales  claimed  by  other  na- 
tions, and  particularly  the  Italians.  Whether  these  tales, 
which  shock  all  probabilit}^  were  worth  his  pains,  the  Eng- 
lish reader  may  discover  by  a  prose  translation  published 
in  1786,  2  vols.  12mo,  or  by  Mr.  Way's  metrical  transla- 
tion, 1800,  2  vols.  8vo.  These  were  followed  by  **  Contes 
devots.  Fables  et  Romans  anciens,  pour  servir  de  suite  aux 
Fabliaux,"  1781,  8vo.  He  published  also  "Vie  d' Apollo- 
nius  de  Tyanes,"  2  vols.  8vo.* 

GRANDET  (Joseph),  was  a  pious  and  learned  curate 
of  St.  Croix  at  Angers,  whose  memory  was  long  revered 
in  that  city,  and  throughout  the  diocese,  for  the  benefits, 
both  spiritual  and  temporal,  which  he  procured  to  his 
parish.  He  died  in  1724,  aged  seventy-eight.  He  left 
the  following  works :  1.  "  La  Vie  de  M.  Cret^,  Cur^  de  Nor- 
mandie;"  2. "  La  Vie  de  Mademoiselle  de  Melun,  princesse 
d*£pinoy,  Institutrice  des  Hospitalieres  de  Baug£  et  de 

'  Memoirs  of  the  Nationel  Institute— Diet*  Hist. 

Vol.  XVI.  N 

178  G  R  A  N  D  E  T. 

Beaufort  en  Anjou  ;'*  3.  "  La  Vie  du  Comte  de  Moret/fils 
natUrel  de  Henri  IV.  ;'*  4.  "  La  Vie  de  M.  Dubois  de  la 
t'erte/'  and  the  lives  of  sontie  other  persons  held  in  great 
esteen>  in  the  Romish  church.* 

GRANDIER  (Urban),  curate  and  canon  of  Loudun  in 
France,  famous  for  his  intrigues  and  tragical  end,  was  the 
son  of  a  notary  royal  of  Sable,  and  born  at  Bouvere  ne^r 
Sabl^,  in  the  latter  paH  of  the  fifteenth  century,  but  we 
Icnow  not  in  what  year.     He  was  a  man  of  reading  and 
judgment,  and  a  famous  preacher;  for  which  the  monks  of 
Loudun  soon  hated  him,  especially  after  he  had  urged  the 
necessity  of  confessing  sins  to  the  parochial  priests  at  Eas- 
ter.    He  was  a  handsome  man,  of  an  agreeable  conversa* 
tion,.  neat  in  his  dress,  and  cleanly  in  his  person,  which 
made  him  suspected  of  loving  the  fair  sex,  and  of  beii»g 
beloved  by  them.     In  1629,  he  was  accused  of  having  had 
a  criminal  conversation   with  some  women  in  the  very 
churcli  of  which  he  was  curate  ;  on  which  the  oi&cial  con- 
demned him  to  resign  all  his  benefices,  and  to  live  in 
penance.     He  brought  an  appeal,,  this  sentence  being  an* 
encroachment  upon  the  civil  powef;  and,  by  a  decree  of 
the  parliament  of  Paris,  he  was  referred  to  the  presidial  of 
Poitiers,  in  which  he  was  acquitted.     Three  years  after*^ 
some  Ursuline  nuns  of  Louidun  were  thotight,  by  the  vul- 
gar, to  be  possessed  with  the  devil ;  and  Grandler's  ene- 
mies, the  capuchins  of  Loudun,  charged  him  with  being 
the  author  of  the  possession,  that  is^  with  witchcraft.  They 
thought,  however,  that  in  order  to  make  the  charge  succeed 
according  to  their  wishes,  it  was  very  proper  to  strengthen 
themselves  with  the  authority  of  cardinal  Richlieu.     For 
this  purpose,  they  wrote  to  father  Joseph^  their  fellow- 
capuchin,  who  had  great  credit  with  the  cardinal,  that 
Grandier  was  the  author  of  the  piece  etititl^d  "  La  Cor- 
donnierre  de  Loudun,"  or  "  The  Wonwin  Shoemaker  of 
Loudon,*'  a  severe  satire,  upon  the  cardinal's  person  and 
family.     This  great  minister,  sfmOng  many  good  qualities, 
harboured  the  most  bitter  resentment  against  the  authors 
of  libels  against  him;  and  father  Joseph  having  persuaded 
him  that  Grandier  wa#  the  author  of  **  La  Cordon niere  de 
Loudun,"   he  wrote   immediately  to  De  LaubardemoBt^ 
counsellor  of  state,  and  his  creature,  to  n^ake  a  diligent  in- 
quiiy  into,  the  affair  of  the  nuns.     De  Laubardemonit  ac- 

*  Morerk-— Diet.  HJst^ 

G  R  A  N  D  I  E  R.  17* 

tordingly  arreted  Grand ier  in  Dec.  1633;  and,  after  h^ 
bad  tboroijghly  examioed  the  affair,  went  to  meet  the  car* 
dinal,  and  to  take  proper  roeasutes  with  him.     In  July 
1634,  letters  patent  were  drawn  up  and  sealed,  to  try 
Grandier ;  and  were  directed  to  De  Laubordemont,  and  to 
twelve  judges  chosen  out  of  the  courts  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Loudun ;  ail  noen  of  honour  indeed,  but  very  cre« 
dulous,  and  on  that  account  chosen  by  Grandi^r's  enemies. 
In  Aug*  18,  upon  the  evidence  of  Astaroth,  the  chief  of 
possessing  devils ;  of  Easas,  of  Celst:^,  of  Acaos,  of  Eudon, 
&c.  that  is  to  say,  upon  the  evidence  of  the  nuns,  who  as*- 
serted  that  they  were  possessed  with  those  devils,  the  com- 
missanes  passed  judgment,  by  which  Grandier  wasdeclared 
well  and  duly  attainted,  and  convicted  of  the  criiue  of 
magic,  witchcraft,  and  possession,    which  by  his  means 
happened  on  the  bodies  of  some  Ursuline  nuns  of  Loudun, 
and  of  some  other  lay  persons,  mentioned  in  his  trial ;  for 
which  crimes  he  was  sentenced  to  make  the  amende  honor^ 
dble^  and  to  be  burnt  alive  with  the  magical  covenants  and 
characters  which  were  in  tbe  register-office,  as  also  with 
the  MS.   written  by  him  against  the  celibacy  of  priests ; 
and  his  ashes  to  be  thrown  up  irnto  the  air.     Grandier  heard 
this  dreadful  sentence  witbouit  any  emotion  ;  and,  when  he 
went  to  the  place  of  execution,  suffered  his  punishment 
with  great  firviness  and  courage,  April  IS,  1634. 

Tbe  story  of  this  unhappy  person  shews  how  easily  an 
innocent  mian  may  be  destroyed  by  the  malice  of  the  few, 
working  upon  the  credulity  and  superstition  of  the  many  : 
for,  Grandier,  though  centainly  a  bad  man^  was  as  certainly 
innocent  of  the  crimes  for  which  he  suffered.  Renaudot,  a 
famous  physician,  and  the  fir^t  author  of  tbe  French  ga* 
zette,  wrote  Grandier's  eulogium,  which  was  published  at 
Paris  in  loose  sheets,  it  was  taken  from  Menage,  who 
openly  defends  the  curate  of  I^oudun,  and  calls  tbe  pos- 
session of  those  nuns  chimerical.  In  1693  was  pubUshed 
at  Amsterdam ^^  Histoire  des  Diables  de  Loudun;^'  from 
whkii  very  curious  account  it  appears,  that  tbe  pretended 
}>os8ession  of  tbe  UrsuUnes  was  an  horrible  conspiracy 
against  Grandier's  life.  As  an  author  he  is  known  only  for 
a  funeral  oration  for  Scsevola  de  St,  Martha,  which  is  said 
io  be  an  eloquent  perfoi;mAnce.' 

GRANDIN  (Marti{^),  a   learned  Frenoh  divine,   was 
born  at  St.  Quentin,  Nov.  11,  1604,  and  was  educated  in 

^  Moreri.— Gen.  Diet 

N   2 

no  G  R  A  N  B  I  N. 

classical  learning  at  Noyon  and  Amiens.  At  the  age  of 
seventeen  he  came  to  Paris,  where  he  studied  divitvity 
under  the  Jesuit  Mairat,  and  afterwards  taught  a  course  of 
philosophy  in  the  college  of  cardinal  Le  Moine.  He  was 
then  admitted  a  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne^  and  in  1638 
appointed  professor  of  divinity,  which  office  he  retained 
until  his  death,  Nov.  16,  1691.  He  was  a  man  of  piety 
and  talents,  and  an  elegant  and  correct  speaker.  His 
course  of  theological  lectures  was  published  by  M.  du 
Plessis  d'Argentre,  1710 — 1712,  in  6  vols.  4lo,  under  the 
title  of  "Opera Theologica.'* » 

GRANDIUS,  or  GRANDI  (Guido),  a  philosopher  and 
mathematician,  waaborn  Oct.  1,  1671,  at  Cremona,  where 
his  father,  a  branch  of  a  decayed  family,  carried  on  the 
business  of  an  embroiderer.  His  mother,  a  woman  of  con.- 
.siderable  talents,  taught  him  Latin,  and  gave  him  some 
taste  for  poetry.  Beiog  disposed  to  a  studious  life,  be 
chose  the  profession  of  theology,, that  he  might  freely  in- 
dulge his  inclination.  He  entered  into.the  religious  order 
of  Camaldolites,  at  Ravenna,  in.  1687,  where  he  was  dis- 
tinguished for  his  proficiency  in  the  different  branches  of 
literature  and  science,  but  was  much  dissatisfied  with  the 
•Peripatetic  phi l-)sophy  of  the  schools.  He  had  not  been 
here  long  before  he  established  an  academy  of  students  of 
his  own  age,  which  he  called  the  Certanti,  in  opposition 
»to  another  juvenile  society  called  the  Concordi.  To  his 
philosophical  studies  he  added  those  of  the  belles  lettres, 
music,  and  history.  It  appears  to  have  been  his  early  am- 
bition to  introduce  a  new  system  in  education,  and  with 
that  view  be  obtained  the  professorship  of  philosophy  at  Flo- 
rence, by  the  influence  of  father  Carameili,  although  not 
without  some  opposition  from  the  adherents  lo  the  old 
.  opinions.     He  now  applied  himself  to  the  introduction  of 

•  the  Cartesian  philosophy,  while,  at  the  same  time,  he  b^e- 
came  zealously  attached  to  mathematical  studies.     The 

•  works  of  the  great  Torricelli,  of  our  countryman  Wallis, 
and  of  other  celebrated  mathematicians,  were  his  favourite 

« companions,  and  the  objects  of  his  familiar  intercourse. 

';His  first  publication  was  a  treatise  to  resolve  the  problems 
of  Viviani  on  the  construction  of  arcs,  entitled  '^  Geome- 
trica  Demoustratio  Vivianeorum  problematum,''  Florence, 
16i^d^  4to.   ! He  dedicated  this. work  to   the  grand  duke, 

»  Moreri.— Diet.  Hiit. 

G  R  AN  D  I  US.  181 

Cosmo  III.  who  appointed  the  author  professor  of  philoso- 
phy in  the  university  of  Pisa.    From  this  time  Grandius  pur- 
sued the  higher  branches  of  mathematics  w'nh  the  utmost' 
ardour,  and'  had  the  honour  of  ranking  the  ablest  mathe- 
maticians among  his  friends  and  correspondents.     Of  the 
number  may  be  named  the  illustrious  Newton,  Leibnitz, 
and  Bernouilli.     His  next  publications  were,  **  Geometrica 
demonstratio  tbeorematum  Hugenianorum  circa  logisticam, 
seu  Logarithmicam  lineam,'*  1701,  4to,  and '*  Quadratura 
circuli  et  hyperbolas  per  infinitas  hyperbolas  et  parabolas 
geometrice  exhibita,"  Pi^,  1703,  8vo.    He  then  published 
'^  Sejaui  et  Rufini  dialogus    de   Laderchiana  historia  S.' 
Petri  Damiani,"  Paris,  1705,  aad  **  Dissertationes  Camal- 
dulenses,''  embracing  inquiries  ifito  the  history  of  the  Ca-' 
maldolites,  both  which  gave  so  much  offence  to  the  com- 
munity, that  he  was  deposed  from  the  dignity  of  abbot  of 
St.  Michael  at  Pisa;  but  the  grand  duke  immediately  ap^ 
pointed  him  his  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  university.' 
He  now  resolved  somd- curious  and  difficult  problems  for 
the  improvement  of  acoustics,  which  bad  been  presented 
to  the  roy^l  society  in  Dublin,  and  having  accomplished 
his  object,  be  transmitted  the  solutions,  by  means  of  the 
British   minister  at  the  court  of  Florence,  to  the  Royal 
Society  at  London.     This  was  published  under  the  title  of 
*^  Disquisitio  geometrica  in  systema  sonorum   D..  Narcissi  * 
(Marsh)  archiepi&copi  Armachaui,''  in  1709,  when  he  was' 
chosen  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society.     This  was  followed 
by  his  principal  work,  ^*  De  infinitis  iniinitorum,  et  in- 
finite parvorum  ordtnibus  disquisitio  geometrica,"    Pisa, 
1710,  4to,  and  by  many  other  works'  enumerated  by  his 
biographer,  few  of  which  appear  in  the  catalogues  of  the 
public  libraries  in  this  country.     Among  other  subjects  be 
defended  Galileo^s  doctrine  respecting  the  earth's  motion, 
and  obtained  a  complete  victory  over  those  who  opposed 
it.    He  was  deeply  versed  in  subjects  of  political  economy  ; 
and  various  disputes  were  referred  to  his  decision  respect- 
ing the  rights  of  fishery,  &c.     He  was  appointed  commis- 
sioner from  the  grand  duke  and  the  court  of  Rome  jointly^ 
to  settle  some  differences  between  the  inhabitants  of  Fer- 
rara  and  Bologna,  concerning  the  works  necessary  to  pre- 
serve their  territories  from  the  ravages  of  inundation.     For 
these  and  other  important  publiciservices,  he  was  liberaHy ' 
r^varded  by  his  employers.     He  died  at  the  ag^  of .  se- 
venty-two, in  July  1743.V       .    ^  -.  -       -. 

*  Morcri.— Fabroni  Vita  Italoruim 

182  ,       G  R  A  N  E  T. 

GRANET  (Fhancis),  deacon  of  the  cfatirch  of  Aix,  was 
born  in  1692,  at  Brignolles  in  Provence,  of  a  mercantile 
family.     He  was  educated  ia  bis  own  country,  but  came 
young  to  Paris,  where  bis  literary  taste  and  taletits  pro- 
cured him  many  friends,  by  whose  assistance  he  increased 
his  stores  of   knowledge,   and  as    his  income  was  very 
limited,  entered  upon  a  course  of  literary  labours.     He 
was  a  contributor,  as  far  as  vol.  XIX.  to  the  ^^  Bibliotheque 
f'ranfoise,"  a  well-known  journal  printed  in  Holland  ;  and 
when  Desfontaines  was  obliged  to  discontinue  his^<  Noa-» 
velliste  du  Pamasse,''  (in  which  Granet  had  written)  and 
obtained  permission  to  carry  it  on  agltin  under  another 
title,  he  engaged  Granet' s^services  in  this  new  undertaking^ 
called  '<  Observations  sur  les  edrits  modernes."  It  began  in 
173  Ji,  and  was  published  weekly  until  Sept.  174S,  when  the 
King  revoked  the  privilege.     Busied  as  Granet  was  on  thi« 
work,  he  found  leisure  to  undertake  in  1738  the  continua* 
tion  of  ajeurdal  entitled  ^^  Reflexions  sur  les  ouvrages  de 
litterature.*'     This  be  extended  as  far  as  twelve  volumes.' 
It  contains  many  extracts  and  remarks  given  with  taste 
and  judgment,  but  others  that  are  merely  repetitions  of 
what  he  had  written  for  the  ''  Observations  sur  les  ecrits 
x^Qdernes/*      He  bad  also  a  trick  of  inserting  letters  to 
himself,  when  he  wished  to  publish  satire  without  being 
accountable  forjt,  but  it  is  not  thought  that  this  disguise 
was  of  much  avail.     It  was  perhaps  his  misfortune  that  he 
was  obliged  by  the  narrowness  of  his  circumstances  to  em* 
ploy  himself  thus  on  the  labours  of  others,  and  in  preparing 
new  editions,  when  he  might  have  executed  original  works 
that  would  have  done  hiin  credit.     Indeed  a  few  months 
before  his  death  he  fainted  to  his  friends  that  necessity- 
only  had  forced  him  to  this  drudgery,  wd  that  he  had  no 
consolation  but  in  the  hope  that  he  should  one  day'or  othet 
be  at  liberty  to  employ  his  talents  in  a  more  creditable 
way.     He  had  learned  English,  and  in  order  to  make  that* 
a  source  of  profit,  translated  sir  Isaac  Newton^s  *^  Chrono- 
logy,*' which  he  published  at  Paris,  in  1728,  4to^  with  an 
excellent  preface,  of  which  he  took  care  to  speak  very 
highly  in  the  I4tb  vol.  of  the  ^*  Brbliotheque  Frangoise,'* 
and,  probably  by  way  of  blind-,   speaks  very  dtfBerently 
%het^  of  some  of  his  contemporaries,  from  what  he  had 
advanced  in  bis  preface.     In  short  be  appears  to  have  per- 
fectly understood  the  trade  of  reviewingk     One  of  his  best 
editious  is  that  of  the  works  of  M.  da  iCantioy,  which  wa^ 

G  R  A  N  E  T.  Hi 

puUUbed  4t  GeneviL,  lO  vols,  fol.  with  a  valuable  prefacei 
a  life,  aad  a  '*  JLauiioiana/'  consisting  of  very  curious  ar* 
ticles.  Moreri  gives  a  nudierous  list  of  other  editions  and 
publications  to  which  be  wrote  prefaces  and  notes.  Hq 
died  at  Paris  April  2^  1741,  and  a  spirited  eloge  was  writ^ 
ten  on  him  by  the  abbe  Desfontaines. ' 

GRANGE  (Joseph  pe  Chancel  de  la),  a  French  sa« 
tiristand  dramatic  poet,  was  born  1676,  in  Perigord.  He 
wrote  a  little  comedy  in  three  acts,  when  but  nine  years  old^ 
which  was  performed  several  days  successively  in  the  coU 
lege  of  Bourdeaux,  where  he  was  a  scholar;  and  at  six- 
teen, produced  his  tragedy  of  *^  Jugurtha ;''  but  the  work  • 
^hich  has  made  him  most  known,  is  a  satire  against  the 
duke  of  Orleans,  then  regent,  entitled,  ^*  .The  Philip- 
picks,''  in  which  be  accused  that  nobleman  of  the  most 
atrocious  crimes.  To  avoid  the  punishment  this  work  de- 
served, be  6ed  to  Avignon,  in  which  city  was  a  French 
x>fficer,  who  had  taken  refuge  there  in  consequence  of 
having  committed  a  murder,  and  received  a  promise  of 
pardon  if  he  could  entice  the  author  of  the  ^^  Pbilippicks'* 
auto  the  French  dominions.  His  attempt  succeeded,  and 
I^  Grange  was  conducted  to  the  isle  of  St^  Margaret ;  but 
finding  means  to  make  frieuds  of  his  keepers,  escaped  in  a 
boat  to  Villa  Franca,  notwithstanding  a  violent^  storm. 
The  king  of  Sardinia  gave  him  a  considerable  sum  of  mo«> 
ney,  and  he  went  from  thence  into  Spain;  afterwards  intp 
Holland,  where  he  remained  till  the  duke  of  Orleans  was 
dead.  He  was  then  permitted  to  end  his  days  in  France^ 
where  he  died  in  1758,  at  the  castle  of  Anton iat,  his  family 
seat.  His  works  have  been  collected  in  5  vols,  small  ISmo, 
and  his  tragedies  have  been  as  much  admired,  as  his  lyric 
efforts  have  been  depreciated.' 

GRANGER  (James),  a  well-known  biographer,  but 
who  has  been  himself  left  without  any  memorial,  was  the 
son  of  Mr.  William  Granger,  by  Elizabeth  Tutt,  daughter 
of  Tracy  Tutt.  Of  the  cooditiou  of  bis  parents,  or  the 
place  of  his  education,  we  have  not  been  able  to  recdvei: 
any  particulars.  He  studied,  however,  for  some  time  at 
Christ-church,  0:$ford,  which  lie  probably  left  without 
taking  a  degree ;  and  having  entered  into  holy  orders,  was 
presented  to  the  vicarage  of  Shiplake,  in  Oxfordshire,  a 
living  in  the  gift  of  the  dean  and  chapter  of  Windsor.     He 

1  Moreri. — Diet,  Hist.  '  Dick  Hist.   . 

1S4  G  R  A  N  G  E  R. 

informs  US,  in  the  dedication  of  his  "Biographical  His- 
tory," that  his  name  and  person  were  known  to  few  at  the 
time  of  its  publication  (1769),  as  he  had  "  the  good  for- 
tune to  retire  early  to  independence,  obscurity,  and  con- 
tent" He  adds,  that  "  if  he  has  an  ambition  for  any 
thing,  it  is  to  be  an  honest  man  and  a  good  parish  priest,'* 
and  in  both  those  characters  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  all 
who  knew  hinl.  To  the  duties  of  his  sacred  office,  he  at- 
tended with  the  most  scrupulous  assiduity  and  zeal,  and 
died  in  the  performance  of  the  most  solemn  office  of  the 
church.  Such  was  his  pious  regard  for  the  day  appointed 
for  religious  observances,  that  he  would  not  read  the 
proofs  of  his  work  while  going  through  the  press  on  that 
day ;  and  with  such  an  impression  of  what  was  bis  duty, 
found  no  great  difficulty  in  resisting  the  arguments  of  hjs 
bookseller,  Tom  Davies,  who  endeavoured  to  persuade 
bim  that  this  was  a  "  work  of  necessity."  It  appears  that 
some  time  before  his  death  he  was  anxious  to  obtain  ^ 
living  within  a  tenable  distance  of  Shiplake,  but  did  not 
succeed.  In  1773  or  1774  he  accompanied  lord  Mounts 
Stuart,  now  earl  of  Bute,  on  a  tour  to  Holland,  where  his 
lordship  made  an  extensive  collection  of  portraits.  In 
1772  he  published  a  sermon  entitled  **  An  Apology  for  the 
Brute  Creation,  or  Abuse  of  Animals  censured."  This 
viras  preached  in  his  parishrchurch,  Oct.  1 8,  1772,  and,  as  we 
are  informed  in  a  postscript,  gave  almost  universal  disgust; 
**  the  mention  of  horses  and  dogs  was  censured  as  a  pros- 
titution of  the  dignity  of  the  pulpit,  and  considered  as  a 
proof  of  the  author's  growing  insanity  ;"  but  more  com- 
petent judges,  and  indeed  the  public  at  large,  applauded 
bim  for  exerting  his  humanity  and  benevolence  in  a  case 
which  is  so  often  overlooked^  the  treatment  of  the  brute 
creation.  Mr.  Granger,  who  was  a  man  of  some  humour^ 
and  according  to  the  evidence  of  his  friend  and  corre- 
spondent the  rev.  Mr.  Cole,  a  frequent  retailer  of  jokes, 
dedicated  this  sermon  **  To  T.  B.  Drayman,*'  for  which 
he  gives  as  a  reason  that  he  had  seen  this  man  exercise 
the  tash  with  greater  rage,  and  heard  him  at  the  same  time 
^wear  more  roundly  and  forcibly,  than  he  ever  heard  or 
saw  any  of  his  brethren  of  the  whip  in  London.  Mr.  Gran- 
ger appears  to  have  taken  some  pains  with  this  man,  bu^ 
to  little  purpose.  He  was,  however,  afterwards  killed  by 
9L  kick  from  one  of  the  horses  whom  be  delighted  to  tor- 
jmn%9  which  gave  Mr.  Granger  an  opportunity  of  stren^tt^^* 

on  A  N  G  E  R.  185 

euiffg  his  arguments  with  his  parishioners  by  a  warning 
like  this,  which  could  not  fail,  fpr  som^  time  at  least,  to 
make  an  impression  on  their  minds,  in  1773  he  printed 
another  sermon,  entitled  **  The  nature  and  extent  of  In* 
diistry,^'  preached  before  his  grace  Frederic,  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  July  4,  1775,  in  the  parish  church  of  isbip- 
lake.  This  was  gravely  dedicated,  ^'  To  the  inhabitants 
of  the  parish  of  Shipiake  who  neglect  the  service  of  th« 
church,  and  spend  the  Sabbath  in  the  worst  kind  of  idle* 
ness,  this  plain  sermon,  which  they  never  heard,  and  pro- 
bably will  never  read,  is  inscribed  by  their  sincere  well* 
wisher  and  faithful  minister  J.  G."  Both  these  discourses 
were  favourably  received  by  the  public,  and  many  clergy- 
men and  others  purchased  quantities  of  them  for  distribu* 
tion.  His  memory,  however,  is  best  preserved  by  his 
**« Biographical  History  of  England  from  Egbert  the  Great 
to  the  Revolution,"  at  which  he  employed  himself  for 
many  years,  and  lived  to  see  two  editions  sold,  and  a  taste 
created  for  collections  of  portraits,  which  is  indeed  the 
principal  intention  of  the  author,  his  biography  including 
only  those  persons  of  whom  some  engraved  portrait  is  ex- 
tant. It  was  first  published  in  4  thin  4to  vols,  in  1769,  but 
the  second  and  subsequent  editions  have  been  printect  in 
8vo.  The  preparation  of  such  a  work  could  not  fail  to 
yield  the  author  much  amusement,  and  likewise  procured 
him  the  correspondence  of  many  eminent  scholars  and  gen-^ 
tlemen  who  were  either  collectors  of  portraits,  or  conver-> 
sant  in  English  biography.  He  had  amassed  cbnsiderable 
materials  for  a  continuation  of  this  work,  which  was  pre- 
vented by  his  sadden  and  much-laipented  death.  ^  On 
Sunday  April  14,  1776^  he  read  prayers  and  preached  ap- 
parently in  good  health,  but  while  afterwards  at  the  com^. 
mumon- table,  in  the  act  of  administering  the  sacrament,  v 
he  was  seized  with  an  apoplectic  fit,  and  notwithstanding 
immediate  medical  assistance,  died  next  morning.  This 
affecting  circumstance  was  happily  expressed  by  a  friend 
in  tbe^e  lines  : 

'f  More  happy  end  what. saint  e'er  knew ? 

To  whom  like  mercy  shown  i 
.His  Saviour's  death  in  rapturous  view. 

And  unperceived  his  own.** 

He  was,  if  we  mistake  not,  about  sixty  years  old.     His 

brother  John  died  at  Basingstoke  in   1810,  aged  80.     His 

very  numerous  collection,  of  upwards  of  fourteen  thousand 

portraits^  was  sold  by  Greenwood  in  1778^  but  the  sile  is 

186  G  K  A  N  G  E  R* 

wd  to  have  been  not  very  productive.  That  l^is  e<Ie«- 
brated  work,  the  "  Biographical  History,"  is  an  amusing 
one,  cannot  well  be  denied ;  and  its  principal  excellence 
consists  in  the  critical  accuracy  and  conciseness  with  which 
he  has  characterized  the  persons,  who  are  included  in  hiis 
plan ;  but,  as  he  includes  all  persons  without  distinction,  of 
vrhoni  any  portrait  is  extant,  w^  find  hioi  preserying  the 
loemory  of  many  of  the  nnost  worthless  and  insignificant  of 
mankind,  as  well  as  giving  a  value  to  specimens  of  the  art 
of  Engraving  which  are  beneath  all  contempt.  Mn  Wal^ 
pole  said  that  Granger  had  drowned  bis  taste  for  portraita 
in  die  ocean  of  biography  ;  and  though  he  began  with  elti'* 
cidating  prints,  he  at  last  only  sought  prints  that  he  might 
write  the  lives  of  those  they  represented.  His  work  waa 
grown,  and  growing  so  voluminous,  that  an  abridgment 
only,  could  have  made  it  useful  to  collectors.  Perhaps  lu 
more  serious  objection  might  be  offered,  which  the  author 
could  not  have  foreseen.  While  this  work  has  excited  a. 
taste  for  collecting  portraits  not  only  harmless,  but  useful^ 
when  confined  to  men  of  probity,  it  has  unfortunately  at 
the  same  time  created  a  trade  very  little  connected  with 
the  interests  of  literature  or  common  honesty,  a  species  of 
purveyors  who  have  n^  only  lessened  the  value  of  books 
by  robbing  them  of  their  portraits,  but  have  carried  their 
depredations  into  our  publrc  libraries,  and  have  found  en'- 
couragement  where  they  ought  to  have  met  with  detectioa 
and  pnnishm^t' 

GRANT  or  GRAUNT  (Edward),  a  man  of  eminent 
learning  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  educated  at  Westr 
minster-school,  from  whence  he  was  removed  either  to 
Cbrist*church  or  Broadgate's-hall,  in  the  university  of  Ox;-- 
ford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  February*  27^ 
1 571,  and  that  of  master  the  27th  of  March,  1 572  ;  about 
which  time  he  was  appointed  master  oi  Westminster  school^ 
where  a  great  many  peirsons  who  wcte  afterwards  eminent 
in  church  and  state,  were  educated  under  his  care.  In 
1575  he  published  at  London  in  4to,  ^^  Groooae  Linguae 
Spicilegium,''  which  was  afterwards  ejMtomized  by  his 
learned  usher,  Mr.  William  Camden,  and  printed  at  Lon* 
don,  1597,  in  8vo,  under  the  title  of  "Institutio  Grsecie 

1  Granger*!  Hist^— dorrespondenee  published  by  Mr*  Malcolin.-^oniHBua- 
tioB  of  his  History  by  the  Rev.  Mark  Noble,  1S06,  3  toIb.  Sv4iu-^Cole*B  MS 
Corretpoodeiioe,  in  the  BfiUfh  Mttseum.  •—  G«Bt  Mae.  voli.  XLVI.  Ll|. 
l.XXiII.  and  LXXX. 

GRANT.  187 

Grammatices  cooipendiaria  in  usum  Regise  Scbolrs'  West- 
monasteriensis."  In  1577  our  author  was  made  pre- 
beudary  of  the  twelfth  stall  in  the  coilegiate  church  of 
Westminster,  in  the  room  oF  Dr.  Thomas  Watts ;  and  about 
that  tim0  being  admitted  B.  D.  of  Cambridge,  was  incor* 
porated  in  the  same  degree  at  Oxford  in  May  1519.  He 
was  afterwards  doctor  of  that  faculty  ^i  Capibridge.  He* 
iiesigned  his  mastership  of  Westminatelr*«ciiool  about  tbe 
month  of  February  1591,  and  was  succeeded  in  March  foK 
lowing  by  Mr.  Camden ;  he  was  then  presented  to  the  Iiviii|^ 
q{  Barnet,  in  Middlesex,  and  to  the  rectory  of  Toppers- 
field,  in  Essex,  in  1598.  He  died  August  4,  1601,  atul 
was  interred  in  St..  Peter's  church  at  Westminstar.  He- 
collected  aod.  published,  the  Letters  and  Poeois  of  Roger 
Ascham,  to  which  be  subjoined  a  piece  of  his  own,  en« 
^tled  ^^  Oratio  d^  Vita  &  Obitu  Rogeh  Aschami,  ac  die- 
tionis  elegant]^  cam  adhortatione  ad  adolesceiitulos,** 
Loadon,  1577,  in  8vo.  He  was  an  excellent  Latin  poet, 
as  appi^ars  from  severd  copies  of  vecses  v.  ricten  by  him, 
and  printed  io  various  books  9  and  was  exceed^ingly  well 
versed  in  all  parts  of  {jolite  literature,  fieatham  says  he 
had  been  vicar  of  South  Benfleet,  in  Essex,  in  1584,  but 
resigned  it  soon,  and  that  he  was  a  prebendary  of  £iy  in 

GRANT  (Francis),  lord  Culleo,  an  eminent  lawyer 
an(i  judge  in  Scotland,  was  descended  from  a  younger 
branch  of  the  ancient,  family  of  the  Gran^ts,  of  Grant,  in 
that  kingdom ;  his  ancestor  in  a  direct  line,  being  sir  John 
Grant,  of  Grant,  who  married  lady  Margaret  Stuart, 
daughter  of  the  earl  of  Athol.  He  was  born  about  1660, 
aud  received  the  first  part  of  his  education  at  Aberdeen  ; 
but,  being  ii^teoded  for  the  profession  of  the  law,  was  sent 
to  finish  his  studies  at  Ley  den,  under  the  celebrated  Voet, 
with  whom  he  becamie  so  great  a  favourite  by  his  singular 
application,  that  many  years  afterwards  the  professor  men-* 
tioned  him  to  his  pupils,  as  one  that  had  done  honour  to 
the  university,  and  recommended  his  example  to  them. 
On  his  return  to  Scotland,  he  passed  through  the  exami-* 
nation  requbite  to  his  being  admitted  advocate,  with  sndi 
abilities  as  to  attract  the  particular  notice  of  sir  George 
Mackenzie,  then  king's  advocate,  one  of  the  most  inge- 
nious men,  as  well  as  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  eminent 
lawyers,  of  that  age. 

y^iog.  BiitrM5«A,  Pict^^-m.  Ox«Y0U  Ir-Tatuer.-^'Bentliain's  Elf. 

188.  GRANT, 

Being  thus  qualified  for  practice,  be  soon  got  into  fuH 
employ,  by  the  distinguishing  figure  which  he  made  at  the 
Revolution  in  1688.  He  was  then  only  twenty -eight  years 
of  age;  but,  as  the  measures  of  the  precedieg  reign  had 
led  him  to  st\idy  the  constitutional  points  of  law,  he  disco- 
Yered  .  a  masterly  koowledge,  when  the  convention  of 
estates  met  to  debate  that  important  affair  concerning  the 
vacancy  of  the  throne,  upon  the  departure  of  king  James' 
to  France.  Some  of  the  old  lawyers,  in  pursuance  of  the 
principles  in  which  they  had  been  bred,  argued  warmly 
against  those  upon  which  the  Revolution,  which  had  taken 
place  in  England,  was  founded  ;  and  particularly  insisted' 
on  the  inability  of*tbe  convention  of  estates  to  make  any' 
disposition  of  the  crown.  Grants  opposed  these  notions* 
with  great  strength  and  spirit,  and  about  that  time  pub->» 
lished  a  treatise,  in  which  he  undertook,  by  the  principles 
6f  law,  to  prove  that  a  king  might  forfeit  his  crown  for 
himself  and  his  descendants ;  and  that  in  such  a  case  the 
states  had  a  power  to  dispose  of  it,  and  to  establish  and 
limit  a  legal  succession,  concluding  with  the  warmest  re- 
commendations of  the  prince  of  Orange  to  the  regal 

This  piece,  being  generally  read,  was  thought  to  have 
had  considerably  influence  on  the  public  resolution^,  and 
certainly  recommended  him  to  both  parties  in  the  way  of 
his  profession.  Those  who  differed  from  him  in  opinion' 
admired  his  courage,  and  were  desirous  of  making  use  of 
bis  abilities;  as  on  the  other  hand,  those  who  were  friends' 
to  the  revolution  Were  likewise  so  to  him,  which  brought  him 
into  great  jbusiness,  and  procured  him,  by  special  com- 
missions, frequent  employment  from  the  crown*  In  all 
these  he  acquitted  himself  with  so  much  honour,  that,  as 
soon  as  the  union  of  the  two  kingdoms  came  to  be  seriously 
considered  in  the  English  court,  queeif  Anne  unexpectedly, 
as  inrell  as  without  applicatiQn,  created  him  a  baronet  in 
1705,  in  the  view  of  securing  bis  interest  towards  complet- 
ing that  design  ;  and  upon  the  same  principle  her  majesty 
about  a  year  after  appointed  him  one  of  the  judges,  or  (as 
they  are  styled  in  Scotland)  one  of  the  sen«itors.  of  the  col- 
lege of  justice. 

.  From  this  time,  according  to  the  custom  of  Scotland,  be 
was  styled,  from  the  name  of  his  estate,  lord  CuUen,  and 
the  same  good  qualities  which  had  recommended  him  to 
this  post  were  very  conspicuous  in  the  discharge  of  it ;  in 

GRANT.  189 

which  he  continued  for  twenty  years  with  the  highest  re- 
putation,  when  a  period  was  put  to  his  life,  by  an  illness 
which  lasted  but  three  days ;  and,  though  no  violent  symp- 
toms appeared,  yet  his  physicians  clearly  discerned  that 
bis  dissolution  was  at  band.  They  acquainted  him  with 
their  opinion,  which  he  received  not  only  calmly,  but  chear- 
fully ;  declaring  that  he  had  followed  the  dictates  of  his 
conscience,  and  was  not  afraid  of  death.  He  took  a  tender 
farewell  of  bis  children  and  friends,  recommended  to  them 
earnestly  a  steady  and  constant  attachment  to  the  faith  and 
duty  of  Christians,  and  assured  them  that  true  religioa 
was  the  only  thing  that  could  bring  a  ms^n  peace  at  the  last. 
He  expired  soon  after,  March  16,  1726,  in  his  sixty-sixth 

He  was  so  true  a  lover  of  learning,  and  was  so  much  ad- 
dicted to  his  studies,  that,  notwithstanding  the  multiplicity 
of  his  business  while  at  the  bar,  and  his  great  attention  to 
his  charge  when  a  judge,  he  nevertheless  found  time  to 
write  various  treatises,  on  very  different  yet  important  sub- 
jects ;  some  political,  which  were  remarkably  well-timed, 
and  highly  serviceable  to  the  government;  others  of  a 
most  extensive  nature,  such  as  his  essays  on  law,  religion, 
and  education,  which  were  dedicated  to  his  late  majesty 
-when  prince  of  Wales,  by  whose  command,  his  then  secre- 
tary, Mr.  Samuel  Molyneux,  wrote  him  a  letter  of  thankis, 
in  which  were  many  gracious  expressions,  as  well  in  rela- 
tion to  the  piece  as  to  its  author.  He  composed,  besides 
these,  many  discourses  on  literary  subjects,  for  the  exer- 
cise of  his  own  thoughts,  and  for  the  better  discovery  of 
truth,  which  went  no  farther  than  bis  own  closet,  and, 
from  a  principle  of  modesty,  were  not  communicated  even 
to  his  most  intimate  friends. 

In  his  private  character  he  was  as  amiable  as  be  was  re«« 
spectable  in  the  public.  There  were  certain  ciircum- 
stances  that  determined  him  to  part  with  an  estate  'that 
was  left  him  by  his  father ;  and  it  being  foreseen  that  he 
would  employ  the  produce  of  it,  and  the  money  he  had 
acquired  by  his  profession,  in  a  neW  purchase,  there  were 
many  decayed  families  who  solicited  him  to  take  their  lands 
.upon  his  own  terms,  relying  entirely  on  that  equity  which 
they  conceived  to  be  the  rule  of  his  actions.  It  appeared 
•that  their  opinion  of  him  was  perfectly  well  grounded ;  for, 
being  at  length  prevailed  upon  to  lay  out  his  money  on  the 
estate  of  an  unfortunate  fan>ily,  who  bad  a  debt  upon  it  of 

190  GRANT. 

more  tfaan  it  was  worth,  bo  first  put  their  affairs  into  ord^r^ 
and  by  classing  the  different  denaands,  and  compromising  si 
yariety  of  claims,  secured  some  thousand  pounds  to  the 
heirs,  without  prejudice  to  any,  and  of  which  they  never 
could  have  been  possessed  but  from  his  interposition  and 

'  vigilance  in  their  behalf,  so  far  was  he  either  from  making 
any  advantage  to  himself  of  their  necessities,  or  of  his  own 
skill  in  bis  profession  ;  a  circumstance  justly  mentioned  to 
his  bonoar,  and  which  is  an  equal  proof  of  bis  candour^ 
generosity,  and  compassioo.     His  piety  was  sincere  and 
unaffected,  and  bis  love  for  the  church  of  Scotland  was 
shewn  in  his  recommending  moderation  and  charity  to  tbft 
clergy  as  well  as  laity^  and  engaging  the  foroter  to  insist 
upon  moral  duties  as  the  clearest  and  most  convincing 
proofs  of  men's  acting  upon  religious  principles;  and  his 
practice,  through  his  whole  life,  was  the  strongest  argu^ 
ment  of  his  being  thorouglily  persuaded  of  those  truths^ 
which,  from  his  love  to  mankind,  he  laboured  to  inculcate. 
He  was  charitable  without  ostentation,  disinterested  in  bis 
friendships  and  beneficent  to  all  who  bad  any  ihiiig  to  do 
with  him.     He  was  not  only  strictly  just,  but  so  free  from 
any  species  of  avarice,  that  his  lady,  who  was  a  woman  of 
great  prudence,  finding  him'  naore  intent  on  the  business 
committed  to  him  by  others  than  on  bis  own,  too]c  the  care 
of  placing  out  his  money  upon  herself;   a^nd,  to  prevent 
bis  postponing,  as  be  was  apt  to  do^  such  kind  of  affairs, 
when  securities  offered,  she  caused  the  circumstances  of 
them  to  be  stated  in  the  form  of  cases,  and  so  procured  his 
opinioa  upon  his  own  concerns,  as  if  .they  bad  been  those 
of  a  client.    These  little  circumstances  ase  mentioned  as 
more  expressive  of  his  temper  than  aeiiws  of  another  kind 
could  be  ^  because,  in  matter^  of  importance,  men  ei£her 
act  from  kabity  <vr  from  nK>tives  that  the  world  cannot  pene- 
trate ;  but,  in  things  of  a  trivial  natare,  ajre  less  upon  their 
guard,  shew  their  true  disposition,  and  stand  confessed  for 
what  they  ace.     He  passed  a  long  life  in  ease  and  .honour. 
His  sincerity  and  steady  axtacha>eot  to  hts  principles  re- 
conunended.him  to  all  parties,  even  to  those  who  difiered 
from  him  most ;  and  his  charity  aifecl  foodjeralion*  coni^rted 
this  respect  into  affeotion,  so  that  not  many  of  his  muk 
had  more  friends,  and  pechaps  nomt  could  boast  of  hmog 
fewer  enemies.     He  left  behind  hind  three  sons  and  fivi? 
ilajLighters,-,  his  eldeH  4Qn>  Arobihald  firant,  esq.  in  im 

*   father's  li^«>time,  represeated  in  pafAtamcat  tdoe  shire  of 


>      GRANT.  191 

Aberdeen;  and  becoming  by  hia  demise  sir  Archibftldl 
Grant,  bart*  was  chosen  again  for  the  same  county  in  17 it* 
His  second  son,  William,  followed  his  fatl^r'a  professiot^, 
was  several  years  lord-advocate  for  Scotland  ;  and,  in  1757^ 
one*  of  the  lords  of  session,  by  the  title  of  lord  Preston* 
grange.  Francis^  the  third  son,  was  a  merchant,  and  three 
»f  the  daughters  were  married  to  gentlemen  of  fortune.  * 

GRANVILLE,  Greenvile,  or  Grenville  (George), 
viscount  Lansdowiie,  an  English  poet^  was  descended  of  a 
family  distinguished  for  their  loyaJty ;  being  second  son  of 
Barnard  Granville,  esq.  brother  to  the  first  earl  of  Bath  of 
this  name,  who  had  a  principal  share  in  bringing  about  the 
restoration  of  Charles  IL  and  son  of  the  loyal  sir  Bevil 
Greenvile,  who  lost  his  life  fighting  for  Charles  L  at  Lans-* 
downe  in  1643.     He  was  born  in  1667,  and  in  his  infancy 
v?as  sent  to  France,  under  the  tuition  of  sir  William  EUys^ 
a  gentleman  bred  up  under  Dr.  Busby,  and  who  was  after- 
wards eminent  in  many  public  station^.     From  this  excel- 
lent tutor  he  not  (»nly  imbibed  a  taste  for  classical  learning, 
but  was  also  instructed  in  all  other  accomplishments  suit'^ 
able  to  his  birth,  in  which  he  made  so  quick  a  proficiency, 
that  after  he  had  distinguished  himself  above  all  the  youths 
of  FVauce  in  martial  exercises^  be  was  sent  to  Trinity-col* 
lege,  Cambridge,  in  1677,  at  ten  years  of  age;  and  before 
be  was  twelve,  spoke  some  verses  of  his  own  €K>mposing  to 
the  duchess  of  York,  afterwards  queen-consort  to  James  Ih 
at  her  visit  to  that  university  \€k  1679.     On  account  of  his 
extraordinary  merit,  he  was  created  M.  A.  at  the  age  of 
thirteen,  and  left  the  college  soon  after. 

In  the  first  stage  of  hi$  life,  be  seems  irather  to  bave 
made  his  Muse  subservient  to  his  am^bition  and  thirst  after 
military  glory,  in  whfch  there  appeared  such  a  force  of 
genius  as  raised  the  admiration  6f  Mr.  Waller.  But  his 
ambition  shewed  itself  most  adtive  on  tlie  duke  of  Mon^ 
gnouth^s  rebellion ;  and  be  requested  his  father  to  let  him 
arm  in  defence  of  his  ^vereign;  but  being  then  only 
eighteen  years  of  age,  he  was  thought  too  young  for  such 
an  enterprise.  It  was  not  without  extreme  reluctance  that 
he  submitted  to  the  tenderness  of  paternal  restraint ;  which 
was  the  more  mortifying,  as  his  uncle  the  earl  of  Bath  had 
iDU  this  occasion  raised  a  regiment  of  tobl  for  tbe  king's 
^tririte;   with  the  behaviour  and  discipline  of  w4ncb  bis 


>  Bio;,  firlt. 



majesty  was  so  well  pleased,  that,  on  reviewing  ih^m  tt 
Hounslow,  as  a  public  mark  of  his  approbation  be  epn^ 
ferred  the  honour  of  knighthood  upon  our  author's  elder 
brother  Bevil,  who  was  a  captain,  at  the  head  of  the  regi- 
ment. Thus,  forbidden  to  handle  his  pike  on  this  impor- 
tant occasion,  he  took  up  his  pen  after  the  rebellion  wasi 
crushed,  and  a<ldressed  some  congratulatory  lines  to  the 

When  the  prince  pf  Orange  declared  his  intended  expe- 
dition to  England,  our  young  hero  made  a  fresh  applica- 
tion, in  the  most  importunate  terms,  to  let  him  prove  his 
loyalty.     His  letter  to  his  father,  on  this  occasion,  which 
is  printed  by  Dr.  Johnson,  is  an  elegant  composition  ;  but 
this  was  likewise  unavailing,  as  the  danger  was  now  in- 
creased in  a  greater  proportion  than  bis  age.     The  king'd 
affairs  were.become  so  desperate,  that  any  attempt  to  serve 
bim  could,  only  have  involved  him  in  his  royal  master's, 
ruin.     On  this  he  sat  down  a  quiet  spectator  of  the  revolu- 
tion, iu  which  most  of  his  family  acquiesced,  but  was  cer- 
tainly far  from  being  pleased  with  the  change ;  he  saw  no 
prospect  of  receiving  any  favours  from  administra- 
tion; and  resolving  to  lay  a^ide  all  thoughts  of  pushing  bis 
fortune  either  in  the  court  or  the  camp,  be  endeavoured 
to  divert  bis  melancholy  in  the  company  and  conversation 
of  the  softer  sex.     His  adopted  favourite  was  the  countess 
of  Newburgb,  and  he  exerted  all  his  powers  of  verse  in 
singing  the  force  of  this  enchantresses  charms,  and  the 
sweets  of  his  own  captivity.     But  he  sang  in  vain,  hapless 
like  Waller  in  his  passion,  while  by  his  poetry  hQ  endea- 
voured to  raise  his  Myra  to  the  immortality  which  Waller 
iiad  given  to  Sacharissa.     In  the  mean  time  soni[e  of  his 
friends  were  nauch  grieved  at  this  conduct  in  retiring  from 
t)usiness,  .  as  unbecoming  himself,  and  disgraceful  to  bis 
family.     One  of  these  in   particular,  a   female  relation, 
whos.e  name  was  Higgins,  took  the  liberty  to  send  to  hinoi 
an  expostulatory  ode  in  1690,  in  hopes  of  shaming  him 
out  of  hi^  enchantment;  but  this  was  his  age  of  romance, 
and  he  persisted  in  asserting  that  his  resolution  was  un- 
changeable, and  that  he  would  barter  no  happiness  for 
that  of  a  lover. 

In  this  temper  he  passed  the  course  of  king  William^s 
reign  in  private  life,  enjoying  the  company  of  his  Muse, 
which  he  employed  in  celebrating  the  reigning  beauties  of 
that  age,  as  Waller,  whom  he  strove  to  imitate,  ha  d  done 

«R  A  N'V  1  LJL  E.  M3 

4ho0e  of  di0  preceding.  We  have  also  peyelral  dramatic 
pieces  written  in  this  early  part  of  Jife,  of  which  the 
<<  Briti^  Enchanters/'  he  tells  us  bimsdf,  was  the  first 
essay  of  a  very  infant  Muse ;  being  written  at  his  first  en- 
trance into  his  teens,  and  attempted  rather  as  a  task  in 
hxmrs  free  from  other  exerciser,  than  with  any  view  to  pub- 
lic exhibition.  But  Betterton,  the  celebratied  actor,  hav- 
ing accidentally  seen  it  many  years  i^r  it  was  written, 
^gg^4  i^  for  the  stage,  where  it  found  so  favourable  a 
reception,  as  to  have  an  uninterrupted  run  of  at  least  forty 
days*  His  other  dramatic  pieces  were  also  well  received ; 
but  although  we  are  assured  they  owed  that  reception  to 
their  own  merit,^as  much  as  to  the  general  esteem  and 
respect  which  all  the  polite  world  professed  for  their  author, 
that  intrinsic  merit  is  not  now  discoverable.  Addison, 
however,  joiued  with  Dryden  in  sounding  Granville^s 
praises ;  the  former,  in  the  *^  Epilogue  to  the  British  En- 
chanters;'' and  the  latter,  in  some  verses  addressed  to  him 
upon  his  tragedy  of  ^'  Heroic  Love." 

Upon  the  accession  of  queen  Anne,  he  stood  as  fair  in 
the  general  esteem  as  any  man  of  his  years,  now  about 
thirty-five.  He  had  always  entertained  the  greatest  vene- 
ration for  the  queen,  and  he  made  bis  court  to  her  in  the 
|K>litest  manner  in  Urga^nda's  prophecy,  spoken  by  way  of 
epilogue  at  the  first  representation  of  the  ^'  British  Enchan- 
ters," where  he  introduced  a  scene  representing  the  queen, 
and  the  several  triumphs  of  her  reign.  He  entered  heartily 
into  the  measures  for  carrying  on  the  war  against  France ; 
and,  with  a  view  to  excite  a  proper  spirit  in  the  nation,  he 
translated  the  second  **  Olynthian"  of  Demosthenes,  in 
1702.  This  new  specimen  of  his  learning  gained  him 
many  friends,  and  added  highly  to  his  reputation;  and, 
when  the  design  upon  Cadiz  was  projected  the  same  year, 
he  presented  to  Mr.  Harley,  afterwards  earl  of  Oxford,  att 
authentic  journal  of  Mr.  Wimbledon's  expedition  thither, 
in  1625;  in  order  that,  by  avoiding  the  errors  committed 
in  a  former  attempt  upon  that  pli^ce,  a  more  successful 
plan  might  be  formed.  But,  little  attention  being  given 
to  it,  the  same  mistakes  were  committed,  and  the  same 
disappointment  ensued :  with  this  diiFerence  only,  that 
the  duke  of  Ormond  had  an  opportunity  to  take  his  Ire* 
venge  at  Vigo,  and  to  return  with  glory,  which  was  not 
Wimbledon^s  fate. 

By  a  laudable  (sconomy  Granville  bad  hi^erto  pre^-* 

Vol.  XVI.  fi 

1S4  Q  »  A  N  V  I  L  L  E. 


served  himself  from  those  embarrassments,  which  in  nm^ 
advanced  life  he  is  said  to  have  incurred,-  and  his  father, 
who  was  just  dead,  had  made  some  provision  for  him, 
which  was  increased  by  a  smalL  annuity  left  him  by  his 
nnqle  the  earl  of  Bath,  who  died  not  long  after.    These 

'  advantages,  added  to  the  favours  which  his  coustn  John 
Grenville  had  received  from  her  majesty  in  being  raised  to 
the  peerage  by  the  title  of  lord  Grenville  of  Potheridge, 
and  his  l>rother  being  made  governor  of  Barbadoes,  with  a 
fixed  salary  of  2000/.  the  same  enabled  him  to  come  into 
the  house  of  commons,  as  member  for  Fowey  in  Cornwall, 
in  the  first  parliament  of  the  queen.  In  1706,  his  fortune 
was  improved  farther  by  the  loss  of  his  ^eldest  brother,  sir 

.  Bevil^  who  died  that  year,  in  his  passage  from  Barbadoes,  in 
the  flower  of  his  age,  unmarried,  and  universally  lamented. 
Hence  our  younger  brother  stood  now  as  the  bead-branch 
of  his  family,  and  he  still  held  bis  seat  in  the  house  of  com* 
mons,  both  in  the  second  and  third  parliaments  of  the 
queen.  But  the  administration  being  taken  out  of  the 
hands  of  his  friends,  with  whom  he  remained  steadily  con- 
nected in  the  same  principles,  he  wa$  cut  off  from  any  pro- 
spect of  being  preferred  at  court. 

In  this  situation  he  diverted  himself  among  his  brother 
poets ;  and  we  find  him  at  this  time  introducing  Wycherley 

•  and  Pope  to  the  acquaintance  of  Henry  St.  John,  esq. 
afterwards  lord  viscount  Bolingbroke.  This  friend,  then 
displaced,  having  formed  a  design  of  celebrating  such  of 
the  poets  of  that  age  as  he  thought  deserved  any  notice, 
had  applied  for  a  character  of  the  former  to  our  aujihor, 
who,  in  reply,  having  done  justice  to  Mr.  Wycherley's 
merit,  concludes  his  letter  thus :  <^  In  short.  Sir,  FU  have 
you  judge  for  yourself.  I  am  not  satisfied  with  this  imper- 
fect sketch ;  name  your  day,  and  I  will  bring  you  together; 
I  shall  have  both  your  thanks ;  let  it  be  at  my  lodging.  I 
can  give  you  no  Falernian  that  has  out-lived  twenty  con- 
sulships, but  I  can  promise  you  a  bottle  of  good  claret, 
that  has  seen  two  reigns.  Horatian  wit  will  not  be  wantii^ 
when  you  meet.  He  shall  bring  with  him,  if  you  will,  a 
youngpoet  newly  inspired  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cooper's- 
hili,  whom  he  and  Walsh  have  uiken  under  their  wing,^ 

'His  name  is  Pope,  he  is  not  above  seventeen  or  eighteen, 
years  of  age,  and  promises  miracles.  If  he  goes  on  as  he 
has  begun  in* the  pastoral  way,  asi  Virgil  first  tried  his 

'  strength,  we  may  hop6  to  see  English  poetry  vie  with  the 

G  R  AN  V  i  L^L  E.  19S 

Itoman^  and  this  Swan  of  Windsor  sing  as  sweetly  as*  die 
Mantuan.     I  expecl^your  answer.'' 

Sac&everelPs  trial,  which  happened  not  long  after, 
brought  on  that  remarkable  change  in  the  ministry  in  1710, 
when  Mr.  Granville's  friends  came  again  into  power.  He 
was  elected  for  the  borough  of  Helston,  but,  being  returned 
at  the  same  time  for  the  county  of  Cornwall,  he  chose  to 
represent  the  latter;  and  on  September  29,  he  was  de- 
clared secretary  at  war,  in  the  room  of  Robert  Walpole, 
esq.  afterwards  the  celebrated  minister.  He  continued  in 
this  office  for  some  time,  and  discharged  it  with  reputation  ; 
and,  towards  the  close  of  the  next  year,  1711,  he  married 
the  lady  Mary,  daughter  of  Edward  Villiers,  earl  of  Jersey, 
at  that  time  possessed  of  a  considerable  jointure,  as  widow 
of  Thomas  Thynne,  esq.  He  had  just  before  succeeded  to 
the  estate  of  the  eider  branch  of  his  family,  at  Stow ;  and 
December  31,  he  was  created  a  peer  of  Great  Britain,  by 
the  title  of  lord  Lansdowne,  baron  of  Bideford,  in  the 
county  of  Devon.  In  this  promotion  he  was  one  of  the 
twelve  peers  who  were  all  created  at  the  same  time;  and  so 
numerous  a  creation,  being  unprecedented,  gave  much 
offence,  although  but  little  in  his  case.  His  lordship  was 
now  the  next  male-issue  in  that  noble  family,  in  which  two 
peerages,  that  of  the  earl  of  Bath,  and  that  of  lord  Gren- 
ville  of  Potheridge,  had  been  extinguished  almost  toge- 
ther :  his  personal  merit  was  universally  allowed ;  and  as  to 
his  political  sentiments,  those  who  thought  him  most  mis- 
taken, allowed  him  to  be  open,  candid,  and  uniform.  He 
stood  always  high  in  the  favour  of  queen  Anne;  and  with 
great  reason,  having  upon  every  occasion  testified  the 
greatest  zeal  for  her  government  and  the  most  profound 
respect  for  her  person.  For  these  reasons,  in  the  succeeding 
year,  1712,  he  was  sworn  of  her  majesty's  pirivy-council, 
made  controller  of  her  household,  about  a  year  after  ad- 
vanced to  the  post  6f  treasurer  in  the  same  office ;  and  to 
bis  other  honours,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  was  added  the  dedi- 
cation of  Pope's  "  Windsor  Forest."  His  lordship  con- 
tinued in  his  office  of  treasurer  to  the  queen,  until  her 
death,  when  he  kept  company  with  his  friends  in  falling  a 
sacrifice  to  party- violence,  being  removed  from  his  trea- 
surer's place  by  George  I.  Oct  11,  1714. 

His  lordship  still  continued  steady  to  his  forn^er  connec- 
tions, and  in  that  spirit  entered  his  protest  with  tbem 
against  the  bills  for  attainting  lord  Boiiugbroke  and  the 

o  2 

i9«  ^t^^'vittlL 


duke  of  Ormofid,  in  1715.  He  evf^ti  «nMfed  dteply  into 
the  scheme  for  raiting  an  imnn^l:ftiol|^in  tlflfe  Wetft  of  Eng^ 
land,  and  was  at  the  head  of  it,  if  W^  ttiaj  beliieve  lord 
Bolingbroke,  who  represents  hitn  pos^eils^  now  with  the. 
tame  political  fire  and  frenzy  for  the  Pretender  as  he  had 
shewn  in  his  youth  for  the  father.  In  conseqoenee,  how- 
ever, of  being  suspected,  he  was  apprehended  September 
26,  1715,  and  committed  prisoner  to  tbeTow^r  of  London^ 
where  he  continued  untilFebruary  S,  1716-17,  when  he  Wis 
released  without  any  form  of  trial  or  acquittal.  Howevtftr 
sensible  he  might  be  at  this  tim^  of  the  mistake  in  his  con- 
duct, which  had  deprived  him  of  his  liberty,  yet  be  was 
far  from  running  into  the  other' extreme.  He  seems,  in- 
deed, to  be  one  of  those  tories,  who  are  said  to  have  be<^ 
driven  by  the  violent  persecutions  against  that  party  into 
jacobitism,  and  who  returned  to  their  former  principles  as 
soon  as  that  violence  ceased.  Hence  we  find  him,  In 
1719,  as  warm  as  ever  in  defence  of  those  principles,  the 
first  time  of  his  speaking  in  the  bouse  of  lords,  in  the 
debates  about  repealing  the  act  against  occasional  con- 
form ity. 

His  lordship  continued  steady  in  the  same  sentiments, 
which  were  so  opposite  to  those  of  the  court,  and  incion- 
sistent  with  the  measures  taken  by  the  administration,  that 
he  must  heeds  be  seiistble  a  watchful  eye  was  kept  ever 
iipon  him.    Accordingly,  when  the  flame  broke  out  again^ 
his  friends,  on  'account  of  what  is  sometimes  called  Atter- 
bury*s  plot,  in  ^722,  his  lordship,  is  some  say,  to  avc^d  a 
second  rmprisonment  in  the  ToWer,  withdrew  to  France, 
but  others  attribute  his  goirfg  thither  to  a  degree  of  ptofu- 
sion  which  had  embarrassed 'bis  circumstances.     He  had 
been  at  Paris  but  a  little  while,  when  the  first  volume  of 
Burnetts  "  History  of  his  ow^  Times**  was   published. 
Great  espectadons  had  heen  raised  of  this  work,  which  ac^ 
cotdingly  he  perused  with  attention ;  and  finding  the  cha- 
racters of  the  'duke  '6f  Albemarle  and  the  earl  of  Bath 
treated  in  a 'manner  he  thought  they  did  not  deserve,  he 
formed  the  design  of  doing  them  justice.    This'led  him  fo 
consider  what  had  been  said  by  other  historians  coneerning 
his  family;  and,  as  Clarendon  and  Echard  had  treated  his 
uncle  sir  Richard  Granville  more  roughly,  his  lordship, 
being  possessed  of  memoirs  from  which  his  conduct  n>ight  be 
set  in  a  fairer  light,  resblved  to  ibllow  the  dictates  of  duly 
and  inclination,  by  publishing  bis  sentiments  upon  tkoif 

GRANV{I,t.E»  197 

*  •        •  • 

liMds.  These  pieces  are  printed  ifi  bis  w^rks,  under  the 
tiile  of  <*  A  Vindication  of  General  Mopk,"  &c.  and  '^  A 
Vindication  of  Sir  Richard  Greenyille,  General  of  the  West 
to  King  Charles  I/'  &c.  They  were  answered  by  Old* 
mixon,  in  a  piece  entitled  "  Reflections  historical  and 
politic,''  &€.  17S2,  4to,  and  by  judge  3urnety  in  <*  Re* 
marics,''  &c.  a  pamphlet.  His  lordship  replied^  in  '*  A 
Letter  to  the  author  of  the  Reflections/'  &c.  1732,  410, 
and  the  spring  followingi  there  came  out  a  very  rough 
answer  in  defence  of  Echard,  by  Dr.  Colbatch,  entitled 
**  An  Exaqdinatiou  of  Echard's  Account  of  the  Marriage 
Treaty,"  &c.  ' 

.  He  continued  abroad  at  Paris  almost  the  space  of  ten 
years;  and,  being  sensible  that  many  juvenilities  had  es* 
caped  his  pen  in  his  poetical  pieces,  made  use  of  the  opr 
portunity  furnished  by  this  retirement,  to  revise  and  cor- 
rect them,  in  order  to  republication.  Accordingly,  at  hif 
return  to  England  in  1732,  he  published  these,  together 
with  a  vindication  of  his  kinsman  just  mentioned,  in  two 
volumes,  4to.  To  these  may  be  added  a  tract  in  lor^ 
Somers's  collection,  entitled  **  A  Letter  from  a  nobleman 
abroad  to  bis  friend  in  England,^'  1722.  The  late  que^^ 
Caroline  having  honoured  him  with  her  protection,  th^ 
last  verses  he  wrote  were  to  inscribe  two  copies  of  his 
poems^  one  of  which  was  presented  t/o  her  majesty,  an4 
the  other  to  the  princess  royal  Anne,  late  princes^  dowager 
of  Onuige.  The  remaining  years  of  his  life  were  passed 
in  privacy  and  retirement,  to  the  day  of  his  death,  which 
happened  January  30, 173^,  in  his  sixty-eighth  year  ;  hav<* 
tRg  lost  his  lady  a  few  days  before,  by  wnom  having  no 
pale  issue,  the  title  of  lAusdowne  became  in  him  extinct. 
His  character,  as  drawn  by  Dr.  Johnson,  seems  now  un* 
contested.  He  was,  says  that  eminent  critic,  a  man  illus- 
trious by  birth,  and  therefore  attracted  notice;  since  he  is 
atyled  by  Pope  *^  the  polite,"  he  must  be  supposed  elegant 
in  his  maimers,  and  generally  loved  -,  he  was  in  times  of 
contest  and  turbulence  steady  to  bis  party,  and  obtained 
aliat  /esteem  which  is  always  conferred  upon  firmness  and 
consistency.  As  a  poet.  Dr.  Johnson  has  appreciated  his 
taierit  with  equal  justice.  *  He  wasandeed  but  a  feeble  imi- 
tator of  the  feeblest  parts  of  Waller,  and  is  far  more  to  be 
praised  for  his  patronage  of^  poets,  and  the  judgment  he 
shewed  in  the  case  of  Pope,  than  for  any  pretensions  to 
rank  among  them;    His  prose  style,  howeveri  is  exceUeuti 

198  G  R^A  N  V  I  L  L  E. 

and  far  beyond  that  of  his  early  contemporaries.  DrJ 
Warton  notices,  as  proofs  of  this,  his  "  Letter  to  a  young 
man  on  his  taking  orders  ;'*  his  "  Observations  on  Burnet/* 
his  "  Defence  of  his  relation  sir  Richard  Greenville,"  his. 
translation  of  some  parts  of  Demosthenes,  and  his  Letter 
to  his  father  on  the  Revolution,  written  in  1688.  The 
same  critic,  who  must  have  been  acquainted  with  some 
who  knew  him  intimately,  adds  that  his  conversation  was 
most  pleasing  and  polite ;  and  his  affability,  and  universal 
benevolence  and  gentleness,  captivating.' 

GRASSWINKEL  (Theodore  or  Thierrt),  a  learned 
lawyer,  was  born  at  Delft  in  1600.  He  wrote  various 
works  upon  legal  and  political  subjects,  by  which  he  ac- 
quired a  considerable  reputation.  Among  these  are  '*  Li- 
bertas  Veneta,  seu  Yenetorum  in  se  et  suos  imperandi 
Jus."  This  was  published  in  1634,  and  in  1644  he  de- 
fended the  republic  of  Venice,  in  a  dispute  with  the  duke 
of  Savoy  concerning  precedence ;  for  which  service,  that 
republic  created  him  a  knight  of  St.  Mark.  He  had  also 
before  this,  attempted  to  confute  Buchanan^s  treatise  **  De 
Jure  Majiestatis,^'  in  a  work  dedicated  to  Christina,  queen 
#of  Sweden,  who  Was  known  to  be  a  great  assertor  of  regal 
privileges.  Grasswinkel  defended  the  liberty  of  the  seas 
against  Selden,  and  Burgus,  a  native  of  Genoa,  in  bis  work 
"  Maris  Liberi  Vindiciae,*'  and  with  so  much  judgment,  in 
their  opinion,  that  the  States  of  Holland  gave  him  a  pen- 
sion of  500  florins,  with  the  title  of  Advocate-gen ecal  of 
the  marine,  until  an  opportunity  offered  of  rewarding  his 
merit  with  a  more  honourable  employment;  which  was 
afterwards'that  of  advocate  of  the  exchequer,  and  register 
and  secretary  of  the  chanibre-mi-partie.  He  was  author, 
likewise,  of  a  treatise  in  two  volumes,  4to,  **On  the  Sove- 
reignty of  the  States  of  Holland.^'  He  died  of  an  apo- 
plexy at  Mechlin,  Qct  12,  1666.* 

GR ATAROLUS  (William),  a  learned  physician  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Bergamo  in  Italy  in  1510^ 
iand  was  educated  at  Padua,,  where  he  took  his  degrees 
with  great  reputation  ;  but  having  embraced  the  doctrines 
of  the  reformers,  with  which  Peter  Martyr  made  him 
acquainted,  be  was  obliged  to  make  his  escape,  and 
went  into  Germany,  that  he  might  live  undisturbed  in  the 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Johnson  and  Chalmers's  Poets,  1810. — :]p,owles'8  edition  of 
Po|>«  ;  sec  lD<lex.---Park*8  edition  of  Lord  Orfoi'd's  Royal  a^d  ^Mt  Authors, 
*  Morer'u-r-Geo.  Diet — Fopipei]{  Bib].  Belg. 

G  R  A  T  A  R  O  L»U  S.  199 

inrotestant  religion.  After  some  stay  at  Basil;  be  was  in- 
vited to  Marpurg  to  be  physic-professor ;  but  in  a  short 
time  returned  to  Basil,  and  died  there  in  1562,  or  as  some 
think  in  1666,  or  1668,  which  last  seems  most  correct 
He  wrote  a  great  many  books,  as,  ^<  De  Memoria  repa-> 
randa,  augenda,  conservanda,  ae  Reminiscentia.  De 
Praedictione  Morum,  Natu^arumque  Homininn  fatili,  4^* 
Inspectione  parti  urn  corporis.  Prognostica  Natoralia  de 
Temporam  mutatione  perpetua,  ordine  Literarum.  De 
Literatorum  &  eorum  qui  Magistratibus  funguntur^  con- 
servanda, preservandaque  valetadine.  De  Vini  Natura^ 
artificio  &  usu  ;  Deque  omni  Re  Pptabili.  De  Regimine 
iter  Agentium,  vel  Equitum,  vel  Peditum,  vd  Navi»  vel 
Curru  viatoribus  quibusque  Utilissiipi  Libcii.duo.**  He 
likewise  made  a  collection  of  several  tracts. jtouching  the 
sweating-sickness  in  England.  ,  Some  of  these  works  are 
honourable  to  his  talents,  and  -evince  a  large  share  of 
knowledge ;  but  in  others  he  shews  an  attachment  to  the 
absurdities  of  alchemy,  much  superstition,  aod  opinibns 
which  do  not  imply  a  sound  judgment.'. 

GRATIAN,  a  celebrated  Benediqtine  of  tbe  twelfth, 
century,  was  bom  at  Cbiusi,  and  spent  near  twenty-four 
years  at  the  monastery  of  Bologna  in  =  composing  a  work 
which  has  gained  him  great  fame,  and  which  he  published 
about  1 151,  under  the  title  qf  **  Decretal,'*  or  **  Concor- 
dantia  discordantium  Canpnum,^'  in  which  be  endeavours 
to  reconcile  those  canons,  wfaioh  seem  to  contradict  each 
other ;  hut  as  this  author  has  been  guilty  of  some  errors, 
l^  mistaking  a  canon  of  one  coiincil,  or  a  passage  of  one 
father,  for  another,  and  has  frequently  quoted  spurious  de- 
cretak,  several  writers  have  endeavoured  to  correct  these 
faults,  particularly  Anthony  Augustine  in  his  valuable 
work  entitled  ^^  De  emendatione  Gratiani,''  an  excellent 
edition  of  which  was  published  by  Baluze.  The  popes 
are  indebted  principally  to  Gratian^s  Decretal  for  the  high 
authority,  they  exercised  in  the  thirteenth  and  following 
centuries ;  but  all  their  pretensions  are  supported  in  this 
work  upon  suppositious  canons,  which  that  age  was  too 
ignorant  to  suspect.  This  work  forms  one  of  the  principal 
parts  of  the  canon  law.  The  editions  of  Rome,  1582,  4 
vols,  folio,  and  of  Lyons,.  1671,  3  vols,  folio,  are  the  best. 
There  is  a  separate  edition  of  this  Decretal,  Mentz,  1472, 

*  Niccron,    yo\,  2DCXI.-— Gen.    Dic^— -^Moreri.-— Frtheri  Tbestrum.— .Saxii 
Ooomafttioon.  *  Ca?e.— Dupiq.— Moreri.— Saiii  ODOUiasticoD. 

200  O'R  A  T  I  A  N  I, 

OHATIAKl  (Antonio  Maria),  a  learned  bishop  of 
Amelia^  was  born  in  1536  in  the  little  city  called  Borgo-^ 
dirsan^Sepulcro  in  Tuscany.  He  w^s  educated  by  cardi^ 
nal  Commendo,  who  trusted  him  with  the  most  inlportanC 
affairs,  and  gave  him  a  rich  abbey.  After  this  CardinaPi 
death,  Gratiani  was  secretary  to  pope  Sixtus  V.  then  to 
pardinal  Montalto ;  and  Clement  VIII.  who  was  partly  in-* 
debted  to  him  for  his  elevation  to  the  papal  chair,  made 
him  bi^^op  of  Amelia,  sent  him  to  Venice  as  nuncio,  and 
'  would  have  even  created  him  cardinal,  but  was  dissuaded 
from  it  by  cardinal  Aldobrandino,  because  Gratiani  was 
the  duke  of  Florence's  subject.  The  air.  of  Venice  not 
Agreeing  mih  his  health,  he  retired  to  Amelia,  devoted 
himself  to  ->tbe'  duties  of  a  holy  bishop,  and  died  there, 
1611.  He>l^  <^  Synodal  Ordinances;"  "The  Life  of 
Cardinal  Comdiieiido,"  4to,  which  has  been  translated  into 
French  by  M.  Flecbier ;  «  De  Bello  Cyprio,"  4to ;  «  De 
Casibus  adversis  illustrium  virorum  sui  sevi,"  4to,  trans- 
lated into  French  by  le  Pelletier.  In  1745,  a  posthumous 
work  was  published  at  Florence,  *^  De  Scriptis  in  vita  Mi- 
nerva ad  Albysmm  fratrem  libri  viginti,**  4to.  * 

GRATIUS  (FalIscus),  an  eminent  Latin  poet,  is  sup-' 
posed  to  have  been  contemporary  with  Ovid,  and  pointed 
pu^  by  him  in  the  last  elegy  of  the  fourth  book  <^  De 
Ponto,"  "  Aptaque  venanti  Gratius  arma  dedit.'*  We 
have  a  poem  of  his,  entitled  <<  Cynogeticon,  or.  The  Art 
of  hunting  with  Dogs ;"  which  in  strictness  can  only  be 
called  a  fragment.  The  style  of  this  poem  is  reckoned 
pure,  but  without  elevation ;  the  poet,  like  Others  who 
have  adopted  the  didactic  plan,  having  been  more  soli- 
citous to  instruct  than  to  please  his  reader.  He  is  also 
censured  by  the  critics  as  dwelling  too  long  on  fabler; 
and  as  he  is  counted  much  superior  to  Nemesianus,  who 
has  treated  the  same  subject,  so  he  is  reckoned  iii  all 
points  inferior  to  the  Greek  poet,  Oppian,  who  wrot^  his 
Cynogetics  and  Halieutics  under  Severds  and  Caracalla, 
to  whom  'he  presented  them,  and  who  is  said  to  have  re- 
warded the  poet  very  magnificently.  The. first  edition  of 
the  **  Cynogeticon^  was  published  in  1504,  Bonon.  folio, 
along  with  Nemesianus,  and  often  reprinted ;  but  the  best 
edition  is  that  of  London,  1690,  in  8vo,  **  cum  Notis  per« 
petuis  ThomsB  Jonson,  M.  A.*^  * 

*  Moi«ri.-*Erythnei  Pinacotheca. 

*  Vottittftda  Poet.  Lat— 'Fabric  Bibl.  Lat. 

G  R  A  T  I  US.  201 

GRATIUS  (OnTUiRUs),  a  nttlve  of  Holhwic  in  the  dio- 
eese  of  Muiitteri  whose  tittaie  W9m  Graes^  taught  etbid 
and  pbiloftpphy  at  Cologn,  in  a  college  of  which  be  became 
the  bead,  and  died  there  May  92^  15424     His  attachment 
to  the  catholic  rellgidn  involved  him  in  disputes  with 
Reachlin,  Hutten,  and  other  professors ;  who/  to  ridicule 
the  style  of  the  Romish  divines,  the  monks,  and  some  re« 
ligious  ceremonies,  are  supposed  to  have  published  *f  Epis^ 
tolie  obscurorum  virorum  ad  Dominum  Magistrum  Ortui-*> 
nnm  Gratium,*'  1516  and  1517,  4to,  in  two  parts^  of  which 
there  have  been  editions  since»    But  it  ia  more  probable  that 
this  book  was  really  written  by  Van  Hutten  and  John  Joeger^ 
afias  John  Crotns,  Luther's  contemporary  and  friend,  and 
who  afterwards  returned  to  the  church  of  Rome,  and  was  the^ 
reproached  by  Christopher  Olearius  for  writing  such  a  satire, 
Erasnsns  is  said  to  have  been  so  pleased  with  it,  as  to  be  thrown 
into  a  violent  fit  of  laughter,  which  burst  an  imposthume  in 
hia'face.  In  1710,  a  beautiful  edition  was  published  in  I2md, 
at  London,  dedicated  to  the  author  of  the  Tatlen    It  wab 
condemned  by  Leo  X.  March  15,  1517 ;  and  Gratius  wrotfe 
in  opposition  to  it,  ^  Lamentationes  obscurorum  viroruth 
lion  prohibitoe  per  Sedem  Apostolicam,''  Cologn,   1518, 
tvoj  reprinted  in  1649.     He  also*  published  ^'Triumpbus 
B.  Job,*'  in  elegiac  verse^  in  three  books,  Cologn,  1537, 
folio  ;  **  Fasciculus  rerom  expetendarum  et  fugiendarum,*^ 
Cologn,  1535,  folio,  reprinted  under  the  inspection  of  Ed- 
ward Brown,  London,  1690,  2  vols.  foMo;  which  isacu* 
rious  collection  of  pieces  respecting  the  council  of  Basil.  ^ 
GRAUNT  (John),  the  celebrated  author  of  the  <<  Ob- 
servations on  tiie  Bills  of  Mortality,^*  was  the  son  of  Henry 
Graant  of  Hampshire,    who  being  afterwards  settled  in 
Bfrchin-lane,  London,  had  this  child  bom  there,  April  94, 
1620»   '  Bdiug  a  rigid  puritan,  he  bred  him  up  in  all  the 
itricfoeiss  of  those  principles;  and  designing  him  for  trade, 
gave  bim  no  more  education  than  was  barely  necessary  for 
that  purpose ;  so  that,  with  the  ordinary  qualifications  of 
reading,  'Writing,  and  arithmetic,  he  was  put  apprentice  to 
a  indberdaslier  in  the  city,  which  trade  he  afterwards  fol- 
lowed, bdt  become  a  freeman  of  the  Drapers'  company. 
He  came  early  into  business,  and  in  a  short  time  grew  so 
ttuch  into  the  -  esteem  of  his  fellow^iti^ens,  that  he  was 

*  M«r6ri.— Foppen  Bibl.  Belg. 

302  G  R  A  U  N  T. 

frequently  chosen  arbitrator  for  cooDponng  differences  be^* 
tween  neighbours,  and  preventing  law-suits.  With  this 
reputation  be  pa3sed  through  all  the  offices  of  his  ward,  as 
far  as  that  of  a  common  council- mani  which  he. held  two 
years,  and  was  6rst  captain  and  then  major  of  the  train 
bands*  These  distinctions  were  the  effects  of  a  great  share 
of  good  sense  and  probity,  rendered  aqiiable  by. a  mild 
and  friendly  disposition  ;  which  was  all  that  was  in  those 
days  expected  from  a  tradesman  of  no  great  birth,  and  of 
small  breeding.  But  Graunt's  genius  was  far  from  being 
confined  within  those  limits  :  it  broke  through  all  the. dis- 
advantages of  his  slender  education,  and  enabled  him  to 
form  a  new  and  noble  design,  and  to  execute  it  with  as 
much  spirit  as  there  appeai:ed  sagacity  in  forming  it. 

The  exact  time  is  not  known  when  he  first  began  to  col- 
lect and  consider  the  Bills  of  Mortality;  but  he  tells  us 
himself,  that  he  had  turned  his  thoughts  that  way  several 
years,  before  he  had  any  design  of  publishing  the  disco- 
veries he  had  made.  As  bis  character  must  have  been  emi- 
neutly  distinguished  in  1650,  when,  though  not  above 
thirty  years  of  age,  his  interest  was  so  exten^ve,  as  to 
procure  the  music  professor's  chair  at  Gresbam,  for  his 
friend  doctor  (afterwards  sir  William)  Petty  ;  so  it  is  more 
than  probable,  that  his  acqaain|anQe  and  friendship  with 
that  gentleman,  was  the  consequence  of  a  similarity,  of 
pursuits;  and  that  our  author  had  then  communicated 
some  of  his  thoughts  upon  this  subject  to  sir  William,  who, 
on  his  part,  is  likewise  said  to  have  repaid  the  generous 
confidence  with  some  useful  hints  towards  composing  .his 
book.  This  piece,  which  oontained  a  new  and  accurate 
thesis  of  policy,  built  upon  a  more  certain  reasoning  than 
Was  before  tliat  time  known,  was  first  presented  to  the 
public  in  1661,  4to,  and  met  with  such  an  extraordinary 
reception,  that  another  edition  was  called  for  in .  the  fol- 
lowing year ;  and  our  author's  fame,  and  the  usefulness  of 
bis  book,  began  to  be  spoken  of  both  at  home  and  abroad. 
Immediately  after  the  publication  of  it,  Lewis  XIV*  of 
France,  or  his  ministers,  provided,  by  a  law,  for  the  most 
exact  register  of  births  and  burials,  that  is  any  where  in 
Europe ;  and  in  England  Charles  IL  conceived  such  a  high 
iesteem  for  his  abilities,  that  at  the  first  institution  of  the 
royal  society,  his  majesty  recommended  him  to  their 
choice  for  a  member ;  with  this  charge,  that  if  they  found 
any  more  such  tradesmen^  they  should  be  sure  to  admit 

G  R  A  U  N  T.  205 

them  jEctt,  Qe  had  dedicated  tbe.  work  to  sir  Robert  Moray, 
president  of  the  royal  society,  and  had  sent  fifty 
be  dispersed  among  their  members,  when  he  was  pro- 
posed (though  a  shopkeeper),  and  admitted  into  the  so^ 
ciety,  February  26,  1661-2;  and  an  order  of  council 
{fassed,  June  20,  1665,  for  publishing  the  third  edition, 
which  was  executed  by  the  society's  printer,  and  came  out 
that  same  year.  After  receiving  this  honour,  he  did  not 
long  continue  a  shopkeeper,  but  left  off  business ;  and  on 
September  25,  1666,  became  a  trustee  for  the  manage- 
ment of  the  New-river,  for  one  of  the  shares  belonging  to 
sir  William  BackKbuse,  who  dying  in  1669,  his  relict; 
afterwards  countess  of  Clarendon,  appointed  Mr.  Graunt 
one  of  her  trustees. 

This  account  of  the  time  of  our  author's  admission  into 
the  government  of  the  New-river  is  taken  from  the  minute 
books,  or  registei",  of  the  general  court  of  that  company,  ^ 
and  sUflSciently  clears  him  from  an  imputation  thrown  upon 
his  memory  by  bishop  Burnet;  who,  having  observed  that 
the  New- river  was  brought  to  a  bead  at  Islington,  where 
there  is  a  gr^at  room  full  of  pipes  that  conveys  it  through 
the  streets  of  London,  and  that  the  constant  order  was  to 
set  all  the  pipes  running  on  Saturday  night,  that  so  tbe 
cisterns  might  be  all  full  on  Sunday  morning,  there  being 
a  more  than  ordinary  consumption  of  water  on  that  day, 
relates  the  following  story,  which  he  says  was  told  him  by 
Dr.  Lloyd  (afterwards  bishop  of  Worcester)  and  the  coun^ 
tess  of  Clarendon  :  "  There  was,'*  says  he,  "  one  Graunt^ 
a  papist,  who  under  sir  William  Petty  published  his  Ob<* 
servations  on  the  Bills  of  Mortality.  He  had  some  time 
before  applied  himself  to  Lloyd,  who  bad  great  credit  with 
the  countess  of  Clarendon,  and  said  hb  could  raise  that 
estate  considerably,  if  she  would  make  him  a  ,trustee  for 
'her.  His  schemes  were  probable;  and  he  was  made  one 
of  the  board  that  governed  that  matter,  and  by  that  he 
'had  a  right  to  come  as  often  as  he  pleased  to  view  their 
^works  at  Islington.  He  went  thither  the  Saturday  before 
-die  fire  broke  out,  and  called  for  tbe  key  where  the  head^ 
of  tbe  pipes  were,  and  turned  all  the  cocks  of  the  pipe^i 
that  were  then  open,  stopt  the  water,  and  went  away  and 
carried  the  keys  with  him ;  so,  when  the  fire  broke  but 
<next  morning,  they  opened  the  pipes  in  the  streets  to  find 
water,  but  there  was  none.  Some  hours  were  lost  in  send* 
ing  to  Islington,  where  the  door  wa3  broke  open,  and  ihe 

f04  GH  A  U  K  T. 

codes  turned^  and  it  was  long  before  ibe  Water  got  to  Loii* 
don.  Graunt,  indeed,  denied  that  be  bad  turned  the 
cocks ;  but  the  officer  of  the  works  affirmed^  that  be  badv 
according  to  oarder,  set  them  all  running,  and  that  nci  piar-f 
son  had  got  the  keys  from  bim  besides  Graunt,  wbo  coit** 
fessed  he  bad  carried  away  the  keys,  but  said  he  did  it 
without  design/'  This,  indeed,  as  Burnet  observes,  is  but 
a  presumption ;  and,  we  may  add,  a  groundless  calumny ; 
aince  it  is  evident,^  from  the  above  account,  that  Graunt 
was  not  admitted  into  the  government  of  the  New^river 
company  till  twenty -three  days  after  the  breaking  out  of 
the  fire  of  London,  to  which  may  be  added  a  farther  proof 
that  the  parliament  met  September  18,  1666^  and,  on  the 
very  day  that  be  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  New-river 
company,  they  ap|)ointed  a  comniittee  to  inquire  into  the 
causes'  of  the  fire. 

The  report  made  by  sir  Robert  Brooke,  cbairt^an  of 
that  committee,  contains  abundance  of  extraordinary  re* 
latioiis,  but  not  one  word  of  the  cocks  being  stopped,  or 
any  suspicions  of  Graunt  It  is  true,  indeed,  that  be 
changed  bis  religion,  and  was  reconciled  to  the  cbur<:b  of 
Kome  some  time  before  bis  death ;  but  it  is  more  than 
probable  be  was  no  papist  at  this  juncture,  since,  in  the 
title»page  of  his  book  in  1665,  be  is  styled  ca^aifi,  and 
.Wood  informs  us,  that  he  had  been  two  or  three  years  a 
major  when  he  made  this  change,  which  therefore  could 
not  have  iiappened  before  1667  or  1668  at  soonest.  How^ 
ever,  the  circumstances  of  the  countess  of  Clarendon't 
saying  he  was  her  trustee  oiakes  it  plain  that  the  atory  was 
not  invented  till  some  years  aftar  the  fire,  when>  Graunt 
was  known  to  be  a  papist.  It  was  apparently  not  invented 
till  after  his^  death.  .  The  first  time  of  its  appearance  in 
public  seems  to  have  been  in  Ecbard's  '*  History  of  Eng- 
land.'* And  according  to  bishop  Burnetts  account,  the 
story  could  not  be  told  to  him  till  after  1667,  when  Graunt 
was  s^ypcKnted  trustee  for  the  countess  of  Clarendon.  The 
report,  however,  never  reached  his  ears,  and  so  could  not 
disturb  him  in  the  prosecution  of  his  studies,  which  he  c«> 
tied  on  after  this  change  in  his  religion  with  the  aanie  asiJK 
duity  as  before,  and  made  some  considerable  obsenrationa 
within  two  years  of  his  death,  wbicfa  happened  April  18, 1674/ 
in  the  vigour  of  his  age^  hatingnot  quite  completed  :bis  54th 
year.  He  was  intended  on  the  22d  of  the  same  month  in 
St  Dunstan^  cburch)  ia  Fleet-street,  the  corpse  being  9t^ 

6  R  A  U  N  T.  SOS 

tieaded  by  many  cff  the  most  ingenious  and  laamed  persona 
^  the  tintt^  and  particularly  by  sir  Williain  Petty,  wtio 
paid  his  last  tribute  with  tears  to  his  memory.  He  left 
his  papers  to  this  friend,  who  took  care  to  adjust  aad  in- 
aert  them  in  a  fifth  edition  of  his  work,  which  he  published 
in  1676,  8vo,  and  that  with  so  much  care,  aiMl  so. much 
improved,  that  he  frequently  cites  it  as  his  own :  which 
probably  gave  occasion  to  bishop  Burnet's  mistake,  who, 
as  we  have  seen,  called  it  sir  William's  book,  published 
under  Graunt's  name.  It  is  evident,  however,  that  his 
observations  were  the  elements  of  that  useful  science, 
which  was  afterwards  styled  *'  Political  Arithmetic,''  and  of 
which  Graunt  must  have  the  honour  of  being  the  first 
founder ;  and  whatever  merit  may  be  ascribed  to  sir  Wil« 
liam  Petty,  Mr.  Daniel  King,  Dr.  Davenant,  and  others, 
upon  the  subjeet,  it  is  all  originally  derived  from  the  first 
author  .^  the  **  Observations  on  the  Bills  of  Mortality." ' 

GRAVELOT  (Henr¥  Francis  Bourionon),  a  French 
Artist,  well  known  in  this  .as  well  as  his  own  country,  was 
born  at  Paris  March  26,  1699.  He  does  not  appear  to 
have  had  much  edacaticm  io  his  profession,  but  soon  made 
some  figure  as  a  draughtsman.  He  accompanied  La  Rochh- 
lard,  who  was  appointed  goveriior<-general  of  St.  Domingo, 
>«nd  meeting  in  that  island  with  the  artist  Frezier,  was  em- 
ployed by  hhn  on  a  map  of  the  country.  Gramelot  re- 
turned to  France  in  1745,  Where  he  applied  principally  to 
<lrawing ;  but  finding^  himself  in  the  midst  of  a  nomber  4»f 
eminent  artists,  among  whom  he  despaired  of  distinguish- 
ing himself,  he  came  over  to  London,  where  he  lived  thir- 
teen years.  He  possessed  great  fertility  of  invention,  and 
-composed,  with  much  judgment,  small  subjects  for  vig- 
nettes and  other  book  ornaments ;  he  drew  also  admirably 
ancient  buildings,  tombs,  and  prospects,  and  was  much 
"Maployed  in  all  these  branches  by  the  artists  of  London. 
fle  drew  the  monuments  of  the  kings  for  Vertue,  and  gave 
^  designs,  where  invention  was  necessary,  for  Pine?a 
plates  of  the  tapestry  in  the  house  of  lords.  He  was  also 
for  some  time  employed  in  Gloucestershire,  drawing 
ehmrche^  and  antiiquities.  Vertue  compares  his  neat  man- 
ner to  Picart,^  and  owns  that  in  composition  and^eidgn,  be 
even  excelled  his  favourite  Hollar.  '  He  sometimes  at- 
tempted painting  small  histories  and  conversations,  and  he 

I  BiOf « BTit.-«Ckni.  Dtet.— Dodd's  dniroli  Hitt. 

^OB  G,R  A  y  E  L  O  T. 

designed  sts.  well  as  engraved  some  of  the  prints  to  sir  Thtr*' 
mas  Hanmer's  edition  of  Shakspeare^  and  those  belpngii^ 
to  Tiieobald's  edition  :  but  the  finest  specimen  of.  his  aibi- 
lilies  as  an  engraver,  is  his  large  print  of  Kirkstall  abbey* 
He  returned  to  France  about  the  beginning  of  the  precept 
reign,  and  executed  for  the  booksellers  of  Paris,  the  beau- 
tiful designs  with  which  they  ornamented  the  works  of 
Corneille,  Racine,  Voltaire,  Boccaci:io^  Arioato,  Marmon- 
tel,  &c.  He  died  at  Paris  in,  1 773,  He  is. said  to  ha^ve 
been  a  man  of  wit  and  talents,  and  perfectly  acquainted 
with  the  history  and  theory  of  bis  artV 

GRAVEROL  (Francis),  a  very  eminent  French  anti- 
quary and  lawyer,  was  born  at  Nismes  in  the  beginning  of 
1635,  and  being  educated  for  the  profession  of  the  law^ 
became  an  advocate  of  the  parliament  of  Toulouse,  and^  of 
the  presidial  court  of  Nismes,  and  director  and  secretary  of 
the  academy  of  that  place.  During  his  researches  ^  in  to 
loatters  of  history  and  antiquities,  he  made  a  very  fine  col- 
lection of  medals  and  manuscripts,  among  which  were  the 
originals  of  the  proceedings  of  the  popish  inqui^tors 
against  the  Albigenses.  So  highly  was  Qraverol  esteemed 
for  learning,  that  no  strangers  of  distinction  visited  Nismes 
without  paying  their  respects  to  him,  and  such  was  his  re- 
putation in  Italy  that,  in  1691,  he  was  elected  an  associate* 
of  the  Ricovrati  of  Padua;  and  when,  the  states  of  Langue- 
doc  formed  the  plan  of  collecting  their  records  respecting^ 
their  fiefs  and  seignories,  they  considered  Graverol  as  the 
.  only  person  fit  to  execute  the  work,  which  he  was  earnestly 
requested  to  undertake  by  the  cardinal  Bon^zi.  But  bis 
adherence  to  the  protestant  religion  impeded  his  advance- 
ment in  Ufe,  and  involved  him  in  serious  troubles*,  He 
retired  first  to  Orange  in  1685,  where  he  was  very  &vour-. 
ably  received,  but  not  thinking  that  a  place  of  safety,  left 
it  for  Swisserland  or  Holland.  During  this  jouroey  he 
was  arrested  and  confined  at  Montpellier  for  about  two 
months.  After  this  he  must  have  been  released,  and  per- 
mitted to  go  bome>  as  we  find  he  died  at  Nismes  Sept  10, 
1694.  Anaong  the  works  which  contributed  most  to -his 
reputation,  are,  1.  ^^  Observations  sur  les  arrets  du  parle- 
ment  de  Toulouse  recueilles  par  la  Rocheflavin,^'  Toulouse, 
1682.  2.  <^  Notice  ou  abreg^  historique  des  vingt-^deux 
'  villes  chefs  des  dioceses  province  de  Languedoc,'^  » 

.    1  Diet.  Hist.«*Stnitt.— Walpole's  Bnfraveri. 

G  R  A  V  E  K  0  L.  207 

)ri>8thumoas  work  published  in  1696.  3*  '^  Sorberiana, 
sire  exeerpta  ex;  ore  Samuelis  Sorbiere,*'  Toulouse,  1691, 

1714,  Paris,  1694,  and  1732.  His  other  works  were  dis- 
sertations on  medals  and  antiquities,  most' of  which  are 
printed  with  the  '^  Sorberiana.**  In  the  Journal  des  Savans 
for  March  1685,  two  considerable  works  are  announced  by 
him,  which  the  persecution  he  -afterwards  met  with  pro- 
bably, prevented  him  from  completing ;  the  one  was  a  col- 
lection of  letters  to  several  crowned  heads,  written  by  car- 
dinal Sadblet  in  the  name  of  Leo  X. ;  the  other,  a  '^  Bib- 
liotheqtie  du  Languedoc,*'  a  kind  of  literary  journal,  in 
which  he  was  to  give  the  lives  of  the  eminent  men  of  that 
province,  and  particulars  of  its  history,  &c.* 

GRAYEROL  (John),  a  learned  protestant  divine,  bro- 
ther to  the  preceding,  was  born  at  Nismes,  September  11, 
1636.  He  was  minister  at  Lyons,  but  left  that  place  on 
the  revocation  of  the  edict  of  Nantes,  and  went  to  Amster- 
'  dam,  and  afterwards  to  London,  where  he  exercised  the 
"ministerial  office,  and  died  in  1718.  His  works  are  nume^ 
rous ;  the  principal  one  is,  '*  Moses  vindicatus,^'  Amster- 
dam, 1694,  12mo,  in  which  he  brings  proofs  of  the  crea- 
tion, and  of  the  acqount  given  by  Moses,  agrainst  Dr.  Tho- 
mas Burnetts  "  Arcbeeologia  Philosopbica.**  * 

GRAVES  (Richard),  an  English  divine  and  miscella- 
neous writer,  was  a  younger  son  of  Richard  Graves,  esq. 
of  Mickletoh,  in  Gloucestershire,  where  he  was  born  in 

1715.  His  father,  who  was  an  able  antiquary,  died  in 
1729.  HiB  son,  Richard,  was  educated  partly  at  home, 
under  the  rev.  Mr.  Smithy  curate  of  the  parish  in  which  his 
father  resided,  and  partly  at  a  public  school  at  Abingdon, 

'  in  Berkshire,  whence,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  was  chosen 
a  scholar  of  Pembroke  college,  Oxford.  Soon  after  his 
atirival  he  joined  a  party  of  young  men  who  met  in  the 

*  evening  to  read  Epictetus,  Theophrastus,  and  other  Greek 
authors,  seldom  read  at  schools ;  and  a  short  time  after 
became  the  associate  of  bis  contemporaries,  Shenstone 
the  poet,  and  Anthony  Whistler,  who  used  to  meet  to 
read  poetry,  plays,  and  other  light  works.  In  1736  he 
was  elected  a  fellow  of  All  Souls  college,  where  he  sic- 
quired  the  particular  intimacy  of  sir  William  Blackstone ; 
but  instead  of  pursuing  the  study  of  divinity,  according  to 
his  original  intention,  he  now  devoted  his  attention  t(^ 

I  Moreri,  >  (bid. 


physic,  and  atlended  ip  London  two  courses  of  anatoiQy* 
A  severe  illness,  however,  induced  him  to  resume,  tbye 
study  of  divinity,  and  in  1740,  after  taking  l^is  pa^ter^s 
degree^  he  .entered  into  holy  orders.     About  the  saniie 
time  he  removed  with  Mr.  Fitzherbert,  £a.^er  of  .lord  St, 
Helen's,  to  the  estate  of  that  gentleman  at  Tifisington,  in 
Derbyshire,  where  he  remiiined  three  years  :^pjoying  'w^ 
his  housQ  the  highest  pleasures  of  rf  6ned  society.     At  the 
end  of  that  period,  he  set  off  to  vaake  the  tour  of  the  nortb^ 
and  while  at  Scarborough,  ^cidentally  ip^t  ivith  a  dfistant 
.  relation,  Dr.  Samuel  Knight,  archdeacon  of  Bprkshirj^^ 
and  the  author  of  the  Lives  of  Colet  and  Erasmus,  by 
whose  recommendation  he  obtained  a  curacy  near  Oxford, 
This  was  particularly  gratifying  to  JVIr.  Giiaves,  who  was 
then  coming,  by  turn,  into  o^ce  in  t^e  coUege,  ai^d  bad 
been  for  some  tinie  desirous  of  procuriqg  st^ch  a  situation. 
He  immediately  tg^k  possesf  jon  of  his  cpracy,  but  as  the 
parsonage-house  wiu»  out  pf  repair,,  be  took  a  lodging  wit^ 
a  gentleman -^^rcper  in  the  neighbpurhood.    The  attrac- 
tions of  the  farmer^s  youngest  daughter  9iade  such  a  power- 
f al  impres^^on  on  the  he^rt  of  Mr.  G^vfui  that  lie  resigned 
h^s  fellowship  and  married  faer«    After  residing  ^bout  two 
years  on  his  curacy*   he    v^as  presented  by^  Mr.  SkriuiO 
to  the  rectory  of  Clav^rton,  where  hie  went  to  Reside  in 
1730,  and  till  his  death,  was  never  abj»ept  from  it  a  monUi 
at  a  tim^.    A$»  the  narrowness  of  his  circjuimstances  obliged 
him  to  superintend  in  person  the  education  of  his  chikir^|iy 
he  likewise  resolved  to  take  other  pupils  imder:  hi^  tuition  p 
and  this  practice  he  continued,  with  great  <uredit  to  him* 
self,  upwards  of  thirty  years.*  In  1763,  through  the  in* 
terest  of  Ralph  Allen,  esq.  of  Prior-Park,  he  was  pre* 
sented  to  the  living  of  Kilmersdon,  in  addition  to  that  of ' 
.  Claverton,  and  that  gentleman  likewise  procured  l^n^  the 
appointment  of  chaplain  to  lady  Chatham.    His  caqyersa- 
tion  was  rendered  highly  agree^tble  by  th^t  epigrapoiiatic 
turn  which  points  his  writipgs  of  the  lighter  kind.     E(is 
constant  good  humour  rendered  him  an  acceptable  com- 
panion in  every  society,  his  colloquial  impromptus^  being 
frequently  as  happy  as  the  jeux  d'esprit  of  bis  pen,  yf\nie 
both  were  invariably  the  unmeditated  effusions  of  a  t^portiv^ 
fancy  and  guileless  heart.     He  died  at  Claverton,  Nov. 
.23,  1804,  at  the  advanced  age  of  ninety. 

Mr.  Graves's  publications  were  very  numerous.    His  first 
was  *^  The  Festoon;  or,  a  collection  of  Epigrams,  with  an 

G  A  A  V  te  S.  209 

Essay  on  tfe'at  species  ojf  copi'position,"     In  1772  he  pro- 
duced  "The  Spiritual  Quixote,"  in  3  vols,  intended  as  a 
satire,  on  the  itinerant  arid  iUiterate  preachers  among  the 
hie^hodis'ts,  and  which  ihight  have  been  pronounced  one 
of  the  most  amusing  and  interesting  novels  of  his  time,  had 
he  not,  in  pursuit  of  his  main  object^  incautiously  intro7 
duced  the  language  of  scripture,  which,  whether  used  by 
methodists,  or  others,  can  never  be  a  legitimate  subject  of 
ridicule,     rie  next  published   "  A  Tk-anslation  from  the 
Ifaliah  of  Galates  j  or,  a  treatise  pn  Politeness,  by  De  1^ 
Cask,  arclibiSbop  of  bfehevento."     He  soon  after  publi8he4 
"  Columella,  or  the  dikressed  Anchoret,*'  in  2  vols,  to 
sboiv  the  consequeiice  of  a  person  of  education  and  talents 
retiring  to  solitude  and  indolence  in  the  vigour  of  yout^i : 
in  this  It  is  thought  he  alluded  to  his  friend  Shenstone.    H^ 
flso  publishe'ci  two  volumes  of  poems  undler  the  title  of 
"  Eu^hrosyne,**  which  have  gone  through  several  editions, 
but  he  is  rather  entitled  to  the  merit  of  an  agreeable  ver- 
sifier, .than  that  of  a  genuine  poet.     Then  appeared  his 
"Eugeriius;    or.  Anecdotes  of  the  Golden  Vale,"  in   2 
vols.     In  1778  appeared  "Recollections  of  some  particu- 
lars in  the  life  of  William  Shenstone,  esq.  in  a  series  of 
letters  to  W.  Seward,  esq.  F.  R.  S.'*     This  was  published 
to  vindicate  the  character  of  his  friend  from  the  criticisms 
and  censure  of  Dr.  Johnson,  Mr.  Gray,  and  Mr.  Mason. 
The  following  is  a  list  of  his  subsequent  publications,  al* 
thougii  probably  not  in  chronological  order.    "  Plexippus ; 
or,  the   aspiri^ig   Plebeian,'*  in  2  vols. ;  "  Hiero   on  the 
^^oridition   of ,  Royalty,"  from   the   Greek  of  Xenophon ; 
"  Fleiirettes, -'  a  translation  of  Fenelon's  Ode  on  Solitude, 
and  other   French  authors ;  *'  The  Life  of  Commodus,'' 
froiri  the  Greek  of  lierodian  ;  "  The  Rout,"  from  a  young 
man  in  town  to  his  friend  in  the  country;  ^'  The  Medita^ 
trons  of  Antoninus,  translated  from  the  Greek;"  "The 
Reveries  of  Solitude,*'  consisting  of  pieces  of  prose  and, 
verse  ;  "  The  Coalition  ;  or.  Opera  rehearsed,"  a  comedy 
in  three  acts ;  "  The  Farmer's  Son,"  a  moral  tale,  in  the 
ballad  metre ;  'f  Sermons  on  various  subjects,"  in  1  vol. ; 
**  Senilities/'  consisting  of  pieces  in  prose  and  verse.     His 
last  publicatipn  was  *^  The  Invalid,  with  the  obvious  means 
of  enjoying  Life,  by  a  Nonagenarian."     The  above,  we 
briieve,  is  a  tolerably  correct  list  of  the  publications  of  Mr. 
Graves ;  whose  works,  although  the  *«  Spiritual  Quixote" 
only  will  be  much  called  for  hereafter,  will  always  be  read 
Vol.  XVL  P 

210  GRAVES. 

with  pleasure,  there  being  a  sprightliness  and  epigram*' 
matic  turn  in  his  writings  which  was  peculiar  to  himself, 
and  which  he  retained  to  the  last.  In  Mr.  Graves  ended 
the  bright  associates  of  their  time,  composed  of  Shenstone, 
Whistler,  and  Jago.  * 

S'GRAVESANPE  (William  James),  an  eminent  Dutch 
philosopher,  was  born  Sept.  26,  1688,  at  Bois-le-duc,  in 
Holland,  of  an  ancient  and  honourable  family.  He  was 
educated  with  the  greatest  care,  and  very  early  discovered 
an  extraordinary  genius  for  mathematical  learning.  He 
was  sent  to  the  university  of  Leyden,  in  1704,  with  an  in- 
tention to  study  the  civil  law ;  but  at  the  same  time  he 
cultivated  with  the  greatest  assiduity  his  favourite  science. 
Before  he  was  nineteen,  he  composed  his  treatise  on  per- 
spective, which  gained  him  great  credit  among  the  most 
eminent  mathematicians  of  his  time.  When  he  had  taken 
his  doctor's  degree  in  1707,  he  quitted  the  college,  and 
settled  at  the  Hague,  where  he  practised  at  the  bar.  In 
this  situation  he  contracted  and  cultivated  an  acquaintance 
with  learned  men ;  and  made  one  of  the  principal  members 
of  the  society  that  composed  a  periodical  review,  entitled 
**  Le  Journal.  Litt6raire."  This  journal  began  in  May 
1713,  and  was  continued  without  interruption  till  1722. 
The  parts  of  it  written  or  extracted  by  Gravesande  were? 
principally  those  relating  to  physics  and  geometry.  But 
he  enriched  it  also  with  several  original  pieces  entirely  of 
his  composition,  viz.  "  Remarks  on  the  construction  of 
Pneumatical  Engines  ;'*  "  A  moral  Essay  on  Lying  ;^* 
and  a  celebrated  "  Essay  on  the  Collision  of  Bodies;*' 
which,  as  it  opposed  the  Newtonian  philosophy,  was  at- 
tacked by  Dr.  Clarke,  and  many  other  leariled  men. 

In  1715,  when  the  States  sent  to  congratulate  George  I. 
on  his  accession  to  the  throne,  Gravesande  was  appointed 
secretary  to  the  embassy.  During  his  stay  in  England  he 
was  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  society,  and  became 
intimately  acquainted  with  sir  Isaac  Newton.  On  bis  re- 
turn to  Holland,  when  the  business  of  the  embassy  was 
over,  he  was  chosen  professor  of  the  mathematics  and 
astronomy  at  Leyden;  and  he  had  the  honour  of  first  teach- 
ing the  Newtonian  philosophy  there,  which  was  then  in  its 

infancy.     The   most   considerable  of   his   publications  is 

>•  'I 

1  G«iit.  U9%.  rol,   LXXIV.— Seuitities,    p«Mim.— DodsUy's  and  PtarohV 
PocoDf.— Ni«faol«*8  Bowyer,  where  is  an  accouQt  of  his  father. 

G  R  A  V  E  S  A  N  D  E.  211 

'^  An  Introduction  to  the  Newtonian  Philosophy;  or>  a 
treatise  on  the  Elements  of  Physics,  confirmed  by  experi*^ 
ments/'  This  performance,  being  only  a  more  perfect 
copy  of  his  public  lectures,  was  first  printed  in  1720;  and 
has  since  gone  through  many  editions,  with  considerable 
improvements.  He  published  also  *^  A  small  treatise  on 
ihe  Elements  of  Algebra,  for  the  use  of  young  students.^' 
After  he  was  promoted  to  the  chair  of  philosophy  in  1734, 
he  published  '^  A  Course  of  Logic  and  Metaphysics.''  He 
bad  a  design  too  of  presenting  the  public  with  ^^  A  System 
of  Morality,^'  but  his  death,  which  happened  in  1742, 
prevented  his  putting  it  in  execution.  Besides  his. own 
works,  he  published  several  correct  editions  of  the  valuable 
works  of  others.  His  whole  mathematical  and  philosophical 
works,  except  the  first  article  above,  were  collected  an^ 
published  at  Amsterdam,  1774,  in  2  vols.  4to,  to  which  is 
prefixed  a  critical  account  of  bis  life  aad  writings,  by  pro* 
fessor  Allamand. 

He  was  amiable  in  his  private  and  respectable  in  hif 
public  character ;  for,  few  men  of  letters  have  done  more 
eminent  services  to  their  country.  The  ministers  of  the 
republic  consulted  him  on  all  oqcasions  in  which  his  talents 
were  requisite  to  assist  them,  which  his  skill  in  calculation 
often  enabled  him  to  do  in  money  affairs.  He  was  of  great 
service  also  in  detecting  the  secret  correspondepce  of  their 
enemies,  as  a  decipherer.  And,  as  a  professor^  none  ever 
applied  the  powers  of  nature  with  more  sucqess,  or  to  mor^ 
useful  purposes. ' 

GRAVINA  (John  Vincent),  an  eminent  scholar,  and 
illustrious  lawyer  of  Italy,  was  born  of  genteel  parents  at 
Roggiano,  February  18,  1664;  and  educated  under  Gre-. 
gory  Caloprese,  a  famous  philosopher  of  that  time,  .and 
his  cousin-german.  He  went  to  Naples  at  sixteen,  and 
there  applied  himself  to  the  Latin  and  Qreek  languages, 
and  to  civil  law;  which  application,  , however,  did  not 
make  him  neglect  to  cultivate,  Y^ith  the  utmost  exactness, 
his  own  native  tongue.  He  was  so  fond  of  iitudy,.  that  he 
pursued  it  ten  or  twelve  hours»  tQ.the  very  lasjtyear^ 
of  his  life ;  and,  when  his  friend^  remonstrated  agaiR)$t  thin 
unnecessary  labour,  he  used  to  tell  theiQ  that  be  kqew  of 
nothing  which  could  afford  him  more  pleasure.  He  went 
to  Rome  in  1689,  and  some  years  after  was  .made,  p^rofessor 

...         -       ' 

^  Protp«r  Marcband,  vol.  II. — Diet.  Hist.— Huttoa^f  Dictionarf. 

P  2 

112  GRAVINA, 

of  canon  law,  in  the  college  of  Sapienzia,  by  Innocent 
XL  who  esteemed  him  much  ;  which  employment  he  held 
as  long  as  he  lived.  He  does  not,  however,  seem  to  have 
been  of  an  amiable  cast;  at  least  be  had  not  the  art  of 
making  himself  beloved.  The  free  manner  in  which  he 
spoke  of  all  mankind,  and  the  contempt  with  which  he 
treated  the  greatest  part  of  the  learned,  raised  him  up  many 
enemies;  and  among  others  the  famous  Settano,  who  has 
made  him  the  subject  of  some  of  his  satires.  It  is  said  that 
he  missed  a  cardinals  bat  because  of  his  satirical  turn  of 
mind.  When  at  Rome  he  used  to  bow  to  coach-horses, 
'^  because,"  said  he,  '^  were  it  not  for  these  poor  beasts, 
tfaetie  great  people  would  have  men,  and  even  philoso- 
phers, to  draw  their  coaches."  There  were  ^t  one  time 
doubts  of  bis  religious  principle6>  ai)d  his  pupil  Metastasio 
seems  inclined  to  jtt^tify  these^  by  sinking  this  part  of  his 
history.  Many  universities  of  Germany  would  have  drawn 
Gravina  to  them,  and  made  proposals  to  him  for  that  pur* 
pose ;  but  nothing  was  able  to  seduce  him  from  Roitie. 
That  of  Turin  offered  him  Uie  first  prdfessor^hiji  of  law,  at 
die  very  time  that  he  waft  attacked  by  th<^  distemper  of 
which  he  diisd,  and  which  seeoi^  to  haVe  beeh  a  ihortifica- 
tion  in  his  bowels.  He  ^tts  ttidubl^d  with  pains  in  thosd 
parts  for  many  years  befdrej  bat  they  did  hot  provfe  fatal 
to  him  till  Jan.  6^  1718;  He  had  mfetde  his  ilirill  iii  ApHl 
171^)  in  which  h0  Ordered  his  body  tb  bO  opened  and 

His  first  publication  was  a  piece  entitled  '^  Pirlici  Ceii- 
sorini  Photistici  Hydra  Mysiica;  liive,  de  cdrriit)ta  itio^ali 
docttina  dialogus,''  Cotonieb,  1691^  4to  ;  but  really  priilttid 
at  Naples.  ThiA  was  withoilt  a  ham^,  atld  is  verjr  scsli-c)^ ; 
the  author  having  pritlled  only  fifty  eopies^  whii:h  he  dis- 
tributed dmong  bis  friends.  2.  **  L'Endidiione  di  Erilo 
Cleoneo^  Pastore  Arcstd^i  con  Uii  Diseofso  di  Biotie  Cr^- 
teo,"  Rome,  1692;  12mo.  The  fendymioh  i^  Aleicind^i^ 
Guidl^s,  who,  Ih  the  academy  of  th^  Arcadiati^j  weht  titl^ 
der  the  name  of  £i^ild  Cleooeo ;  And  the  discourse  annekdd, 
wbil:h  illustrates  the  beauties  of  this  pastoral,  is  Gravina^s, 
who  conceals  himself  Undei*  that  of  Bioiie  Crialt^o.  i. 
<<  Delia  Antlche  FavdlV'  Rome^  1696^  i2mo.  4.  A  €61- 
lectioa  of  pieced  under  the  nabie  df  ^'  Opuscula,"  at  Roitie 
in  1696,  12mo;  containing,  fitst^  *'  An  Essay  iipon  ati  kn-i 
cient  Law  ;'*  secondly,  ^  A  Dialogue  concerning  the  ex- 
C^^ence  of  the  Latin  Tongue  V  thirdly^  ^^  A  Discourse  of 

O  R  A  V  I  N  A.  215 

tb^  chaiag^  wlilch  has  haftpened  in  the  Sciences^  particu- 
larly in  Italy ;''  fourthly,  "  A  Treatise  upon  the  Contempt 
of  De^th;"    6fthly,  upon   "Moderation   in  Mourning  ;•* 
sixthly,  "  The  Laws  of  the  Arcadians***     A  collection  of 
isuch  of  these  as  regard  literary  history  and  study  was  pub- 
lished in  1792,  £or  the  use  of  young  students,  by  the  pre- 
sent learned  bishop  of  St.  Davidf  s.     But  the  greatest  of  all 
his  works,  and  for  whjch  he  will  he  ever  memorable,  is, 
^.  Bis  three  books,  ^'  De  Ortu  et  Progressu  Juris  Civilis ;'» 
the   first  of  which  was  printed  at  Naples,  ia  1701,  8vo^ 
and  at  Leipsic  in  1704,    6vo.     Gravina  afterwards   sent 
the  two  other  books  of  this  work  to  John  Burehard. Menc- 
ken, librarian  at  Leipsic,  who  had  published  the  first  there, 
and  who  published  these  s^lso  in  1708,  together  with  it,  in 
one  volume  4to.     They  were  published  also  again  at  Na- 
ples io  1713^  in  two  volumes,  4to,  with 'the  addition  of 
a  book;  *^  De  Romano  Imperio  ;^*  and  dedicated  to  pope 
Clement  XL  who  was  much  the  author's  friend.     This  is 
reckpned  the  best  edition  of  this  famous  work  ;  for,  when 
it  was  reprinted  at  Leipsic  with  the  ^*  Opuscula'*  above* 
mentioned,  in  1717,  it  w^s  thought  expedient  to  call  it 
in  the  title-page,    ^*  Editio  novissima  ad  nuperam  Nea- 
politanam  et  aucta.''     Gravina's  view,  in   this 
*^  History  of  Ancient  Law,"  was  to  induce   the  Roman 
youth  to  study  it  in  its  original  records — in  the  Pandects, 
the  Institutes,  and  the  Code,  and  npt  to  content  them- 
selves, as  he  often  complained  they  did,  with  learning  it 
frorn  modern  abridgments,  drawn  up  with  great  confusion, 
and  in  very  barbarous  Latin.     Such  knowledge  •  and  such 
language,  he  said,  might  do  well  enough  for  the  bar^  where 
a  facility  of  speaking  often  siipplied  the  place  of  learning 
and  good  sense,  before  judges  who  had  no  extraordinary 
share  of  either;  but  were  what  a  real  lawyer  should  be 
grieatly  above.     As  to  the  piece  *^^De  Romano  Imperio," 
J-e  Clerc  pronounces  it  to  be  a  work  in  which  Gravina 
has  shewn  the  greatest  judgment  and  knowledge  of  Roman 
antiquity.     The  next  performance  we  find  in  the  list  of  his 
works  is,   6.  "  Acta  Consistorialia  creationis  Emin.Jet  Re^-f 
Cardiualium  institutae  k  S.  D.  N.  Clemente  XL  P.  M.  diebus 
17  Maii  et  7  Junii  anno  salutis  1706.     Accessit  eorundem 
Cardinaliura  brevis  delineatio,"    Colonise,    1707,  4to.     7. 
"  Delia  Ragrone  Poetica   Libri  duo,"  Rome,   1 708,  4to. 
To  a  subsequent  edition  of  this  in  1716,  was  added  a  letter 
^^  De  Poesi,"  from  which  Blackwell,  in  his  ^nquiry  into 

214  G  R  A  V  I  N  A. 

the  life  and  writings  of  Homery  has  taken  many  observa-» 
tions.     Dr.  Warton   says   that   Gravina's   remarks  have  a 
novelty  and  penetration  in  them.     8.  "  Tragedie  cinque,** 
Napoli,    1712,  8vo.     These   five  tragedies  are,  "  II   Pa* 
piniano;^*  "  II  Palamede ;"  "  L' Andromeda ;"  "  L*Appio 
Claudia;"  "  II  Servio  Tullio."     Gravina  said  that  be  com- 
posed these  tragedies  in  three  months,  without  interrupting 
lus  lectures;  yet  declares  in  his  preface,  that  be  should 
}ook  upon  all  those  as  either  ignorant  or  envious,  who 
should   scFuple  to  prefer  them  to  what  Tasso,  Bonarelliy 
Trissino,  and  others,  bad   composed   of  the  same  kind. 
This  at  least  shews  that  Gravina,  great  as  his  talents  were, 
bad  too  high  an  opinion  of  them.     They  could  not,  it  is 
true,  have  been  written  by  Sophocles  himself  in  a  more 
Grecian  style ;  but  he  is  entitled  to  more  fame  from  having 
educated  and  formed  the  taste  of  Metastasio,  who  was  his 
pupil,  and   to  whoih  hef'left  a  legacy,  amounting  in  our 
money  to  nearly  4000/.  with  his  library,  and  a  small  estate 
in  the  kingdom  of  Naples.    D.  '^  Orationes,^'  Nap.  1712, 
12mo.     These  have  been  reprinted  more  than  ODce,  and 
are  to  be  found   with  his  "  Opuscula*'   in  the  edition  of 
**  Origines  Juris  Civilis,'*  printed  at  Leipsic,  in  17  17.     10. 
"  Delia Trageclia  Libro  uno,"  Napoli,  1715,  4 to.  This  work, 
his  two   books  "   Delia  Ragione   Poetica,"  his    discourse 
upon   the  "  Endymion'*   of  Alexander    GuiJi,  and   soir.e 
other  pieces,  were  printed  together  at  Venice  in  1731, 
4to,  but  a  more  complete:  edition  of  his  works  was  pub- 
lished  at  Naples  by  John  Antony  Sergi,    1756 — 1758,  3 
vols.  4to.  *  % 

GRAVINA  (Peter),  an  excellent  Latin  poet,  was  born 
at  Palermo,  ■  in  Sicily,  of  a  family  originally  of  Gravina,  a 
city  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples;  He  was  canon  of  Naples, 
and  died  at  Rome  of  the  plague,  in  1528.  It  isthouo-ht 
that  the  greater  part  of  his  works  were  lost  when  the 
French  went  to  Naples  under  Louis  XII.  in  1501,  but  a 
collection  of  what  remained  was  published  there  in  1532, 
4to ;  a  few  of  them  are  also  inserted  in  the  "  Carm.  Illust. 
Poet.  Ital."  His  epigrams  are  preferred  by  Sannazarius 
to  those  of  all  his  contemporaries.  Paul  Jovius  and  others 
also  bestow  high  encomiums  on  bis  poetry.' 

'  Niccron,  vol.  XXIX — Fabr<«ni  Viiae  Italorom.— Warton's  Etsay  on  Pope, 

— Burney'i  Life  of  Metaslasio,  vol.  1.  p.  12, 
*  Moroii. — Diet.  Hist.— >Roscoe's  Leo  X. 

GRAY.  215 

GRAY  (TitOMAs),  an  eminent  English  poet,  was  the 
fifth  child  of  Mr.  Philip  Gray,  a  citizen  and  money-scri- 
vener of  London,  and  a  man  of  such  brutal  manners,  that 
his  wife  (whose  maiden  name  was  Dorothy  Antrobus)  was 
obliged  in  1735  to  apply  to  an  eminent  civilian  for  his  ad- 
vice as  to  a  separation.  Thomas  was  born  in  Cornhill, 
Dec.  20,  1716,  and  was  the  only  one  of  many  children  who 
survived.  The  rest  died  in  their  infancy,  from  suffoca- 
tion, produced  by  a  fulness  of  blood ;  and  he  owed  his  life 
to  a  memorable  instance  of  the  love  and  courage  of  his 
mother,  who  removed  the  paroxysm  which  attacked  him, 
by  opening  a  vein  with  her  own  hand  ;  an  instance  of  af- 
fection which  he  long  remembered  with  filial  reverence. 
Indeed  it  was  to  her  exertions  when  her  home  was  rendered 
unhappy  by  the  cruelty  of  her  husband,  that  our  poet  was 
indebted  for  his  education,  and  consequently  for  the  hap- 
piness of  his  life*  We  may  readily,  therefore,  believe 
what' Mason  has  told  us,  that  **  Gray  seldom  mentioned  his 
mother  without  a  sigh.*' 

He  wa?  educated  at  Eton,  under  the  protection  of  Mr. 
Antrobus,  his  maternal  uncle,  who  was  at  that  time  as- 
sistant to  Dr.  George,  and  also  a  fellow  of  Peter-house, 
Cambridge,  where  Gray  was  admitted  as  a  pensioner  in 
1734,  in  his  nineteenth  year.  At  Eton  his  friendship  with 
Horace  Walpole.(the  late  earl  of  Orford),  and  more  parti- 
cularly with  Richard  West,  commenced.  In  the  latter, 
who  was  a  son  of  the  Irish  lord  chancellor  West,  he  met 
ivith  one  whose  proficiency  in  literature  was  considerable 
for  his  age,  whose  mind  was  amiable  and  ingenuous,  whose 
disposition  was  similar  to  his  owp,  but  whose  loss  he  had 
to  deplore,  after  a  strict  friendship  of  eight  years.  When 
Gray  removed  to  Peter-house,  West  went  to  Christ  cHurch, 
Oxford,  and  Wklpole  to  King's-college,  Cambridge.  It 
is  difficult  to  trace  the  line  of  study  which  Gray  pursued 
at  college.  His  correspondence  at  that  time  treats  chiefly 
of  his  poetry,  and  other  private  pursuits;  and  he  seems  to 
have  withdrawn  himself  entirely  from  the  severity  of  ma^ 
thematical  studies,  white  his  inquiries  centered  in  clas- 
sical  literature,  in  the  acqtiisition  of  modern  languages,  in 
history  and  other  branches  of  polite  literature.  During 
bis  residence  at  college  from  1734  to  1738,  his  poetical 
productions  were  some  Latin  verses  entitled  '*  Luna  habi-^ 
tabiiis,"  inserted  in  the  **  Musae  Etonenses;"  a  poem  "  On 
the  n)arriage  of  the  prince  of  Wales ;"  and  a  "  Sapphic 

^16  GRAY. 

Ode  to  West,"  in  Latin ;  also  a  Latin  v)^r,sioQ  <?f  the 
"  Care  selve  beate"  of  the  Pastor  Fido,  apd  fraygoxents  of 
translations  in  English  iron)  Statins  and  Tass^. 

In  1738  Mr.  Gray  removed  from  Pe^er-bo use  to,  London, 
intending  to  apply  himself  to  the  study  of  the  law  in  ihe 
Inner  temple,  where  his  friend  Mr.  West  had  begun  tl^cr. 
same  pursuit  some  months  before,  but  on  an  iiivitatiai> 
which  Mr.  Walpqle  gave  him  to  be  his  companion  in  hisf 
travels,  this  intention  was  laid  aside  for  the  present,  anct 
never  after  put  in  execution.  From  his  letters  to  Mr.  West, 
he  seei^s  to  have  been  a  very  diligent  traveller,  his  j^tten- 
tion  being  directed  to  every  work  of  art  that  was  curious 
and  instructive.  Architecture  both  of  Gothic  and  Grecian 
origin,  painting  and  music,  were  all  studied  by  him,  witli 
the  manners  and  customs  of  the  inhabitants.  Their  tour 
was  the  accustomed  one  through  Fran,ce  and  Italy.  In 
April  174Q  they  were  at  Reggio,  vyhere  an  unfortunate 
difference  took  place  betweeh  them,  and  they  parted. 
Much  has  been  said  of  this  famous  quarrel,  t>ut  the  real 
cause  has  never  been  sufficiently  explained.  Walpole, 
however,  affected  to  take  the  blame  on  l^imself,  and  pro- 
bably spoke  truth  j  and  it  is  certain  that  the  parties  were 
afterwards  reconciled,  as  to  outvyard  respect,  which  no 
man  knew  better  than  Walpole  h9w  %o  pay  in  such  pro- 
portions as  suited  his  convenience,  and  in  such  \yarm  and 
animated  language  as  could  not  fail  to  be  successful  where 
he  was  not  known.  Cole,  however,  says,  that  when  mat- 
ters were  made  up  between  Gray  and  Walpole,  the  latter 
asked  Gray  to  Strawberry-hill,  and  when  he  came,  l^e 
lyithofUt  any  ceremony  told  Walpole,  that  he  came  to  yirait 
on  him  as  civility  required,  but  by  no  nieans  would  be 
ever  be  there  on  the  terms  of  his  former  friendship,  which 
he  had  totally  cancelled.  Cole's  narratives  are  sometimes 
to  be  received  with  cautiop,  and  although  Gray's  late  ex- 
cellent editor  and  biographer  thinks  this  worthy  of  credit, 
and  not  inconsistent  with  the  independence  of  Gray's  cha-r 
racter,  yet  if  he  did  address  Walpole  in  such  language,  it 
is  difficult  to  conceive  that  there  could  have  ever  beeii 
any  intercourse  between  them  aftervtrards,  which  we  are 
certain  was  the  case. 

Gray  returned  by  himself  to  England  in  1741,  in  which 
year  his  father  died.  With  a  small  fortune,  which  her 
husband's  imprudence  had  impaired,  Mrs.  Gray  and  a 
ihaiden  sister  retired  to  the  house  of  Mr^.  Rogers,  another 

G  R  AY.  217 

fister,  alt  S^oke,  neai;  \yinds9r ;:  a;^c!l  Gtd^y  thinking  bis 
i^rtune  not  aufficieiU  tq  enabjte.  him  19  pcosecute  the  study 
i^  tb^  law,  and  yet  unwiHing  ^o  Ymxi  the.  feelings  of  bis 
onotber,  by  appearing  entirely  to  forsake  bis  profession, 
pcetended  to  change  tbe  line  of  study,  and  went  tQ  Gam- 
bridge  to  take  bis  degree  in  civil  law,  but  had  certainly  no 
t^figbts  of  that  as  a  pi:o;fi^ssiop.     He  went  accordingly  to 
Caoibridge,  in  the  winter  1742,  where  be  took  bis  degree 
of  bachelor  of  civil  law,  and  employed  himself  in  a  perusal 
of  tbe  Greek  authors  with  sucb  assiduity,  that  in  tbe  space 
of  ab.Qut  six  years  there  were  ba,rdly  any  writers  of  note  in 
that  language,  whom  be  bad  not  only  read  but  digested ; 
i^em^rking,  by  the  mode,  of  common-place,  their  contents, 
their  difficult  and  corrupt  passiages,  and  all  this  with  the 
^curacy  of.  a  critic,  added  to  tbe  diligence  of  a  student. 
^0  bis  first  year  also  he  translated  some  parts  of  Proper*, 
tins,  and  selected  for  his  Italian  studies  the  poetry  of  Pe- 
trarch.    He  wrote  a  heroic  epistle  in  Latin,  in  imitation 
of  the  manner  of  Ovid ;  and  a  Greek  epigram  which  be 
communicated  to  West;  to  whom,  also,  in  tbe  summer, 
when  he  retired  to  b^s  family  at  Stoke,  be  sent  bis  ^^  Ode 
to  Spring,"  which  was  written  there,  but  which  did  not 
arrive  in  Hertfordshire  till  after  the  death  of  his  beloved 
friend,  who  expired  June  1,   1742,  aged  twenty -six.     In 
the  autumn  of  this  same  year.  Gray  composed  the  ode  on 
♦*  A  distant  prospect  of  Eton  College,"  and  the  "  Hymn 
to  Adversity,"  and  began  the  "  Kle^';y  in  a  Country  Church 
Yard."     Aq  affectionate  sonnet  in   iMiglisb,  and  an  apo- 
strophe which  opens  the  fourth  b(M>k  of  his  poem  '^  De 
principiis  cogitaiidi"  (his  last  compi>>ition  in  Latin  verse) 
bear  strong  marks  of  the  sorrow  left  on  his  mind  from  the 
death  of  West ;  and  of  the  real  aflFectioji  with  which  he  ho- 
noured the  memory  of  his  worth  and  of  his  talents. 

In  1744  the  difference  between  Walpole  and  Gray  was 
adjusted  by  the  interference  of  a  lady  who  wishexi  well  to 
both  parties.  The  lapse  of  years  had  probably  softened 
their  mutual  resentment  in  a  sufficient  degree  to  admit 
again  of  correspondence  on  amicable  terms.  About  this 
time  Gray  became  acquainted  with  Mr.  Mason,  then  a 
scholar  of  St.  John^s  college,  whose  poetical  talents  he  had 
noticed,  and  some  of  whose  poems  he  revised  at  the  re* 
qbest  of  a  friend.  His  bequests  to  Mr.  Masoii  show 
that  this  intimacy  was  improved  into  tbe  strictest  friend- 
ship and  confidence.     He  maintained  also  a  correspond- 

Hit  G  R  A  Y. 

ence  with  another  friend,  Dr.  Wharton  of  Durham,  and 
seems  to  have  been  on  familiar  terms  with  the  celebrated 
Dr.  Middleton,  whose  loss  he  afterwards  laments.  "  I  find 
a  friend,"  he  says,  "  so  uncommon  a  thing,  that  I  cannot 
help  regretting  even  an  old  acquaintance,  which  is  an  in- 
different likeness  of  it.** 

In  1747,  Gray  appeared  first  as  an  author,  by  the  pub- 
lication of  the  "  Ode  to  Eton  College,"  folio,  of  which, 'ac- 
cordmg  to  Dr.  Warton,  little  notice  was  taken.  Walpole 
now  wished  him  to  print  his  own  poems  with  those  of  his 
deceased  friend  West,  but  this  he  declined,  thinking  the 
materials  not  sufficient;  but  he  complied  with  another 
wish  of  Walpole,  in  commemorating  in  an  ode  the  death 
of  his  favourite  cat.  Soon  after  this  he  sent  to  Dr.  Whar- 
ton a  part  of  his  poem  "  On  the  alliance  of  education  and 
govern mejit,"  which  he  never  pursued  much  further.  It 
was  indeed  Gray's  misfortune  seldom  to  execute  his  plans. 
Iji  174il  he  finished  his  *'  Elegy,"  which  we  have  seen  he 
began  seven  years  before,  and  vvhi(?!h  being  now  handed 
ahopt  in  manuscript,  was  read  with  great  applause,  and 
when  printed,  was,  as  it  continues  to  be,  the  most  popular 
of  all  his'works.  Mason  iustlr  attributes  this  to  the  af- 
fecting  and  pensive  cast  of  the  subject.  Tliat  it  has  not 
ceased  to  be  admired  even  by  scholars  appears  from  the 
many  translations  which  it  has  undergone,  into  Latin,  by 
Messieurs  Anstey,  Roberts,  and  Lloyd,  and  into  Greek 
by  Dr.  Cooke,  Dr.  Norbnry,  Dr  Coote,  and  Messieurs 
Tew  and  Weston.  This  elegy  was  soon  aft^r  added  to  a 
well-known  edition  of  his  pi>ems  printed  in  4to,  with  de- 
signs by  Mr.  Bentley.  In  March  1753  he  lost  his  mother, 
whom  he  had  so  Jong  and  so  affectionately  loved,  and 
placed  over  her  remains  an  inscription  which  strongly 
marks  his  filial  piety  and  sorrow.   . 

In  1754  and  1755  he  appears  to  have  written  "An  ode 
to  Vicissitude,"  that  "  On  the  progress  of  Poetry,"  the 
**  Bard,"  and  probably  some  of  those  fragments  with  which 
he  seems  to  have  amused  himself  u;ithout  much  design  of 
completion.  About  this  period  he  complains  of  listless- 
ness  and  depression  of  spirits,  which  prevented  his  appli- 
cation  to  poetry  ;  and  from  this  time  we  may  trace  the 
course  of  that  hereditary  disease  in  liis  constitution  which 
embittered  in  a  considerable  degree  the  renrainder  of  his 
days ;  and  whose  fatal  strength  not  even  the  temperance 
and  regularity  of  a  whole  life  could  subdue.     In  1756  he 

G  R  A  ¥•  219 

lefi  Peter-house,  where  he  had  resided  above  twenty  years, 
on  account  of  some  incivilities  which  he  met  with,  which 
Mason  thus  mentions.  Two  or  three  young  men  of  for- 
tune, who  lived  op  the  same  staircase,  bad  for  some  time 
inteniionally  disturbed  him  with  their  riots,  and  carried 
their  ill-behaviour  so  far  as  frequently  to  awaken  him  at 
midnight.  After  having  borne  with  their  insults  longer 
than  might  reasonably  have  been  expected  even  from  a 
man  of  less  warmth  of  temper,  Gray  complained  to  the 
governing  part  of  the  society,  and  not  thinking  that  his 
remonstrance  was  sufficiently  attended  to,  quitted  the  col- 
lege. He  now  removed  to  Pembroke-hall,  which  he  de- 
sciibes  ^^  as  an  sera  in  a  life  so  barren  of  events  as  his.*' 

In  July  1757  he  took  his  "  Odes*'  to  London  for  publi- 
cation, but  they  were  first  printed  at  the  Strawberry-hill 
press.     It  seems  agreed  that  they  did  not  succeed  with  the 
public,  although  they  have  since  deservedly  entitled  him 
to  rank  among  the  greatest  of  our  lyric  poets.     In  the 
same  year,  on  the  death  of  Cibber,  the  office  of  poet- 
laureat  was  offered  to  him  by  the  duke  of  Devonshire,  then 
lord  chamberlain,  which   he  politely  declined.     In   17^8 
he  composed  for  his  own  amusement  the  little  book  which 
he  calls  "  A  Catalogue  of  the  Antiquities,   Hojuses,  &c.  in 
England  and  Wales,"  which  after  his  death  was   printed 
for  private  distribution  by  Mr.  Mason,  and  in  1787  for  sale. 
About  this  time  the  study  of  architecture  seems   to   have 
employed   much  of  his  time,  and  some  very  acute  obser- 
vations by   him    on   this  subject   appeared  afterwards  in 
Bentham's  '*  Histo'y  of  Ely,*'  a  work  which  was  m  a  great 
measure  the  fruit  of  "  voluntary  contributions.*'     In  Ja- 
nuary 17,59,  the  Briiish  Museum  was  opened  to  the  pub- 
lick  ;  and  Gray  went  to  London  to  read  and  transcribe  the 
ma!)uscripts  of  the  Harleian  and  Cottonian  collections.     A 
folio  volume  of  his  transcripts  was  in  Mr.  Mason's  hands, 
out  of  which  one  paper  alone,  the  speech  of  sir  Thomas 
Wyat,  was  [)ublished  in  the  second  number  of  lord  Orford's 
"  Miscellaneous  Antiquities."     In  1762  the  professorship 
of  modern   history  at   Cambridge,  a  place  worth  -400^  a 
year,  became  vacant,  and  Gray,  by  the  advice  of  his  friends, 
applied  to  lord  Bute  for  it,  which  was  however  given  to 
Mr.  Brocket,  the  tutor  of  sir  James  Lowther. 

In  the  summer  of  1765  he  took  a  journey  into  Scotland, 
to  improve  his  health,  which  was  then  weak  and  uncer- 
tain, and  to  gratify  his  curiosity  with  the  natural  beauties 

220  GRAY. 

aad  aotiquities  of  chat  wild  and  romaptic  cojinUy.  He 
went  through  Edinburgh  apd  Perth  to  Gian^es-castle,  the 
s/eat  o(  lord  Strathmore,  wbepe  h§  re^id^d  soip^  ti}ja^>  and 
afcervyards  went  to  the  north,  where  he  ^raied  an  ai^c^uainr 
taoce  with  Dr.  !^eattie,  "  vvhoi??,"  ^y§  D/:.  Johnson,  "  h^ 
found  a  poet,  a  philpsppher)  and  a  good  tp^n,'^  but  ajt 
that  time  Uttle  kuown  be>ond  (he  circle  of  his  fiiends  a^ 
Aberdeen.  Gray's  account  of  this  journey,  says  Dr.  John- 
son, ^^  so  far  as  ijt  extends,  is  curious  and  elegant;  for  as 
his  comprehension  ^as  ample,  his  curiosity  extended  to 
all  the  works  of  art,  all  the  appearanpes  of  nature,  and  ail 
tlie  monuments  of  past  events."  Part  qf  the  summer  of 
1766  and  1767  he  passed  in  journies  in  England,  and  had 
intended  a  second  tour  to  Scotland,  but  returned  to  Lon- 
don without  accomplishing  his  design.  At  Dr.  Beattie^a 
desire,  a  new  edition  of  his  poems  was  printed  by  the 
Foulis's  of  Glasgow,  then  the  most  elegant  printers  in  the 
island ;  and  at  the  same  time  Dodsley  was  also  printing 
them  in  London.  In  both  the^^  editions,  the  ^^  Long 
Story''  was  omitted,  as  the  plates  from  Beptley's  designs 
which  illustratecf  it  were  worn  out,  but  some  pieces  of 
Welch  and  Norwegian  poetry,  written  in  a  bold  and  ori- 
ginal manner,  were  inserted  in  its  place;  of  which  the 
**  Descent  of  Odin"  is  undoubtedly  the  most  valuable^ 
though  in  many  places  it  is  obscure.  This  bis  late  biQ«* 
grapher  attributes  to  his  having  translated  only  that  pari 
of  it  which  he  found  in  the  Latin  version  of  Bartbolinus. 

In  1768,  the  professgrship  of  modern  history  again  bjs- 
came  va.cant  by  the  accidental  death  of  Mr.  Brocket,  apd 
the  duke  of  Grafton,  then  in  power,  bestowed  it  upon 
Mr.  Gray  without  the  smallest  solicitation,  although  the 
contrary  was  at  that  time  reported  ;  and  in  the  following 
year,  when  his  noble  patron  ^v:as  installed  as  chancellor  of 
the  university,  Gray  wrote  the  Ode  that  was  set  to  music 
pn  that  occasion.  When  this  ceremojiy  was  past,  he  weot 
on  ^  tour  to  the  lakes  of  Cumberlai>d  and  Westmoreland, 
of  which  he  has  given  an  account  in  his  correspondence. 
^*  He  that  reads  hi,s  epistolary  narrative,"  says  Dr.  John- 
son, *^  vyishes,  to  travel,  and  to  tell  his  travels,  bad 
been  more  of  his  employment :  but  it  is  by  staying  at  home 
that  we  must  oijiriin  the  ability  of  travelling  with  intelli- 
gence and  improvement."  In  April  1770,  he  complains 
much  oKadepressipn  of  spirits,  talks  of  an  intended  tour 
into  Vv^ales  in  the  sumimer,  aqd  of  meeting  his  friend  Dr« 

G  11  A  Y.  221 

Wharton  at  Mr.  Mason's.  In  July,  however,  he  was  still 
at  Catobridge,  and  wrote  to  Dr.  Beaitie,  complaining  of 
itiilesrs  and  pain  in  his  head;  and  in  this  letter,  he  sent 
him  some  criticisms  on  the  first  book  of  the  "  Minstrel,'* 
Which  have  since  been  published.  His  tour  took  place  in 
the  autumn,  but  he  does  not  appear  to  have  written  any 
jliarttal  of  it.  In  May  1771  he  wrote  to  I/r.  Wharton, 
just  sketching  the  outlines  of  his  tour  in  Wales  and  some 
of  the  adjacent  counties.  This  is  the  last  letter  that  re- 
mains in  Mr.  Mason's  collection.  He  there  complains  of 
an  incurable  cough,  of  spirits  habitually  low,  and  of  th^ 
ttneasiness  which  the  thought  of  the  duties  of  his  profes- 
sorship gave  him,  which,  Mr.  Mason  says,  he  had  now  a 
determined  resolution  to  resign.  He  had  held  this  office 
nearly  three  years,  and  had  not  begun  to  execute  the  du- 
ties of  it,  which  consist  of  two  parts,  one,  the  teaching  of 
ihodern  languages ;  the  other,  the  reading  of  lectures  on 
Modern  History.  The  former  he  was  allowed  to  execute 
by  deputies,  but  the  latter  he  was  to  commence  in  person, 
by  reading  a  public  lecture  in  the  schools,  once  at  least 
in  every  term.  He  was  at  liberty  to  chuse  his  language, 
ahd  chose  the  Latin,  which  Mr.  Mason  thought  somewhat 
injudicious;  and  "although  we  do  not  find  that  he  proceeded 
farther  than  to  draw  up  a  part  of  his  introductory  lecture, 
he  projected  a  plan  of  very  great  extent,  of  much  greater 
?ndeed  than  from  his  inactivity,  whether  the  effect  of  illness 
or  inddlence,  he  would  probably  have  been  able  to  execute. 
His  death,  however,  prevented  the  trial.  A  few  days  after 
Writing  the  letter  just  mentioned,  he  removed  to  London,' 
^hi^re  \i\i  health  more  and  more  declined.  Hlfe  physician, 
Dr.  GisbOrne,  advised  freer  air,  and  he  went  to  Kensington. 
Therift  h^  in  Isbmfe  degree  revived,  and  returned  to  Cani- 
brid^fe,  irilehding  to  go  from  th^t  place  to  Old  Park,  near 
btrfham,  th6  i"^sld'ericd  of  his  friend  Bh  Wharton.  On 
th^^4th  df  Jhiy,  hoWever,  while  at  diiiner  in^he  college- 
hall,  he  was  seized  with  an  attack  of  the  goiit  in  his  sto- 
ixlach,  of  whifch  hte  died  in  the  evening:  of  the  30th,  1771, 
in  £he  fifty-fifth  yfeac  of  his  age,  Sensible  almpst  to  the! 
last;  aWk^e  of  hi^  dangl^i*,  dnd  feJcjiressing  no  visible  cdn- 
t^'c^  at  the  thdhght  of  his  approaching  death.  Hi^  ^t^s 
ihtei^red  by  Ihl^  sidfe  of  his  mbther,  ih  the  church-yard  of 

lU  hii^  private  character  many  vittUes  were  united  ;  be* 
nevofenid^,  temperance,  integrity,  and  oeconomy,  patience 

222  GRAY. 

under  the  contempt  of  hjpercriticism^  and  a  friendly  and 
afFeclionate  disposition.  He  had  also  some  failings,  among 
which  are  enumerated  a  want  of  personal  courage,  a  re- 
servedness  and  caprice  of  temper,  and  a  foppish  attention 
to  dress.  This  was  somewhat  singular  in  one  who  to  his 
other  qualities,  added  a  great  portion  of  humour,  and  had  a 
quick  sense  of  the  ridiculous.  His  sensibility  was  even  mor** 
bid,  and  very  often  fastidious  and  troublesome  to  his  friends. 
He  seemed  frequently  overwhelmed  by  the  ordinary  inter- 
course and  ordinary  affairs  of  life.  Coarse  manners,  and 
vulgar  or  unrefined  sentiments,  overset  hiiii.  Mason's  ex- 
cuse for  all  this  will  not  perhaps  be  thought  the  excuse  of  a 
friend  ;  he  attributes  it  rather  to  "  an  affectation  in  delicacy 
and  effeminacy,  tban  the  things  themselves,"  and  says 
that  Gray  "  chose  to  put  on  this  appearance  before  persons 
whom  he  did  not  wish  to  please."    ' 

Gray  appears  to  have  written  in  a  desultory  manner;  his 
efforts  were  such  as  he  could  accomplish  probably  at  one 
time,  and  he  had  not  in  many  instances  affection  euougti 
for  his  subject  to  return  tor  it.  Hence  no  poet  of  modern 
times  has  left  so  many  specimens  or  samples,  so  mush 
planned,  and  sp  little  executed.  Activity  and  labour  it  ap- 
pears he  could  never  endure,  unless  rn  storing  his  mind, 
with  various  knowledge  for  his  own  curiosity  and  satisfac- 
tion. Hence,  although  he  read  itiuch  and  read  critically^ 
and  amassed  a  vast  fund  of  general  learning,  his  reput9.tion 
in  this  respect  has  hitherto  stood  upon  the  evidence  of  those 
who  know  him  most  intimately.  He  was  above  fifty  y^ars 
of  age  before  he  became  sensible  of  the  necessity  of  con- 
centrating his  knowledge  in  one  pursuit,  and  as  he  had 
never  accustomed  himself  so  to  regulate  his  acquisitions  as 
to  render  them  useful  to  others,  he  apparently  sunk  under 
the  task  which  his  professorship  imposed ;  and  it  is  much 
to  the  credit  of  his  independent  spirit,  that  when  he  found 
It  impossible  to  execute  the,  duties,  he  determined  to  re* 
sign  the  emoluments  of  his  place. 

As  a  poet,  it  may  be  sufficient  here  to  refer  to  our  au- 
thorities, which  are  in  the  hands  of  every  reader,  with 
perhaps  theexception  of  an  excellent  edition  of  his  works, 
just  published,  by  the  rev.  John  Mitford,  which  we  can 
re^commend  with  perfect  confidence.  Dr.  Johnson's  cha- 
racter of  his  poetry  has  excited  a  controversy,  from  which 
it  may  be  truly  said  that  Gray  has  emerged  with  additional 
lustre,  yet  if  mere  popularity  were  to  determine  the  ques*. 

GRAY.  22$ 

tion,  that  critic  has  iu  some  instances  spoken  the  senti- 
ments of  the  majority,  as  well  as  his  own.     It  were,  how- 
ever, to  be  wished  for  his  own  sake,  that  in   his  general 
colouring  of  .Gray's  life  and  works,  he  had  attended  more 
to  what  he  calls  **  the  common -sense  of  readers,    uncur- 
rupted  with  literary  prejudices.'*     Had  this  been  the  case, 
while  some  of  his  strictures  might  have  been  allowed,  he 
would  have  been  a  povferful  ally  of  those  whose  superior 
minds  know  how  to  feel  and  how  to  appreciate  the  merit 
of  Gray,  and  who  have  assigned  him  one  of  the  highest 
places  among  the  English  poets  of  the  eighteenth  century.' 
GRAZZINI  (Antony  Francis),  an  Italian  scholar  and 
poet  of    considerable    eminence,    was  born    at  Florence 
March  22,  1 503,  of  a  noble  family,  which  can  be  traced  as 
far  as  the  thirteenth  century,  but  was  now  decayed,  as  we 
find  that  Grazzini  in  his  youth  was  brought  up  as  an  apo- 
thecary.     He  had,  however,  studied  philosophy  and  the 
belles  lettres,  and  from  the  timethatbe  acquired  some  re- 
putation in  the  literary  world,  gave  up  his  medical  busi- 
ness.     In    1540  he  became  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
academy  of  Florence,  which  was  first  called  the  academy 
of  the   Humides,  and  each  meniber  distinguishing  himself 
by  some  appellation  relative  to  the  water,   Grazzini  adopt- 
ing that  of  Lasca,  which  signifies  a  roach.     From  the  first 
establishment  of  this  academy,  he  was  appointed  chancellor, 
and  when,  some  months  after,  the  grand  duke  changed  its 
name  to  that  of  the  academy  of  Florence,  he  was  chosen 
ovefseer,  or  superintendant,  an  office  which  he  afterwards 
filled  three  times.     As  the  number  of  members,  however, 
increased,  the  juniors  began  to  make  new  regulations  with- 
out consulting  the  founders,  and  a  schism  broke  out,  at- 
tended with  so  many  unpleasant  circumstances,  that  Graz- 
zini withdrew,  and  became  the  founder  of  a  new  academy, 
known  still  by  the  name  of  La  Crusca.     T\^e  object  of  this 
society  was  to  polish  the  Italian  language,  to  Bx  a  standard 
for  it,  to  point  out  such  authors  as  might  be  always  models 

*  Mason's  Life  and  Works  of  Gray. — Mitford*t,  whose  arrangement  of  the  life  * 
we  have  most  generally  followed.-— Lord  Ovford's  Works,  vol.'IL  p.  39?,  IV. 
p.  445,  V.  p.  137,  147. — BeattieN  Life,  by  Sir  W.  Forbes. — Johnson's  PoeU.— 
Bos  well's  Life  of  Johnson. — Cole's  MS  Aihense  and  Correspondence  in  Brit, 
Mas.— ^Bowles's  edition  of  Pope  ;  see  Index. — Censura  Literaria.  Mr.  Mathias. 
has  aiuiottneed  selections  from  Mr.  Gray's  manascript*,  which  will  probably 
throw  'Diach  light  on  those  learned  researche;^  that  employed  so  much  of  hi^i 
time.     See  also  Mr.  Tyson's  Letters  in  Nichols's  Bowyer,  rol.  Vlll. 

21S4  G  11  A  2  2  I  N  I 

for  those  ^ho  chose  to  improve  their  styte^  to  opp6se  the 
progress  of  false  taste;  and  to  sift  the  flour  from  the  bran 
of  literature,  crusca  signifying  bran,  Grazzini  was  well 
qualified  to  assist  an  academy  instituted  for  these  purposes. 
He  had  enriched  the  language  with  several  choice  phrases 
and  new  modes  of  expression,  and  the  academicians  have 
very  justly  ranked  him  among  those  authors  to  whom  they 
have  been  obliged  for  examples,  in  correcting  their  great 
vocabulary.  In  iJie  mean  time  his  growing  fame  induced 
his  frieVid  Leonard  Salviati  to  endeavoui*  his  re-introduction 
into  the  academy  of  Florence,  which  was  successfully  ac- 
complished in  1566,  twenty  3'ears  after  he  bad  left  it;  iri 
return  for  which  he  prociared  admission  for  Salviati  among 
the  Cru&canti.  Grazzini  died  at  Florence  in  February 
1583.  tie  was  a  man  of  unquestionable  genius,  spirit,  and 
humour,  and  wrote  with  great  elegance,  and  although 
there  are  some  indelicate  passages  in  his  poems,  which 
wa&  the  vice  of  the  times,  he  was  a  man  of  strict  morals^  ^ 
and  ev^ti,  says  his  biographer,  very  religious.  Many  of 
'  his  works  are  lost,  and  among  these  some  prose  tales,  and 
iiiany  pieces  of  poetry.  There  remain,  however,  twenty-* 
6he  tales,  six  comedies,  a  great  number  of  capitoli,  or 
satirical  chapters,  and  various  poems,  of  which  the  best 
edition  is  that  of  Florence,  1741,  2  vols.  8vo.  His  Tales 
6r  Novels  were  printed  at  Paris,  1756,  8vo,  from  which 
some  copies  have  been  printed  in  4to,  under  the  title  of 
London.  An  excellent  French  translation  of  them  appeared 
in  1775,  ^  vols.  8vo,  in  which  nine  histories  wanting  in  the 
third  evening  are  said  to  be  inserted  from  an  old  French 
translatibn  in  MS.  He  wrote  also  "  La  guerra  di  Mostri, 
Poema  giocosb,'*  Florence,  1584,  4io.  Grazzini  pub- 
lished the  2d  book  of  Beriii,  Florence,  1555,  8vo;  and 
'*  Tiitti  i  trioii'fi,  carri,  mascherate  o  canti  carnascialeschi 
dal  tempo  di  Lorenzo  de  Medici  a  questoanno  1559,''  Svo; 
1 00  pages  are  frequently  wanting  in  this  work,  page  297 
being  pasted  iipori  page  398.  These  pages  contained  51 
canzoni,  by  John  Baptist  dell  Ottomaio,  which  had  been 
inserted  without  his  consent,  and  which  his  brother,  by 
authority  from  the  magistrates,  had  cancelled.  They  were 
priUted  sepal-ately  by  the  iuthor,  in  a  similar  size,  the 
jear  following,  and  must  be  added  to  the  mutilated  copies  ; 
but  though  they  consist  of  55  sbtigs  instead  of  51,  those 
found  in  the  origiiial  collection  are  preferred,  as  the  othera 
*have   been   altered.      This    collection  was  reprinted   in 

G  R  A  !2  2  I  *I  t  225 

i?509  2  tols.  8vOi  Coiftindpolij  but  this  impression  is  not 
▼alupd. ' 

GREATRAKES  (Valentine)^  an  empiric,  whose  won- 
<}erful  cures  have  been  attested  by  some  of  the  most  emi* 
nent  niert  of  the  seventeenth  ceiituryj  was  the  son  of  Wil- 
liam Greatrakes,  esq.  and  born  at  AfFane^  co.  Waterford, 
in  Ireland,  Feb*  14,  1628.     He  was  educated  a  protestant 
in  the  free-school  of  Lismore,  until  the  age  of  thirteen, 
when  his  friends  intended  to  have  removed  him  to  Trinity 
college^   Dublin,  but  the  rebellion  breaking  out,  bis  mo- 
ther took  refuge  with  him  in  England^  where  he  was  kindly 
received   by  his  great  uncle  Edmund   Harris,  brother  to 
sir  Edward   HarriSj  knt.  his  grandfather  by  the  mother's 
tide.     After  his  uncle's  death  he  spent  some  years  in  the 
study  of  the  classics  and  divinity  und^r  a  clergyman  in  De- 
vonshire, and  then  returned  to  Ireland^  which  was  at  that 
time  in  so  deplorable  a  state  that  he  retired  to  the  castle  of 
Caperquin^  where  he  spent  a  year  in  contemplation,  and 
ieems  to  have  contracted  a  species  of  enthusiasm  which 
never  altogether  left  hiiti.     In  1649  hie  entered  into  the 
service  of  the  parliament^  and  continued  in  the  army  until 
3656^  wben>  a  great  part  of  the  English  being  disbanded, 
he  retired  to  bis  native  country  of  AiTane,  and  by  the  in- 
terest of  the  governor  there,  was  made  clerk  of  the  peace 
for  the  coUtity  of  Cork,  register  for  transplantation,  and 
justice  of  the  peace.     At  the  Restoration  all  these  places 
were  taken  from  him,  and  his  mind  being  disturbed  partly 
with  this  disappointment,  and  partly  for  want  of  any  re- 
gular and  useful  occupation,  be  felt  an  impulse,  asj)e  calls 
it,  that  the  gift  of  curing  the  king^s  evil  was  bestowed  upon 
him  ;  and  accordingly  he  began  his  operations,  which  were 
confined  to  praying,  and  stroking  the  part  affected;  and 
such  wonderful  cures  were  effected,  that  he  determined 
not  to  stop  here.     Three  years  after,  he  had  another  im- 
pulse that   he  could  cure   all  kinds  of  diseases,  and   by 
the  same  simple  remedy,    which    must  be  administered 
by  himself.     When  however  he  pretended  to  some  super- 
natural aid,    and  mentioned  the  Holy  Ghost  with    irre- 
verent presumption,  as  his  assistant,  he  was  cited  to  the 
bishop's  court,   and  forbid  to  take  such  liberties.     This 
probably  was  the  cause  of  his  coming  to  England  in  Ja- 
nuary 1665,  where  be  performed  many  cures,  was  invite4 

1  Gingueni  Hist.  Lit.  d'lUtic— Tiraboscbi.-^Dkt.  Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol.  XVI.  Q 

826  G  K  E  AT  RA  K  E  S. 

by  tbe  king  to  Whitehall,  and  hifi  imputation  apread.  mosft 
extensively.  Even  Dr.  Henry  Stubbe,  an  eminent  phy-* 
sician,  published  a  pamphlet  in  prais^e  of  bifi  skitt.  Ha«ing 
failed  in  one  instance,  that  of  a  Mr.  Cres$et  i«  Charter* 
bouse  square,  there  appeared  a  pamphlet  entitled  '<  Won« 
ders  no  miracles :  or  Mr.  Valemine  Gr^ai;rak<es  Gift  of 
Healing  examined,"  &c.  Lofid.  166$,  4tx)«  This  was  writ- 
ten by  Mr.  David  Lloyd,  reader  to  the  Cbarter-^house,  who 
treated  Greatrakes  as  a  cheat.  In  answer  to  tbis,  he  pub<- 
lished  '^  A  brief  account  of  Mr.  Valentine  Greatrakes,  and 
divers  of  his  strange  cures,*'  &c,  iUd.  1666,  4to.  This 
was  drawn  up  in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  the  rigbft  bon.  Ro<- 
bert  Boyle,  who  was  a  patron  of  our  physician,  as  waa  abo 
Dr.  Henry  More,  and  several  othier  members  of  the  royal 
society,  before  whom  Greatrakes  ww$  examined.  To  his 
cures  we  find  tbe  attestations  of  Mr.  Boyle,  sir  Wiiiiam 
Smith,  Dr.  Denton,  Dr.  Fairdongb,  Dr.  Faber,  sir  Na-* 
thaniel  Hobart,  sir  John  Godolphin,  Dr.  Wilkins,  Dr.  Whicb* 
cot  (a  patient).  Dr.  Cudwortb,  and  many  other  persoos  of 
character  and  reputation.  The  truth  se^ms  tx>  be,  that  he 
performed  cures  in  certain  cases  of  rheumatism,  stijff  joints^ 
&c.  by  friction  of  tbe  band,  and  long  perseTemoce  in  that 
remedy.;  in  all  wfaicb  there  would  have  been  nothing  ex-«> 
traordinary,  as  the  same  is  practised  till  this  day,  bad  he 
not  excited  the  astonishment  and  enthusiasm  of  bis  patients 
by  pretensions  to  an  extraordinary  gift  bestowed  upon  him, 
as  be  insinuates  in  one  place,  to  cure  the  people  of  atbeisnk 
When  he  left  England  or  died  is  Rot  known.  Mr.  Harris 
says  he  was  living  in  Dublin  in  1681.* 

GREAVES  (John),  an  eminent  mathematician  and  an* 
tiquary,  was  eldest  soo  of  John  Greaves,  rector  of  CoU 
more,  ne^r  Alresford,  in  Hampsbijne,  where  bis  son  was 
born  in  1602,  and  probably  instructed  in  grammar  learning 
by  bis  father,  who  was  the  most  celebrated  school-master 
in  that  country.  At  fifteen  years  of  age  he  was  sent  to 
Baliol  college,  in  Oxford,  where  be  proceeded  B.  A.  July 
6,  1621.  Three  years  after,  his  superiority  in  classical 
iearning  procured  him  the  first  place  of  five  in  an  eleetioo 
to  a  fellowship  of  Merton-coUege.  On  June  25,  1628^ 
he  commenced  M.  A.  and,  having  completed  bis  fellowship, 
w^s  more  at  liberty  to  pursue  the  bent  of  his  inclination^ 

1  Biog.  Brit,  id  art.  Stabbe.^—Accooat  ^f  him,  1  $66,  4to.^Harris*8  edition 
•f  Ware's  ttidtorjrof  Irelmt^. 

GREAVES.  227 

wbtch  leading  biin  chiefly  to  oriental  learning  and  the  ma- 
thematics, he  quickly  distinguished  himself  in  each  of 
tl)e$e  studies ;  and  fats  eminent  skill  in  the  latter  procured 
him  the  professorship  of  geometry  in  Gresbam  coiiege^ 
which  be  obtained  February  22,  1630. 

At  this  tim^he  had  not  only  read  the  writings  of  Coper- 
nicus, Regiomontanus,  Purbach,  Tycho  Brahe,  and  Kep* 
ler,  with  other  celebrated  astronomers  of  that  and  the  pre** 
ceding  age,  but  bad  made  the  ancient  Greek,  Arabian, 
and  Persian  authors  familiar  to  him,  having  before  gained 
an  accurate  skiirio  the  oriental  languages ;  but  the  ac^ 
quisitions  he  had  already  made  serving  to  create  a  tkirst 
for  more,  he  determined  to  travel  for  farther  improvement. 
Accordingly  he  went  to  Holland  in  1635,  and  having  at*> 
tended  for  seme  time  the  lectures  of  Golius,  the  learned 
professor  of  Arabic  at  Ley  den,  he  proceeded  to  Paris^ 
where  he  conversed  with  the  celebrated  Claiuiius  Hardy> 
about  the  Persian  language ;  but  finding  very  scanty  aid 
in  that  country,  he  continued  his  journey  to  Rome,  in  or^^^ 
derto  view  the  antiquities  of  that  eity.  He  also  visited 
other  parts  of  Italy ;  and  before  his  departure,^  meeting 
with  the  earl  of  Arundel,  was  offered  200/.  a  year  to  live 
with  kts  lordship,  and  attend  bim  as  a  companion  in  his 
travels  to  Greece ;  the  earl  also  promising  every  other  act 
of  friendship  that  might  lie  in  his  power^  A  proposal  so 
advantageous  would  have  been  eagerly  accepted  by  Mr. 
Greaves,  b  ut  he  had  no w  projected  a  voyage  to  Egy pt^  aivd  was 
about  to  return  to  Enghind,  in  order  to  furnish  him^f  with 
every  thing  proper  to  complete  the  execution  of  his  design. 

Immediately  after  his  return,  he  acquainted  archbishop 
Laud,  who  was  bis  liberal  patron,  with  his  intentions,  and* 
being  encouraged  by  his  grace,  set  about  making  prepa- 
rations for  it.  His  primary  view  was  to  measure  the(  py-> 
ramids  with  all  proper  exactness,  and  also  to  tnake  astro^ 
nomical  and  geographical  observations,  as  opportunities 
offered,  for  the  improvement  of  those  sciences.  A  large 
apparatus  of  proper  mathematical  instruments  was  conse* 
quently  to  be  provided ;  and,  as  the  expence  of  purchasittgr- 
these  would  be  considerable,  he  applied  for  assistance  to 
the  city  of  London,  but  met  with  an  absolute  denial.  This 
be  very  much  resented,  and  in  relating  the  generosity  of 
bis  brothers  upon  his  own  money  falling  short,  he  observes. 
*'  That  they  had  strained  their  own  occasions,  to  enable 
him,  in  despite  of  the  city,  to  go  on  with  his  designs.** 

'q  2 

f28  GREAVES. 

He  had  been  greatly  disappointed  in  his  hopes  of  ndeeCing 
with  curious  books  in  Italy  ;  he  therefore  proposed  to  make* 
that  another  principal  part  of  his  business ;  and  to  compass 
jt  in  the  easiest  manner,  he  bought  several  books  before 
his  departure,  in  order  to  exchange  them  with  others  in 
the  east.  Besides  his  brothers,  he  had  probably  some 
help  from  Laud,  from  whom  he  received  a  general  discre- 
tionary commission  to  purchase  for  him  Arabic  and  other 
MSS.  and  likewise  such  coins  and  medals  as  he  could  pro- 
cure. Laud  also  gave  him  a  letter  of  recommendation 
to  sir  Peter  Wyche,  the  English  ambassador  at  Constan- 

Thus  furnished,  he  embarked  in  the  river  Thames  for 
Leghorn,  June  1637,  in  company  with  his  particular 
friend  Mr.  Edward  Pococke,  whom  he  had  earnestly  so- 
licited to  that  voyage*.  After  a  short  stay  in  Italy,  he 
arrived  at  Constantinople  before  Michaelmas.  Here  he 
met  with  a  kind  reception  from  sir  Peter  Wyche,  and  be- 
came acquainted  with  the  venerable  Cyril  Lucaris,  the 
Greek  patriarch,  by  whom  he  was  much  assisted  in  pur- 
chasing Greek  MSS.,  and  who  promised  to  recommend 
him  to  the  monks  of  Mount  Athos,  where  he  would  have 
the  liberty  of  entering  into  all  the  libraries,  and  of  coU 
lecting  a  catalogue  of  such  books  as  either  were  not  printed, 
or  else,  by  the  help  of  some  there,  might  be  more  cor- 
rectly published.  These,  by  dispensing  with  the  ana-'' 
themas  which  former  patriarchs  had  laid  upon  all  Greek 
libraries,   to  pre^rve  the  books  from  the  Latins,  Cyril 

*  Our  «utbor*8  (cnerosity  on  this  gre«9,  fall  down  upon  the  butineu  of 

^>ccasion  desenres  particular  mention,  the  coBsaUhip,  and  how  honourable  a 

In  a  leUer  to  this  friend»  Dee.  23, 1S36,  thing  it  woald  be  if  you  a'ere  sent  out 

be  writes  thus :  **  I  shall  desire  your  a  second  tine,  as  Golins,  in  the  Low 

^vour  in  seading  up  to  me,  by  my  Countries,  was  by  the  States,  aftey  he 

brotbei^  Thomas,   Ulug  Beig's  astro*  had  been  once  there  before.     If  ray 

Bomical  tables,  of  which  I  purpose  to  lord  should  be  pleased  to  resoWe  and 

make  this  use.    The  next  week  I  will  compass  the  business,  I  khall  like  it 

fthew  them  to  my  lord's  grace  [Laud]  well ;  if  not,  1  shall  procure  300/.  for 

tod  highly  commend  your  care  in  pro-  you  and  myself,  besides  getting  a  dia- 

curing  those  tables,   being  the  most  penaation  for  the  allowances  of  our 

accurate  that  ever  were  extant ;  then  places  in  our  absence,  and  by  God's 

will  I  discoirer  my  intention  of  having  blessing,  in  three  years  dispatch  the 

them   printed  and   dedicated   to   his  whole  journey.     It  shall  go  hard,  bat 

grace  $    but  because  I   presume  that  I  will  Loo  get  some  citizen  in,  as  a  be* 

there  are  many  things  which  in  these  nefactor  to  the  design ;  if  not,  300/.  of 

parts  cannot  perfectly  be  understood,  miner  whereof  I  give  you  the  half,  to- 

J  shalLAC<|uaint  0^  lord  with  my  de>  gether  with  the  return  of  our  stipends, 

sirf  of  taking  a  journey  into  those  will,  In  a  plentiful  manner,  if  I  be  not 

countries,    for   the   more    emendate  ^ceiTed,  in  Tuitey  matatain  iiai. 
edition  of  them^    afterwards,  bji  de- 

GREAVES.  229 


fimposed  to .  present  to  archbishop  Laud,  for  the  better 
4>rosecution  of  his  designs  in  the  edition  of  Greek  authors ; 
bujt  ail  this  was  frustrated  by  the  death  of  that  patriarch, 
who.  was  barbai^ously  strangled  June  i6S8,  by  express 
command  of  the  grand  signior,  on  pretence  of  holding  a 
correspondence  with  the  emperor  of  Muscovy. 

Nor  was  this  the  only  loss  which  our  trareller  sustained 
by  Cyril's  death ;  for  having  procured  out  of  an  ignorant 
monastery  which  depended  on  the  patriarch,  fourteen  good 
MSS.  of  the  fathers,  he  was  forced  privately  to  restore  the 
books  and  lose  the  money,  to  avoid  a  worse  inconvenience; 
Thus  CoDstantinople  was  no  longer  agreeable  to  him,  and 
the  less  so,  because  he  had  not  been  able  to  perfect  him* 
self  in  the  Arabic  tongue  for  want  of  sufficient  masters, 
which  be  hoped  to  have  found  there.  In  these  circumr 
stances,  parting  with  his  fellow-traveller  Pococke,  he  em- 
braced the  opportunity  then  offered  of  passing  in  company 
with  the  annual  Turkish  fleet  to  Alexandria,  where,  having 
in  his  way  touched  at  Rhodes,  be  arrived  before  the  end 
of  September  1638.  This  was  the  boundary  of  his  in* 
tended  progress.  The  country  afforded  a  large  field  for 
the  exercise  of  his  curious  and  inquisitive  genius  ;  and  he 
omitted  no  opportunity  of  remarking  whatever  the  heavens, 
earth,  or  subterraneous  parts,  offered,  that  seemed  any 
way  useful  and  worthy  of  notice ;  but,  in  his  astronomical 
observations,  he  was  too  often  interrupted  by  the  rains, 
whicbi  contrary  to  the  received  opinion,  he  found  to  be 
frequent  and  violent,  especially  in  the  ijaiddle  of  winter; 
He  was  also  much  disappointed  here  in  his  expectations  of 
purchasing  books,  finding  very  few  of  these,  and  no  learned 
men.  But  the  principal  purpose  of  his  coming  here  being 
to  take  an  accurate  survey  of  the  pyramids,  he  went  twice 
to  the  deserts  near  Grand  Cairo,  where  they  stand ;  and 
having  executed  his  undertaking  entirely  to  his  satisfac- 
tion, embarked  at  Alexandria  in  April  1639.  Arriving  in 
two  iBonths  at  Leghorn,  he  made  the  tour  of  Italy  a  se- 
cond |:ime,  in  order  to  examine  more  accurately  the  true 
state  of  the  Roman  weights  and  measures,  as  he  was  now 
furnished  with  proper  instruments  for  that  purpose,  made 
by  the  best  bands. 

From  Leghorn  be  proceeded  to  Florence,  where  he  was 
received  with  particular  marks  of  esteem  by  the  grand 
duke  of  Tuscany,  Ferdinand  II.  to  whom  he  had  inscribed 
a  h^titi  poem  from  Alexahdria,  in  which  be  exhorted  that 

MO  G  E  «  A  V  E  S. 

fr\nat  to  clear  those  seis  of  plratesi  with  whool  tb^  were 
extoeoiely  infested.  He  obtained,  likewise^  admittance 
into  the  Medicean  library,  which  had  been  denied  to  bin 
as  a  stranger  whea  be  was  here  in  his  former  tour.  Frooft 
Florence  he  went  to  Rome^  and  took  roost  exact  measure- 
nients  of  all  the  ancient  remains  of  that  city  and  neigh'* 
bourhood ;  after  which  he  returned  to  Leghorn,  where 
taliiog  bis  passage  in  a  vessel  called  tbe  Golden  Fleece,  at 
the  end  of  March,  he  arrived  at  London  before  Midsummer 
1^40,  with  a  curious  collection  of  Aiabic,  Persic,  and 
Greek  MSS.  together  with  a  gtfeait  nuadber  of  gems,  coins, 
and  other  valuable  anciquitiesy  having  spent  full  three 
years  in  thia  agreeable  tour. 

But  upmt  his  return,  the  ensuing  national  trotiblen 
proved  greatly  detrimental  to  his  piivate  affairs,  and  he 
suffered  much  for  his  loyalty  to  tlie  king  and  his  gratittide 
to  Lattol.  After  a  short  stay  at  Gresham  college,  which 
was  no  longer  a  place  of  safety  for  him,  he  went  to  Oic* 
ford,  and  set  about  digesting  his  papers,  and  preparing 
suish  of  them  as  might  be  most  useful  for  the  pre^.  In  . 
this  business  he  was  assisted  by  archbishop  Usher,  to  whom 
he  bad  been  long  known ;  and  here  .he  drew  a  map  of 
X^iesser  Asia  at  his  grace's  request,  ^vfao  was  writing  his  dis- 
sertation of  that  country,  printed  in  1641. 

All  this  white  he  gave  himself  no  concern  about  bis  Gre« 
sham  lecture,  from  which  the  usurpitig  powers  removed 
bim  on  November  iS^  1643.  But  this  loss  had  been  more 
than  abundantly  compensated  by  the  Savilian  ppofessor$hip 
<^  astronomy^  to  which  he  was  obosen  tbe  day  before,  in 
the  Toom  of  Dr«  Bainbridge,  lately  deceased  ;  and  be  had 
a  dispensation  from  the  king,  to  hold  his  fellowship  at 
Merton-oollege,  because  the  stipend  was  much  impaired 
by  means  o£  the  civil  wars.  The  lectures  being  also  im- 
practicable on  the  same  account,  he  was  at  full  leispre  to 
continue  his  attention  to  his  papers  ;  and  accordingly  we 
find  that  he  bad  made  considerable  progress  by  September 
the  following  year ;  some  particulars  of  which  may  be  seen 
iu  a  letter  of  thsit  date  to  archbishop  Usher.  Among  other 
things,  it  appears  that  be. had  made  several  extracts  from 
them  concerning  the  true  length  of  the  year ;  and  happ^en- 
ii&g,  in  1645,  to  fall  into  discourse  with  some  persons  of 
figure  u  the  court  then  at  Oxford,  with  whom  he  moefi 
associated,  about  amending  the  Kalendar,  be  proposed  a 
laediikdjof^ing  it  by  omitting  tbe  intefeaiary  ^y  in  the 

6  R  e  A  V  E  ^  £31 

|eap*ycAl-  for  forty  yc»r»,  «am1  Io  fender  il  conformable  t^ 
the  Gregoriiiii  *,  He.  drew  up  a  scheme  for  that  purpoa^, 
which  was  approved  by  the  kiog  and  council ;  but  the  state 
of  the  tifD«a  would  not  permit  the  execution  of  it.  The 
publicatioii  of  bis  ^  Pycaoiidegrapbia/'  and  the  ^^  Descrip-* 
tioQ  of  the  Booian  Foot  and  Denarius/'  employed  him  the 
two.ftubsequem  years:  he  determined  to  bc^in  with  these, 
as  they  contained  the  fruit  of  bi^i  labours  io  the  primary 
view  of  htft  travels  f,  aod  he  W9S  not  in  a  condition  to  pro- 
ceed any  farther  at  present* 

Hitherto  he  bad  b«en  able^  in  a  considerable  degreey  t9 
eurmouBt  his  dif&ouUies,  there  being  still  left  some  memr 
bers  in  the  house  of  commons  who  bad  a  regard  for  learn* 
ing, .  among  whom  Selden  made  the  greatest  figure.     That 
gentleman  was  biirgess  for  the  university  of  Oxford ;  and, 
being  well  known  to  our  author  before  his  uavels,  be  de* 
dicated  his  *'  Roman  Foot*'  to  him»  uuder  the  character  of 
his  noble  and  learned  frlei^ :  and  bis  friendship  was  veiy 
aerviceable  to  Greaves^  in  a  prosecution  in  the  parliament, 
in  1647,  occasioned  lv)r  bis  executorship  to  Dr.  Bainbridgeb 
Thia  trust  had  so  involved  him  in  law^suita  as  entirely  to 
firustrate  bis  design  oS  going  Io  Leydem  to  consult  some 
Persian  MS^S*  neeesaacy  for  pfubltsbing  some  treatises  iju 
that  language^    Upon  the  arrival  of  the  parliamentary  com* 
missionera  at  O&ford,  several  Qomplaints  wefe  made  t9 
them  against  him  on  the  same  account ;  which  being  sent 
by  tbem  tathe  conraitttee  of  the  house  of  comoaons,  our 
autbor,  probably  by  the  iaterest  of  Selden  (wbo  was  a 
member  of  that  committae),  was  there  acquitted,  after 
which  be  applied '  to  the  court  of  aldermen  and  the  com** 
mittee  of  Camdea>*house  for  restitution.     But  though  be 
evaded  this  farther  difficulty  by  the  assistance  of  some 
pow^rftil  fviends,  yet  this  res(Hte  was  but  short ;  however, 

*  The  same  method  had  b^^ii  pro-  Greaves  is  in  the  Phil.  Trans.  No.  257^ 
posed  to  pope  Gregory,  who  rcjetitecf         f  These  are  the  most  gencraHy-nse- 

it,  M  Mf.  Graaves  myf,  that  fate  might  fiii  pa^  q(  hit  wovkf.    Th«  latter  i$ 

kiv  Ui9  liflnour  of  floiof  it  9t  oof <|,  ranked    among  the  classics,    and  is 

and  thereby  o^ calling  that  year  Annus  nearly  allied  to  the  former;  the  exact -^ 

Gregorianus,  wfrich  our  author  did  net  ness  of  which  is  put  beyond  all  doubt 

doubt  nrifkt  juiU^  Ike  cail^.  Anaits  ii|4ipieot  of  sir  Isaac  Neir|on»  pub* 

ConfiuipAis»  as  the  ancienus  called  that  lished  .ilong  with  the  most  correct  edi- 

year  m  which  Julius  Caesar  corrected  tions  of  it,  in  1737, 8vo.    Mr.  Greaves 

thecaleildarrVir  asubtrttctianofdaye,  toek  care  to  pmscrvie,  ta  t^e  latest 

aiWr  tK  sffpQ  manner.    But  we  h^rf  times,  the  pcesent  standard  of  the  mea- 

lately  seen  this  method  of  doing  it  at  sures  used  in  all  nations,  by  taking 

ctoce  p'ut  io  praetiee,  iirit^out  any  ill  the  ^meations  of  th^  inside  of  the 

csMicqttBnOfsat  slit  ..This  pifoe  9ik  ^r.  h^tP^  pinuQid  witk  (lie  J^nfUsh  foot 


be  made  use  of  that  time  in  publishing  a  piece  begun  :by 
'Dr.  Bainbridge,  anc)  completed  by  himself,  -printed  atOxr 
ford  in  1648,  under  the  title  of  ^' Jobunnis  Btinbriggit 
Canicularia,  &c.^'  He  dedicated  this  piece  to  doctor  (af*- 
tefwards  sir  George)  Ent,  with  whom  he  bad  commenced 
an  acquaintance  at  Padua,  in  Italy ;  and  that  gentleman 
gave  many  proofs  of  hi^  sincere  friendship  to  oar  aiitboc, 
as  well  a's  to  Dr.  Pococke,  in  these  times. 

But  the  tyrannical  violence  of  tbe  parliamentary  visitors 
was  now  above  all  restraint,  and  a  fresh  cfaavge  was  drawn 
up  against  Greaves.  Dr.  Waltei*  Pope  informs  u«,  that, 
considering  the  violence  of  the  visitors.  Greaves  saw  k 
would  be  of  no  service  to  him  to  make  any  defence;  sxid^ 
(inding  it  impossible  to  keep  his  professovship,  be  made  it 
his  business  to  procure  an  able  and  worthy  person  ta  suc- 
ceed him.  By  the  advice  of  Dr.  Charles  Scarborough  ^® 
physician,  having  pitched  upon' Mr.  Seih  Ward,  be  opened 
the  matter  to  that  gentleman,  whom  he  soon  met  witii 
tber6 ;  and  at  the  same  time  pvoposed  a  method  of  com- 
passing it,  by  which  Ward  not  only  obtained  the  place, 
but  the  full  arrears  of  the  stipend,  amounting  to  500/.  due 
to  Greaves,  and  allowed  him  a  considerable  pan  of  bis 
salary.  The  murder  of  the  king,  which  happened  sodn 
after,  was  a  sliook  to  Greaves,  and  lamented  by. him  m 
pathetic  terms,  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Pococke :  ^f  O  my^  good 
friend,  my  good  friend,  never  waa  aof  row  like  our  sorrow ; 
excuse  me  now,  if  I  am  not  able  to  write  to  you,  attd^tQ 
anf^wer  your  questions.  O  Lord  God,  avert  this  great  sin 
and  thy  jildgments  from  this  nation.-'  However^  he  bore 
vp  against  his  own  injuries  with  admirable  fortitude ;  and, 
iixing  his  residence  in  •  Londop,  he  married,  and,  liviog 
upon  his  patrimonial  estate,  went  on  as  before,  and  pro* 
duced  some  other  cDvious  Arabio  and  Persic  treatiseri 
translated  by  him  with  notes,  every  year.  Besides  wbtcb, 
he  had  prepared  s^vepl  Qtbers  for  tbe  public  view,  and  was 
meditating  more  when  he  was  seized  by  a  fatal  disorder^ 
which  put  a  period  fo  his  life,  October  8^  1652,  before  be 
was  full  fifty  years  of  age.  He  was  iqter^ed  iq  the  church 
of  St.  Bennet  Sberehog,  in  London.  His  loss  was  lauch 
lami^nted  by  his  frjei^ds,  to  whom  he  wa§  particularly  en- 
deared by  joining  the  gentleman  to  the  scholar,  lie  was 
endowed  with  great  firmness  of  mind|  steadiness  in  friendr 
s^ip,  and  ardent  zeal  in  the  interest  which  he  espoused, 
though,  asf  he  declares  himself,  not  at  all  inclined  to.ooiNr 

O  H  E  A  V  E  S.  ess 

feniSon.  He  was  highly  esteemed  by  the'  learned  in  fo- 
reign parts,  with  ftiany  of  wbom  he  corresponded.  Nor 
was  be  \eu  valued  at  home  by  all  who  were  judges  of  his 
great  worth  and  abilities.  He  had  no  issue  by  bis  wife,  to 
wbom  he  be<)iieatbed  bis  estate  for  her  life.;  and  having 
left  his  •  cabinet  of  coins  to  bis  friend  sir  John  Marsham, 
author  of  the  ^*  Canon  Chronicusy"  he  appointed  the  eldest 
of  his  three  younger  brothers  (Dr.  Nicolas  Greaves^, 
bis  executor,  who  by  will  bestowed  our  mftor^s  astrono- 
mical instruments  on  tbe  Savilian  library  at  Oxford,  where 
they  are  reposited,  together  with  several  of  his  papers ;  but 
many  others  were  sold  by  his  widow  to  a  bookseller,  an^ 
lost  or  dispersed. 

•  Besid^  bis  papers  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  his 
works  printed  separately  am,  1 .  '^  Pyramidologia ;  or  a 
description  of  the  Pyramids  in  Egypt,*'  Lond.  1646,  8vo. 
•^.  ^*  A  Discourse  of  the  Roman  Foot  and  Denarius,'*  ibid. 
1647,  8vo.  3,  ^  Elementa  Unguse  Persicae,"  ibid.  1649, 
4to.  4.  *^  EpocfasB  celebriores  astronemis,  historicis,  chro- 
tiologis  Chataiornm,  Syro-grsecorum,  Arabum,  Persarum, 
&o.  usitatse,  ex  traditione  Ulug  Beigi ;  Arab,  et  Lat.''  ibid. 
il4S0f  4to.  5.  **  Chorasmis  et  Mawaralnabne,  hoc  est, 
regionum  extra  fluvium  Oxiim^  descriptio,'*  ibid.  1  GSa, 
j4to.  •  6.  '^  Astronomicm  quasdaro,  ex  traditione  Shah  ChoU 
git  Persse,  una  cum  bypotbenbus  pianetanim,''  &c.  ibid. 
>65>2,  4to.  In  1737  Dr.  Birch  published  tbe  '^Miscella* 
oieous  Works'^  of  our  author,  2  vob.  8vo,  containing  some 
of  the  above,  with  additions,  and  a  life. 

Mr.  Greaves  -  had  three  brothers,  Nicholas,  Thomas, 
and  Edward,  all  men  of  distinguished  learning. — Dr.  Ni* 
■CHQLAS  Greaves  was  a  commoner  of  St.  Mary's  Hall,  in 
Oxford,  whence  in  1627  he  was  elected  fellow  of  All-Souls 
college.  In  1 640  he  was  proctor  of  that  university.  No* 
vember  1  st  1 642  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  D.  and  July  6th 
the  year  following,  that  of  D.  D.  He  was  dean  of  Dro- 
more  in  Ii«land.-*-Dr.  Thomas  Greaves  was  admitted  a 
scholar  of  Corptis  Christi  college  in  Oxford  March  1 5th, 
1637,  and  chosen  fellow  thereof  in  1636,  and  deputy 
reader  of  tbe  Arabic  during  the  i^bsence  of  Mr.  Edward  Pd- 
eock  in  1637.  He  took  the  degree  of  B.-  D.  October  22, 
1641,  and  was  rector  of  Ditnsby  ki  Lincolnsbh-e  during  the 
times  preceding  the  Restoration,  and  of  another  living  near 
Lqndoli.  October  10th,  166 1,  he  had  tbe  degree  of  D.  D. 
conferred  iipon  him,  •  and  a  prebend  in  tbe  church  of  Pe- 

hH  <&  £  E  A  Y  £  a 

lerborough  in  1666,  being  then  rector  of.Benefteld  in  Nor- 
tbampjbombijrey  ^*  which  benefice  he  resjigned  lome  yean 
before  bis  death  through  trouUie  fi^om  fads  pmshionera^  who, 
«becaoae  of  ihit  sbwnesft  of  speech  and  bad  uttoranee^  held 
ium  uittufficient  for  it,,  notwithstanding  he  was  a  man  of 
^eat  learning.^*     In  the  latterpairt  of  his  life  he  retired  to 
Weldou  in  NtMrthamptonshire,  where  he  bad  purchased  an 
estaibe^  and  diedv  there  May  .22,  1676^  in  tbe  sixty-fifth 
.year  of  his  age,  and  was  interred  in  the  chancel  of  the 
«bur<}h.  tbers.     His  writings  are,  <^  De  Lingua  Arabics^ 
titilitate  et  pnastantt^,  oratio  Oxonii  faabita  19  Julii  1637/' 
Oxford,.  1637,  4to  ;:  ^^  Obserrationes  qoadam  in  Persicstt 
Pentateuchi  versionem,'*  printed  in  tbe  sixth  volume  of  the 
Polyglot  Bible.;  ^^  Annotationes  qnsedam  in  Persicam  in-* 
iterfMretationem  ETangeliorun,"    prinlod  in  the  same  vw- 
lume.    These  annotauioos  were  translated  into  Latin  by 
JMn  ^dJSiuel  Clarke.    It  appears  likewise,  by  a  letter  of  \m 
.to  the  celebrated  n6nconfonaiist  Baxter,  that  he  bad  made 
considerable  progress  in  a  refutation  oi  Mahometanisaa 
from  the  Alcoran,  upon  a  plan  that  was  likely  to  have  been 
.useful  in  opening  the  eyes  of  the  Mahometans  to  tbe  im- 
postures of  their  founder.     He  corresponded  much  with 
the  learned  men  of  his  time^  particularly  Selden,  and 
Wheelocke,  the  Arabic  professor  at  Cambridge. — ^Dr.  Eo** 
WAao  Greaves^  the  youngest  brother  of  Mr.  John  Greaves^ 
was  bom  at  oe  near  Croydon. in  Surrey,  and  admitted  pro- 
bationer fellow  of  All<^uls  college  in  Oxford  in  1634; 
and  studying  physic,  took  tbe  diegree  of  doctor  of  that 
fsculty  July  8,  1641,  in  which  year  and  aftarwards  he  prac- 
tised with  good  success  about  Oxford.     In  1643  he  was 
elected,  superior,  lecturer  of  pJ»ysic  in  Mertoo  college,  a 
chair  feundod  by  Dr.  Thomas  Lioacre.     Upon  tbe  de^ 
dining  of  tbe  king's  cause  he  vetired  to  London,  and  prac*- 
tised  there,. and  sometimes  at  Bath.     In  March  16^2  he 
was  examined  for  the  first  time  before  the  college  of  pby«> 
siciaas  at  London,    and  October   J,  1657^  was  elected 
fellow.    Afber  the  Restoration  be  was  appointed  physioiau 
in  ordinary  to  king  Charles  XL  and  waa. created  a  bmonet. 
Ml,  Wood  styles  him  a  pretended  baroUct ;  but  we  &od 
.that  he .  takes  this  tkle  in  hiv  oration  beibre  the  college  of 
physicians ;  and  in  the  sisth  edition  of  G«iUim*s  Herakdry 
are  his  arms  in  that  rank.     He  died  at  his  house  in  Covent 
Garden,  November  11,  1680,  and  was  interred  in  thepai- 
riih  church  there.    He  wrote  and  published  <<  Morbus 

G  R  EAVES.  295 

icas,  itiio.  164$;  or,  the  New  DiBease,  wHb  mg^ 
causes,  lefMcUes/'  &€.  Oxfiscd,  1943|  4to,  written  u|Mm 
occasion  of  a  disease  called  ^VMorbut  Campestrb/'  which 
laged  in  Oxford '  while  the  king  and  cxnirt  were  there. 
<'  Ofatio  babita  in  £dibtts  OoUegii  Medicmruni  Londinen- 
sium,  25  July,  1661,  die  Harreii  memori«  dicato,''  Lend. 
1667,   4to.* 

GRECINUS  (Juiiius),  a  Roman  senator,  and  a  man  of 
letters,  flourished  in  the  oeign  of  Caligula,  and  was  greatly 
distingubhed  for  eloc[uence,  and  for  the  study  of  philo« 
sopby,  as  well  as  foramoital  conduct  surpassing  that  of 
many  of  his  comtemporaries.:  He  refused  to  obey  the  com^ 
mand  of  the  emperor  to  appear  as  the  accuser  of  Maraus 
Silaoiis,  and  suilered'  death  in  consequence,  in  the  40tk 
year  of  the  Chrisciae  sera.  Seneoa,  who  never  speaks  of 
htm  wi^ut  admiration,  saya,  that  he  was  put  to  death 
because  he  was  too  good  a  man  to  be  permitted  to  live 
under  a  tyrant.  He  is  said  to  haire  written  a  treatise  oon- 
ceming  agrioulture  and  the  management  of  vioes.  He 
was  the  father  of  the  illustrious  Cn.  Julius  Agricola*  * 

GREEN  (John),  an  English  prelate,  tints  bom  about 
1706,  at  Beverly,  in  Yorkshire^  and  received  the  rudi« 
menta  of  his  education  at  a  private  schooL  From  this  he 
was  admitted  a  aiaar  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge ; 
and  after  taking  his  degrees  in  arts,  with  great  credit  as  a 
dasnciil  scbolaf,  engaged  himself  as  usher  to  a  school  at 
Lichfield,  before  Dr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Garrick  bad  left 
that  oi^,  with  both  of  whom  he  was  of  course  acquakited, 
but  he  continued  here  only  one  year.  In  1730  he  was 
elected  fellow  of  St.  John's,  and  soon  after  the  bishop  of 
Ely  procured  him  the  vicarage  of  Hingeston  from  Jesus 
college,  which  was  tenable  with  a  fellowship  of  St.  John's^ 
but  ooold  not  be  held  by  any  fellow  of  Jesus.  In  1744| 
Charles  duke  of  Somerset,  chancellor  of  the  univemty, 
appointed  Mr.  Green  (then  B;  D.)  his  domestic  chaplain. 
In  Jenuairy  1747,  Green  was  presented  by  his  noble  patron 
to  the  rectory  of  Borough-green,  near  New-market,  which 
he  held  with  liis  fellowship.  He  then  returned  to  coUegeji 
and  wet  appointed  bursar.  In  December  1748,  on  the 
death  of  Dr,  'Whalley;  he  was  elected  regiua  professor  of 
divieity,  with  w.hkh  office  hb  heM  die  living  *of  Bamyw  in 

Biog»  Brit.— Usher»s  ijfe  and  Letters.— Life  by  Dr.  Birch.— Ward's  Grethan 
ProwwMTs.  t  Monrii        - ' 

its  G  R  E  E  N. 

SafFolk,  and  soon  after  was  appointed  one  of  his  majeBiy'a 
chaplams.  In  June  1750,  oii  the  death  of  dean  Castle^ 
master  of  Beoe^t  college,  a  majority  of  the  fellows  (after 
the  headship  had  been  declined  by  their  president,  Mr. 
Scottowe)  agreed  to  .  apply  to  archbishop  Hercing  for  his 
jrecvmniendation ;  and  his  grace,  at  the  particular  request 
of  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  recomniended  professor  Greetv 
who  was  immediately  elected.  Among  the  writers  on  the 
subja^t  of  the  new  r^gulations  pcoposed  by  the  cbaoceUor^ 
and  established  by  the  senate,  Dr»  Green  took  an  active 
pert,  in  a  pamphlet  published  in:the  following  winter,  1750, 
without  his  name,  entitled  *^  The  Academic,  or  a  disputa- 
tion on  the  state  of  the  university  of  Cambridge.''  On. 
March  22,  1731,  when  his  friend  Dr.  Keene,  master  of 
St.  Peter's  college,  was  promoted  to.  the  bishopric  of  Ches- 
ter, Dr.  Green  preached  the  consecration«'sermon  in  £ly* 
houae  chapel,  which,  bv  oider  of  the  archbishop  of  York, 
was  soon  after  published.  In  October  1756,  on  the  death 
of  Dr.  George,  he  was  preferred  to  the  deanery  pf  yncolii, 
and  resigned  his  professorship^  Being,  then  eligible  to  the 
qffice  of  vjce«cbaocellor,  he  was  chosen  in  November  fol- 
lowing. In  June  1761,  the  dean  exerted  his  polemical 
talents  in  two  letjbers  (published  without  his  name)  *^  on  the 
principles  and  practices  of  the  Methodists,"  the  first  bA^, 
dressed  to  Mr.  Berridge,  and  the  second  to  Mr.  Whitfield, 
Qn  the  translation  of  bishop  Thomas  to  the  bishopric  of 
Salisbury,  Green  was  promoted. to  the  see  of  Lincoln,  the 
last  mark  of  favour  which  the  duke  of  Newcastle  had  It  in 
his  power  to  shew  him.  In  J  762,  archbishop  Seeker  (who 
had  always  a  just  esteem  for  bis  talents  and  abilities)  be* 
ing  iudisposed,  the  bishop  of  Lincoln  visited  as  his  proxy 
the  diocese  of  Canterbury.  In  1763  he  preached  the  30th 
of.  January,  sermon  before  the  house  of  lord9»  which  was 

The  bishop  resigned  the  mastership  of  Bejie't  college  in 
July  1 764.  After  the  death  of  lord  Willopghby  of  Parbam 
in  It65,  the  literary  conyersation  meetings  of  the  royal 
^ocieiy^  &c.  which  used  to  be  held  weekly  at  his. lordship's 
house*  ^ere  transferred  to  the  bishop  of  Lincoln's  in  Scot-, 
land  yard,  as  one  of  their  most  accomplished  membera. 
In  July  177I9  on  a  repr^seotation  to  his  majesty » that,  with 
distinguished  learning  and  abilities,  and  a  most  extensive 
diocese,  bishop  Green  (having  no  commendam)  had  a  very 
inadequate  income^  he  vras  presented  to  the  residentiary^. 

G'  K  e:  E  W.  fl$t 

ship  of  St.  Paul's,  which  bishop  Egerton  facacted  on-  bb 
translation  to  the  see  of  Durham.  He  now  removed  tk>  his 
residentiary-house  in  Amen-corner,  and  took  a  small  eoun-^ 
try-house  at  Tottenham.  It  has  often  been  noticed  ^  a 
circumstance  conducing  to  our  prelate's  honour,  that,  iti 
May  1772,  when  the  bill  for  relief  of  protestant  dissenters^ 
&c.  after  having  passed  the  house  of  commons,  was  re« 
jected,  on  the  second  reaiifing,  by  the  house  of  .lord§ 
(i02  to  27),  he  dissented  from  his  brethren,  and  was  the 
only  bishop  who  voted  in  its  favour.  Without  any  parti- 
cular previous  indisposition,  his  lordship  died  suddenly  in 
fats  chair  at  Bath,  on  Sunday,  April  25,  1779.  This  ele« 
gant  scholar  was  one  of  the  writers  of  the  celebrated 
**  Athenian  Letters/*  published  by  the  earl  of  Hardwicke 
in  1798,  2  vols.  4to.  * 

GREEN  (Matthew),  an  ingenious  Engli^  poet,  was 
descended  from  a  family  in  good  repute  among  the  dis« 
sehters,  and  had  his  education  in  some  of  the  sects  into 
which  that  body  is  divided.  He  was  a  man  of  approved 
probity,  and  sweetness  of  temper  and  manners.  His  wit 
abounded  in  conversation,  and  was  never  known  to  give 
offence.  He  had  a  post  in  the  custom-house,  where  he 
discharged  his  duty  with  the  utmost  diligence  and  ability^ 
and  died  at  the  age  of  forty-one  years,  at  a  lodging  i» 
Nag's-head' court,  Gracechurch-street,  in  1737. 

Mr.  Green,  it  is  added,  had  not  much  learning,  but 
knew  a  little  Latin.  He  was  very  subject  to  the  hip,  had 
some  free  notions  on  religious  subjects,  and,  though  bred 
amongst  the  dissenters,  grew  disgusted  at  the  preciseness 
and  formality  of  the  sect.  He  was  nephew  to  Mr.  l^ner, 
clerk  of  fishmopgers'-hall.  His  poem  entitled  *^  The 
Spleen,"  was  written  by  |Aece-meal,  and  would  never 
have  been  completed,  had  he  not  been  pressed  to  it  by  his 
friend  Glover,  the  celebrated  author  of  **  Leouidas,'*  &c. 
By  this  gentleman  it  was  committed  to  the  press  soon  after 
Green's  death.        / 

This  very  amusing  author  published  nothing  in  his  life«» 
time.  In  1732  he  printed  a  few  copies  of  "  The  Grotto," 
which  was  afterwards  inserted  in  the  ith  volume  of  Uods^- 
ley-s  Collection.  • 

TbQ  following  anecdotes  are  given  from  indisputable 

I  <3ent.  Mag.  -1779 ;  see  Index. *«^le*8  MS  Atheno  in  the  British  MtisQiim. 
r-NichoU*s  Poems,  vol.  VXlI.-^See  alsQ  Mr.  T^soa**  Letters  in  the  **  l,ii«rary 
AttccdoMi/'  fpli  VIII.        - 

338  G  K  £  C  N« 

aiathority  :-*-Mr.  Sylvanus  Bevan,  a  qaaker  and  a  friend  of 
Mr*  Green,  was  mentioning,  at  Bataoii^s  coffee-house^  that, 
while  b^  was  bathing  in  the  river,  a  waterman  saluted  him 
with  the  usual  insult  of  the  lower  class  of  people,  by  call* 
iiig  out,  ^^  A  quaker,  a  quaker,  quirl  !**  He  at  the  samp 
expressed  bis  wonder,  how  his  profession  could  be  known 
while  be  was  without  his  cloa^tbs.  Green  immediately  re^ 
plied,  that  the  waterman  might  discover  him  by  bis  swim'^ 
ming  against  the  stream.-^The  department  in  the  custom- 
house to  which  Mr.  Green  belonged  was  under  the  con troul 
of  the  duke  of  Manchester,  who  used  to  treat  those  imaie<* 
diately  under  him  once  a  year.  After  one  of  these  enter-* 
tainments^  Mr.  Green,  seeing  a  range  of  servants  in  the 
ball,  said  to  the  first  of  them,  ^'  Pray,  air,  do  you  give 
tickets  at  your  turnpike  ?" — In  a  reform  which  took  phice 
in  t^e  custom-house,  amongst  other  articles,  a  few  pence, 
paid  weekly  for  providing  the  cats  with  milk,  were  ordered 
to  ba  struck  off.  On  this  occasion,  Mr.  Green  wrote*  a 
humourous  petition  as  from  the  cats,  which  prevented  the 
regulation  in  that  particular  from  taking  place.— -Mr.  Green's 
conversation  was  as  novel  as  his  writings,  which  occasioned 
one  of  th^  commissioners  of  the  customs,  a  very  dull  man^. 
to  observe,  that  he  did  not  know  how  it  was,  but  Green 
always  expressed  himself  in  a  different  manner  from  other 

Such  is  the  only  information  which  the  friends  of  this 
poet  have  thought  proper  to  band  down  to  posterity,  if  w^ 
except  Glover,  the  author  of  ^be  preface  to  the  first  edi* 
tion  €^  ^<  The  Spleen,"  who  introduces  the  poem  in  these 
words : 

'^  The  author  of  the  following  poem  bad  the  greatest  part 
of  his  time  taken  up  in  busitfess  ;  but  was  accustomed  at 
his  leisure  hours  to  amuse  himself  with  striking  out  small 
sketches  of  wit  or  humour  for  tiie  entertainment  of  his 
friemls,  sometimes  in  verse,  at  otlier  times  in  prose.  Tbe 
greatest  part  of  these  alluded  to  incidents  known  only 
within  the  circle  of  fiis  acquaintance.  The  subject  of  the 
following  poem  will  be  more  generally  understood.  It 
was  at  first  a  very  short  copy  of  verses ;  but  at  the  desire 
of  the  person  to  whom  it  is  addressed,  the  author  enlarged 
it  to  its  present  state.  As  it  was  writ  without  any  design 
of  its  passing  beyond  the  hands  of  his  acquaintance,  so 
the  author's  unexpected  death  soon  after  disappointed 
mai^y  of  bis  most  intimate  friends  in  their  design  of  pre^ 

0  Be  £  N.^  439 

vaiUag  pn  fcia).  to  iteview  and  prdpiurejt  for  tte  sight  of  the 
public.  It  tbarefboe  now  appears  under  all  the  disadvan** 
tages  that  can  attend  a  posthasaous  work.  But  it  is  pre^ 
sumed  every  imperfeotiou  of  thisktad  is  abundantly  overt- 
balanced  by  the  peculiar  and  unborrovred  cast  of  tfapugJiS 
and  expressioni  which  mamfests  iti»df  throughout,  and  se*- 
cures  to  this  performance  the  first  and  principal  character 
necessary  to  recoxnmend  a  work  of  genius,  that  of  being 
an  original'* 

^^  The  Spleen"  had  not  been  long  published  before  iC 
was  admired  by.  those  whose  opinion  was  at  that  tune  de*- 
cisive.  Pope  said  there  was  a  great  deai .  of  originality  ia 
it ;  and  Cray,  in  his  private  corre6poDd<enoe  with  the  lattf ' 
lord  Orford^  observes  of  Green's  poems,  then  published  vx 
Dodsley's  Collection,  <^  There  is  a  profusion  of  wit  every 
where;  reading  would  have  formed  hb  judgment,  audi 
harmonized  his  verse,  for  eveo  his  wood^ootes  ofteh  break 
out  into  strains  of  real  poetr}^'*  ^'  The  Splee^^ 
was  first  printed  in  1737,  a  short  time  after  the  .author's 
death,  and  afterwards  was  taken,  with  his  other  pbemsy 
into  Dodsley's  volumes,  where  they  remained  until  the 
publication  of  the  second. edition  of  Dr.  Johoson^s  Poeta. 
In  1796  a  very  elegant  edition  was  published  by  Mes$i& 
Cadeil  and  Davies,  which^  besides  some  beautiful  engrav* 
ings,  is  enriched  with  a  pre£BU;ory  essay  from  the  pen  of 
Dr.  Aiktn.  ^ 

GREENE  (Maurice,  Dr.),  an  eminent  Ekiglish  musi* 
cian,  was  the  son  of  the.  Rev.  Thomas  Greene,  vicar  of  St* 
Olave  Jewry,  in  Loudon,  and  nephew  of  John  Greene, 
Serjeant  at  law.  He  was  brought  up  in  the  choir  of  Sl 
Paul,  and  when  his  voice  broke  w^s  bound  apprentice  to 
Brind,  the  organist  of  that,  cathedrai  He  was  early  m><* 
ticed  as  an  ekgant  organ«player  and  composer  for  the 
church,  and  obtained  the  place  of  organist  of  St.  Dunstan 
in  the  West  before  be  was  twenty  years  of  age.  In  1717, 
oh  the  death  of  Daniel  Purcell,  he  was  likewise  elected 
organist  of  St.  Andnew's,  Holbom  ;  but  the  next  year^  his 
master,  Bricid,  djring,  Greene  was  appointed  his  successor 
by  the  dean  and  chapter  of  St.  Paut*s ;  upon  which  event 
he  quitted  both  the  places  he  bad  pretiously  obtained.  In 
1726,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Crofts,  he  was  appointed  orgaiw 
}st  and  composer  to  the  chapel  royal ;  and  on  the  deatb  of 

'  Jobiuon  «Qd  Cbalniirt^  £nglUh  Poets.  18 10. 

240  d  R  £  It  K  E. 

Eccles,  1795,  master  of  bis  majesty's  banfd;    Iti^  ll^i^S 
obtained  the  degree  of  doctor  in  music  at  Cambridgey  and 
was  appointed  public  music  professor  in  the  same  university^ 
in  the  room  of  Dr.  Tad  way.    Greene  was  an  intelligent 
man,  a  constant  attendant  at  the  opera,  and  an  acute  ob« 
server  of  the  improvements  in  composition  and  performance^ 
which  Handel  and  the  Italian   singers  employed  in  his 
dramas,  had  introduced  into  this  conntry.     His  melody  is 
therefore  more  elegant,  and  harmony  more  pure,    than 
those  of  his  predecessors,  though  less  nervous  and  original. 
Greene  had  the  misfortune  to  live  in  the  age  and  neigh* 
bourhood  of  a  musical  giant,  with  whom  be  was  utterljr 
unable  to  contend,  but  by  cabal  and   alliance  with  his 
enemies.    Handel  was  but  too  prone  to  treat  inferior  artists 
with  conteaipt ;  and  for  many  years  of  his  life  never  spoke 
of  Greene  without  some  injurious  epithet.    Greene's  figure 
was  below  the  common  size,  and  be  had  the  misfortune  to 
be  very  much  deformed ;  yet  his  address  and  exterior  man-^ 
ners  were  those  of  a  man  of  the  world,  mild,  attentive,  and 

Greene  had  the  honour,  early  in  life,  to  teach  the  dn^^ 
chess  of  Newcastle,  which,  joined  to  his  professional  me-^ 
rit,  and  the  propriety  of  his  conduct,  was  the  foundation 
of  his  fevour  witli  the  prime  minister  and  the  nobility.  In 
1730,  when  the  duke  of  Newcastle  was  installed  chancellor 
of  the  university  of  Cambridge,  he  was  appointed  to  set 
the  ode,  and  then  not  only  obtained  his  doctor's  degree, 
but,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  I'udway,  he  was  honoured  with 
the  title  of  professor  of  music  in  that  university.  As  an 
exercise  for  his  degree,  he  set  Pope's  ode  for  St.  Cecilia's 
day ;  having  first  had  interest  sufficient  to  prevail  on  the 
author  to  make  new  arrangements  in  the  poem  to  render 
it  more  fit  for  music,  and  even  to  add  an  entire  new  stanza, 
between  the  second  and  third,  which  bad  never  appeared 
in  any  of  the  printed  editions. 

Greene  had  sense  and  knowledge  sufficient,  in  his 
younger  days,  to  admire  and  respect  the  abiliti^  of  the 
two  great  nnqpsical  champions,  Handel  and  Bononcini,  but 
owing  probably  to  Handel's  contemptuous  treatment  ojf 
him,  became  a  partizan  on  the  side  of  Bononcini.  Greene's 
merit  and  connections  were  such,  that  he  soon  arrived  at 
the  most  honourable  appointments  in  his  profession :  for 
besides  being  organist  of  St.  Paul's,  in  1727,  on  the  death 
of  Dr.  Croft,  he  was  appointed  organist  and  composer  of 

GREENE.  84t 

the  cbapel  royal;  and  in  1735  he  succeeded  Eccles  as 
eomposer  to  his  majestyi  and  master  of  bis  band,  in  which 
fUtioa  he  set  all  the  odes  of  the  laureat  CoUey  Ctbberi 
as  long  as  he  lived. 

The  compositions  of  Dr.  Greene  were  very  tiumerous^ 
particularly  for  the  church.  Early  in  bis  career  he  set  a 
Te  Deum,  and  part  of  tlie  Song  of  Deborah,  which  were 
never  printed ;  but  the  anthems  and  services  which  he  pro« 
duced  for  St.  Paul's  and  the  king^s  chapel  he  collected 
and  published  in  two  vols,  folio;  and  of  these  the  merit  is 
so  various  as  to  leave  them  open  to  much  discrimination 
and  fair  criticism.  There  is  considen^ble  merit  of  various 
kinds  in  his  catches,  canons,  and  two-part  songs ;  the  com- 
position is  clear,  correct,  and  masterly ;  the  melodies,  for 
the  times  when  they  were  produced,  are  elegant,  and  de- 
signs intelligent  and  ingenious.  The  collection  of  harpsi* 
chord  lessons,  which  he  published  late  in  his  life,  though 
they  discovered  no  great  powers  of  invention,  or  hand, 
had  Its  day  of  favour,  as  a  boarding-school  book ;  for  being 
neither  so  elaborate  as  those  of  Handel,  nor  so  difficult  as 
the  lessons  of  Scarlatti,    or  the  sonatas  of  Alberti,  they 

Eve  but  little  trouble  either  to  the  master  or  the  scho- 
.  During  the  last  years  of  his  life  he  began  to  collect 
the  services  and  anthems  of  our  old  church  composers^ 
from  the  single  parts  used  in  the  several  cathedrals  of  the 
kingdom,  in  order  to  correct  and  publish  them  in  score ;  a 
plan  which  he  did  not  live  to ,  accomplish,  but  as  he  be* 
queathed  his  papers  to  l!>r.  Boyce,  it  was  afterwards  exe- 
cuted in  a  very  splendid  and  ample  manner.  Dr.  Greene 
died  in  1755. » 

GREENE  (Robert),  an  English  poet  and  miscellaneous 
writer  of  the  Elizabethan  age,  and  memorable  for  his  ta- 
lents and  imprudence,  was  a  native  of  Norwich,  and  bom 
about  1560.  His  father  appears  to  have  been  a  citizen  of 
Norwich,  the  fabricator  of  his  own  fortune,  which  it  is 
thought  he  bad  accumulated  by  all  the  tricks  of  selfishness 
and  narrow  prudence.  He  educated  his  son,  however,  as 
a  scholar,  at  St.  John^s  college,  Cambridge.  Here  he  took 
ihe  degree  of  A.  B.  in  1578^  and  for  some  time  travelled 
into  Italy  and  Spain.  On  his  return,  he  took  his  master^s 
degree  at  Clare-hall,  in  1583,  and  was  incorporated  in  the 
same  at  Oxford  in  1588^  no  inconsiderable  proof  that  his 

*  Bonitty  and  Hawkmt'i  Hist  of  Mask.— Rvei'«  Cy«l0p94it  %y  Burnflf  * 

Vo^.  XVI.  R 

,2*2  e  ji  i:  i:  N  f:. 

prQjJMji^cy  in  jixis  jtpdies  had  b^^n  vgry  ^OR^pjpuQus,  ^j^^ 
|ha|t  th.ere  was  nothing  at  this  time  g^rassly  objpptioi^blj?  i{i 
hi3  nao^aj  d.en^efLno.ur.  It  is  supposed  thft  ^e  t;ook  9rd€^79 
after  his  return  from  his  travels,  and  th^t  h^  wfis  the  ^?i^ 
I^oliert  Greeny  ^yho  wj^s  pr/es^enj^d  to  the  vill^e  pf  ^pjles- 
bury,  in  pssex,  June  19,  1584.  Jf  this  be  the  casp,  iti|8 
probable  tha^  he  did  not  long  reside,  or  was  perhaps  dfiyqn 
from  Tolleshury,  ])y  hi^  irregular  life,  the  greater  pii^rt*^ 
wbicl^  was  spent  in  ^ondpn.  Here,  from  some  pa^^a^^ 
cited  \^y  Mr.  Beloe,  it  would  appear  that  ^le  gave  hvns^ejif 
up  to  writing  plays  a.pd  lov^  painphlpts,  a^nd  fropa  the  d^^tf 
of  his  "  JVJyrrqur  of  ]>Iodesti,e,"  1584,  it  is  pvat^ahl^  %\x^ 
from  tliis  tinrj^  he  became  an  author  by  profe^sjpp ;  buf  9jf 
jTonr  years  aft^r  he  was  incorporated  M.  A.  j^t  Qxfor^j  W 
are  still  willing  to  believe  that  his  career  of  fpUy  had  p^ 
comm^oced  so  ao.Q^i^  oif  been  so  generally  known  as  it  ly^ 
sometime  after.  It  was  his  fate  t^o  fn^U  ^mong  diss.oIi^ 
cpinpa(iion$j  who,  ^^lough  men  of  g^piu3  like  himself^  prp«' 
^^^^y^  ipncoui*<7.g^d  each  other  in  every  sensual  en^oyipaien^ 
An^png  |:bese  v^ere  Christopher  M$irloiy,  G.e9i;g.e  P^l^ 
and  Thpmas  Nash;  for  D?.  Thiopas  Lodg(9, ap^othJ^r  of  tb^J^r 
asspciate^  is  n.ot  lo9,ded  ^ifb  the  ^^nje  stigtpa..  "  The  his- 
tory of  gePiius,"  say$  ong  of  our  authorities,  with  eq^^al  jiy^r 
tice  ana  fueling,  "  is  too  oft^n  a  deliail  of  immoral  ii:x;egU7 
larjties,  followed  by  indigence  a^i.d  misery.  Such,  ii?  aUef 
tini^s^  was  the  meI?gn.choly  tale  of  Otw^y  ?^nd  Lee,  of  Sa.-^ 
va^e^  Bpys^,,  Sn?art,  Burns,  Dero^ody,  and  pnai^  otheiSt 
Pertiaps  th^  writers  of  the  draoi^  haye^  of  all  pthers,.  l>i?($f) 
the  i^ost  unfortunate  in  this  respect  \  perh^p^  ^ere  i^ 
something  which  more  immediately  seizes  ail  tb«  ayenuq^ 
of  th^e  fancy  in  the  ^prgeou9  ^Kshihitioos  of  (b^  sn^age; 
wjxich  leads  mep  ^way  frpjp  the  re9l  circumsita^^es  pf  theii; 
fp.rtune,  to  th,e  d.eltisipn?  of  hope,  and  to  pursue  the  fajry 
lights  so  hps^le  to  sobejc  truth.^'     }n  what  species  of  4i^i^ 

f>atipn^  ^nd  to  vvhat  d^gr^e  Greene  ind^lg<^a,  i^  w^r^  14^1^ 
ess  now  to  inquire  :  his  f|ult^  vk^er^  probably  ^^a^gier^^Q^ 
by  the  rival  wits  o(  l^is  day  ;  ajid  (lis  pccupatipn  s^  a  pli^y^ 
writer  being  in  itself  ^t  that  tiha^  Ipojied  ifpon  as  qrimin^ln 
was  barely  tojei-ated*  Amon^  his  errors,  abqi^t  wbipl^  w€( 
%r^  afraid  there  is  qo\^  no  doubt,  may  bjs  [peruipned  b^ 
nia^rying  an  amiable  Hdy,  whooi  he  deserted  a]|4  iUri^e$|| 
pis  career,  however,  was  short.  He  died  Sep^  ^,  1  j^^^;?* 
at  ah  obscure  lodging  near  Dowgate,  not  without  signs  of 
cozitiitiQD,^  nor  indeed  without  leaving  behind  hm  written 

O  R  E  E  N  £  •«• 

leflitifBotiies  that  he  was  more  frequently  conscious  Cif  all 

}H-speui  life  thati  able  or  willing  to  amend  it.     In  some  of 

his  works  also,  he  made  strenuous  exertions  to  warn  the 

lin thinkings  and  escpose  the  tricks,  frauds,  and  devioetof 

bis   miscreant  companions.     His  works,   says  one  of  bis 

hiographera,  contain  the  i^eeds  of  virtuei  while  his  act^ 

display  the  tares  of  lolly.     From  such  of  hid  writings  ai 

hare  ^llen  *in  our  way,  he  appears  to  possess  a  rich  and 

glowing  foicy,  great  command  of  languagei  aiid  a  perfect 

knowledge  of  the  manners  of  the  times.     As  a  poet  he  hai 

considerable  merit,  and  few  of  his  contemporaries  yield  a 

more  pleaaaot  employment  to  the  collectors  of  specimens* 

Bis  writlngsi  attained  great  popularity  in  his  day,  but  until 

▼ery  lately,  have  been  seldom  consulted  unless  by  poetical 

antiquaries.     The  following  list  of  bis  works,  by  Mr.  Hasle^ 

Wood^  is  probably  complete :    1.  '*  The  Myrrour  of  Mo<' 

destjic,''  1584.     2.  <^  Monardo  the  Tritameron  o^  Love,*^ 

]5S4,  1587.     $.  <<  Planetomacbia,''  1585.     4.  Translation 

of  a  funeral  Sermon  of  P.  Gregory  XIII.  1585.     5.  <*  £u- 

pbuea^a  censure  to  Pbilautus,'*  1587,  1634.  .  6.  <<  Arcadia. 

Or  Menaphon,  Camiilae^s  alarm  to  slumbering  Eupbues/* 

1587,1589,   1599,   1605,    1610,    1616,  1634.     7.  "  Pan-* 

dosto  the  Triumph  of  Time,''  1588,  1629.   8.  *^  Peilmedes 

tke  hiackesmith,''  1538.     9.  "  The  pleasant  and  delightfiil 

history  of  Domstns  and  Fawnia,''  1588,  1607,  1675,  1703, 

1723,    1735.      10.  <<  Alcida,    Greene's   Metamorphosis,^ 

1617.      1 1.  "  The  Spanish  Maaquerado,"  1589.     12.  «  Or- 

pkarion,"  1599.     13.  <*  The  Royal  Exchange^  contayning 

sundry  aphanisins  of  Pbilosophie,"  1590.     14.  **  Greene's^ 

Qiaurnifig  garment,  given  him  by  Repentance  at  tbe  fune^^ 

wis  of  Love,"  1590,  1616.     15.  "Never  too  late,"  1590^ 

1600,   1607,  1616,   1631.     16.  ^<  A  notable  discovery  ol 

Cooaenage,"    1591,  1592.      17.   ^<  The   ground  work  ol 

Conny  Catching,"  159K     IS.  <<  The  second  and  last  pa vf 

rf  Conny  Catchiiig,"  1591,  1592.     19.  *^The  third  and 

last  port  ef  Conny  Catching,"  1592.     20.  '<  Disputation 

between  4k  hee  conny-catcber  and  a  shee  conny-catcker,'* 

1592.  ■  21.'  "  Greene's.  Groatsworth  of  wit  bought  with  ik 

ITriUkw  of  repentance,"   1592,   1600,   1616,   1617,.  1621, 

16^9^  16371     Of  this  a  beautiful  edilsion  was  hifeiy  printed 

by  sir  Egentoo  Bifydges^  M.  P.  at  tbe  private  psesa  at  Lea; 

Priory,  (only  6 1  copies  for  presents],  with  a  biographicfil 

preface,  to.  which  this  article  is  essentiailly  indebted  :  bia 

and  Mn  Haslewood's  account  of  Greene,  aia  oettpod^tate^ 



dictated  by  true  taste  and  discrimination^   and   by  Jast 
liloral  feeling*      22.   <^  Philomela,   the  lady  Fitzwalter'^ 
nightingale/'   1592,  1615,  1631.  ^   23.  <^  A  quip  for  air 
upstart  courtier,^*  1592,  162(>,  16^5*,  1635,  and  reprinted  ior 
the  Harleian  Miscellany.     24;  ^*  Ciceroni»  amor,  TuUie'd 
love,'*  1592,  16H,   1615,  i616,  lfr2S,  1639.     25.  "  New^ 
both  from  heaven  and  bell,"  1593.     26.  ^  The  Black 
Book's  Messenger,  or  life  and  d^eath  of  Ned  Bfowne,"  1592.^ 
Tf.  "  The  repentance  of  Robert  Greeae,"   1592.     285, 
**  Greene's  vision  at  the  instant  of  bi»  deathy'^  no  date.. 
29.    '^Mamiilia,  or  the  triumph  of  Pallas,"   1S93.     SO. 
*^  Mamillia,  or  the  second  part  of  the  triumph  of  Pallas,*^ 
15'93.    31.  "  Card  of  Fancy,"  1593,  1608.    32.  <*  Greene** 
funerals,"   1594;   but  doubtful  whether  his.     33.  <<Tbe 
honourable  history  of  Fryer  Bacoi»  and  Fryer  Bongay,  9 
comedy,"  1594,1599,  1630,  1655.     34.  **  The  history  ol 
Orlando  Furioso,  a  play,"  1S94,  1599.     35.  ^<  The  comical 
historic  of  Alphonsus  king  of  Arragon,  a  play,"  1597,  1599. 
36.  ^^  A  looking-glass  for  London  and  England,"  a  comedy, 
jointly  with  Lodge,  1594,  1598.     37.  "  The  Scottish  His- 
toric of  James  the  Fourtbe,  slaine  at  Flodden,  intermixed 
with  a  pleasant  comedie,"  }598,  1599.     38.  "  Penelope's 
Webb,"  1601.     39.  «  Historic  of  Faire  Bellora,"  no  date, 
afterwards  published,  as  ^^  A  paire  of  Turtle  doves,  or  the 
tragical  bistoiy  of  Bellora  and  Fidelio,"  1606.     40.  '<  The 
debate  between  Follie  and-Love,  translated  out  of  French,'* 
1608.     41.  ^<  Thieves  falling  out,  true  men  come  by  theiv 
goods,"  1615,  1637,  and  reprinted  in  the  Harleian  Miscel* 
lany.     42.  "  Greene's  Farewell  to  Folic;'  1617.    43.  «  Ar* 
basto,  the  history  of  Arbasto  king  of  Denmarke,"  1617, 
1626.     44.  *<Fair  Emme,  a  comedy,"  1631.     45.  "The 
history  of  lobe/'  a  playj  destroyed,  but  mentioned  in  War* 
burton's  list.     A  few  other  things  have  been  ascribed  tOt 
Greene  on  doubtful  authorhy.* 

GREENE  (Thomas),  a  worthy  English  prelate,  wa&  the 
son  of  Thomas  Greene  of  St.  Peter's  Mancroft  in  Norwich, 
where  he  was  horn  in  1 658.  •  He  was  educated  in  the  free* 
•chool  of  that  city,  and  in  July  1674,  admitted  of  Bene*! 
college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  obtained  a  scholarship^ 
and  in  1680  a  fellowship,  and  became  tutor.  Be  took  bi» 
degree  of  A.  B.  in  1679,  and  that  of  A.  M.  in  1682.     Hi» 

_„„.  account  by  sir  E.  Bridget,— «nd  by  Mr.  Ha«l«wood  in  Cent.  tSt^ 
T0I.  VIlL-rSee  aho  ToU  V.  and  yoU  IX.— Iel9f'i  Anecdottt.  ToU  il.— 4>*li>- 
raeU's  Calaaitiet,  flic 


first  fitep  from  the  university  was  into  the  fiunilj  of  sir  Ste*^ 
phen  Fox,  grandfather  of  the  late  hon.  Charles  Fox,  to 
whom  he  was  made  domestic  chaplain  through  the  interest 
•of  archbishop  Tenison,  who  soon  after  his  promotion  to 
the  see  of  Canterbury,  took  him  under  the  same  relation 
into  his  own  palace;  and  collated  him  April  2,  1695,  to 
the  vicarage  of  Minster  in  the  isle  of  Thanet ;  he  b^ng, 
since  1690,  D.  D.  by  the  archbishop's  faculty.  To 'the 
same  patron  he  was  likewise  obliged  for  a  prebend  in  tbe 
cathedral  of  Canterbury,  into  which  he  was  installed  in 
May  1702;  for  the  rectory  of  Adisham  cum  Staple  in 
Kent,  to  which  he  was  collated  Oct  28,  1708,  and  for  the 
iNrchdeaconry  of  Canterbury,  into  which  he  was  installed 
^e  next  month,  having  been  chosen  before  one  of  the 
proctors  of  the  clergy  in  convocation  for  that  diocese. 
Upon  these  preferments  he  quitted  the  vicarage  of  Minster, 
as  he  did  the  rectory  of  Adisham  upon  his  institution  (in 
Feb.  1 7  Ifi)  to  the  vicarage  of  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields, 
Westminster ;  to  which  be  was  presented  by  the  trustee* 
of  archbishop  Tenison,  for  the  disposal  of  his  options,  of 
whom  he  himself  was  one.  This  be  held  in  commendam 
with  the  bishopric  of  Norwich,  to  which  he  was  consecrated 
Oct  8,  1721,  but  was  thence  translated  to  Ely,  Sept  24, 

^,      1723. 

^  Long  previous,  however,  to  these  high  appointments,. 

)ie  was  elected.  May  26,  1698,  master  of  BeneU  college, 
upon  the  recommendation  of  his  friend  Tenison,  and 
proved  an  excellent  governor  of  that  society.  Soon  after 
lie  became  master,  he  introduced  the  use  of  public  prayers 
in  the  chapel  immediately  after  the  locking  up  of  the  gates, 
jkbat  he  might  know  what  scholars  were  abroad,  and  if  ne-  * 
,fDessary,  visit  their  chambers :  this  practice  was  found  so 
heneficial  as  to  be  continued  ever  since.  In  other  respects, 
when  vice-chancellor,  which  office  he  served  in  1699  and 
1713,  and  at  the  public  commencement,  he  acquitted  him- 
self with  great  skill  and  dignity.  The  zeal  also  which  he 
•be wed  for  the  protestant  succession  in  the  house  of  Hano* 
ver,  upon  the  death  of  queen  Anne,  and  his  prudent  con« 
duct  at  that  juncture,  were  so  acceptable  to  the  court, 
that  they  are  thought  to  «have  laid  the  foundation  of  his 
churc}i  preferments ;  an  earnest  of  which  George  I.  gave  • 
.  him  in  appointing  him  one  of  his  domestic  chaplains  the 
yeaff  following.  Dr.  Greene  resigned  tbe  mastership  of 
lus  college  in  1716.  He  married  Catherine  sister  of  bishop 

U9  G  B  E  E  N  lu 

Tnnintil,  by  wbdm  be  bad  two  sdnt  tnd  s^reo  jaiighi«rs« 
Having  fnad^  a  bandaoine  provisian  for  this  family^  he  dtad 
ia  a  good  old  age.  May  18,  173H»  and  waa  buried  in  bis 
oatfa^ral.  Those  who  knew  him  most  intimately  itifdrin  us 
that  it  was  his  unfeigned  and  uniform  endeavour  to  exer* 
CHae,a  conscience  void  of  offence  towards  God  aad  mian» 
and  to  discbarge  his  duty,  in  the  several  retations  be  horn 
to  his  fellow  creatures,  to  the  best  of  bis  judgmeat  and  abi*^ 
lities,  with  the  same  faith  and  spirit  which  appeal*  through 
all  bis  writings.  These  writings  are,  I.  *^The  Siu^rtoent  of 
the  Lord's  Supper  explained  to  the  meanest  capaeities^'^ 
Lond.  1710,  lemo,  in  a  familiar  dialogue  between  aminis^ 
t^r  and  parishioner.  9.  ^^  The  principles  of  reiigion  er<- 
plained  for  the  instruction  of  the  weak,"  ibid.  1726,  l'9niQ» 
3^  *^  Four  discourses  on  tbe  four  last  things^  viz.  Deaths 
Judgsaent,  Heaven,  and  Hell,''  ibid.  1754^  ISsMi;  and 
seven  occasional  sermons.'  * 

GREEN-HAM  (RicfiAKB),  a  puritan  divine  of  consider^ 
'  ajble  talents  and  popularity,  was  born  about  163.1^  anil 
.  ^ucated  at  Pembroke«ball,  Cambridge,  where  be  took  kia 
dfgl^ees  in  arts,  and  became  a  fellow.  Quitting  the  «fti« 
viafisity,  he  was  appointed  to  the  living  of  Dry  Drayton 
^ear  Cambridge,  where  be  continued  about  twenty-one 
years,  after  which  he  reiAoved  to  London,  and  died  twa 
yiears  aft^r,  in  1591,  of  the  plague,  according  to  Fuller, 
ni^hO)  as  weU  as  Strype,  bishop  Wilkins,  and  others,  giv« 
him  a  high  character  for  piety,  useluliiess,  and  moderation 
of  smiiment,  although  a  nonconformist  in  so«ne.  poJnls* 
His  works,  conststiag  of  sermons,  treatises^  and  a  commen- 
tary on  Paalm  cxix.  were  collected  into  9ne,  volume^  folmv 
and  published  in  1^01,  and  again  in  1612.' 

GREENHILL  (John),  a  very  ingenious  Englisfa  painter^ 
vi(«#  deseended  from  a  good  family  in  Salisbury,  where  be 
itas  bora.  He  was  tbe  most  successful  of  all  the  disciples 
of  sir  Peter  Lely,  who  is  said  ta  have  considered  hio^  so. 
mucb  as  a  rival,  tba^  lie  never  suffered  him  to  see  hioi 
paint.  Greenbili>  however,  prevailed  with  sir  Peter  to 
djsaw  hb  wife^s  picture,  and  to^k  the  opportunity  of  oh* 
sieving  bow  <he  managed  his  peoeil ;  which  was  die  gseat 
point  aimed  aft.  He*  ie  said  to  bajre  been  equaily  4|iiahfied 
by  oatare  foi  tbe  sister-arls  of  painting  «id  poetry:;  but 

1  M^iten 'i  Bht.  of  Corpus  Chriiti  Co]|e|f  »  Cmxkhn^ 
^  CUrfc'iLivei  at. tbe  eqidof.his  MsrtffsT9nr.---Broi»lt'iIifSSsf(&e?ttriians. 

b  RE  El*  rf  I  L  L. 


IHsl  to6^  ina  un^intf^d^a  m^Angf  of  liVing  ^Arsts  pl^bl^biy  tli'^ 
biMtAati  erf  hts  e^Ty  dfentH  i  hfid  only  snflei^d  KiiVi  ink  i6 
WtiVd  ertottgh  <rf  bis  fcintf,  to  iriake  tis  wish  he  hard  bl5^ii 
more  cafeful  of  a  life  so  hkely  to  do  honotrr  to  his  cotintr*y, 
Mi*s.  Btfthfi,  #ith  whorfi  Vre  wa^s  a  great  fa:vdtirite;  ertctei-* 
iotntA  to  perpettidtfe  hh  lueinory  by  anf  degy,  to  b^  fouricf 
aitioiigr  htr  <«^ofks.  H^  jSaititfed  st  portraft  of  bishop  Wii^d; 
HAHkh  is  notf  irr  tihe  tdwn-haH  of  SatHsBury.     He  di^d  Ma^ 

If,  1  ei6} 

'   GREENVILLE  (Sit  Richard),  a  gallaiti  naVal  offifcdi^, 
*iy  tbfc  sM  of  iit  Roffer,  of  an  ancient  fantify,  Ifi  the  w^st 
•f  EhgUtid^  and  was  bdrn  abont  1540.     At  the  a^e*  of  iit-t 
<*6iv,  bf  the  petmhudtf  of  qiieert  Elizabeth,  he  sei*ved  in 
**  iiiipelri^  afmy  irt  Htin^giry,  agdiist  the  Turks.     Upbri 
6fe  ftttfrtt;  he  engaged  with  the  troops  empfoyerf  tor  thrf 
yedtrctfo^  6f  Ireland  ktid  obtim^d  so  mtitrh  reptftatiohr  as 
ttt'be  tfppointeJ  sheriff  of  the  city  of  Cork,  and  iti  f5f  I, 
he  I'e^tteirted  the  cdurity  of  CornwatH  in  p^rHattie^ht.     tte 
^^  ifter'vi^afds  Mgh  sheriff  of  the  county,   ind  fedmedt 
tbe  bonbtir  df  knighthood  ;  btit  the  bias  dt  hi.^  trtind'^  \frai' 
diiefiy  dxeA  ttptm  pisins  of  foreign  discovery  atid  i^etrfe-' 
jHeftt,  prop'6^dd  by  his  relation  sir  Watfer  Rale?gh,  M& 
vAten  tfv6  patf^trtrf  were  tnade  outf,  hef  obtairiedf  the'  6dttf- 
Bidnd  of  St  sicjtfadrott  fitted'  ottt  for  the  ptirp-ose;  consist- 
ing of  sevifeii  stfitfff  ^es^ls.    With  these'  he  sailed'  irt  th^ 
spritrg  6t  f  ^85,  andf  feathing  the  coast  of  Florid'a  iii  Jane, 
he  ten  thefe  i  Colofty  <rf  one  hiftiif<fred  men;  and  then  sailed; 
h'aiiieW4r<fs.     Me*  Aiade  dther  voyages,  anrf  oti  occasion  of 
thfrSpaiAh  invasion-,  was  aj^rnted  on6'  Of  a  cbiin^il  df 
War;  tbcc/neert  mearis  cf  defence*,  andf  received' th6  qife^i^n'V 
coiA^atitis'  not  to^  quit  the  cotrnty  of  Coyh\vaH:     In  I89t 
y^Wats  jippoirtted  Vice-admiral  of  a  sqtfad'ron;  fitted  btft 
fw  the  ptirpose  of  rnterceptS'rt'g  a  rich  Spanish  fleet  fVom ' 
the  WestI  Irfrfies.     Thi^  fleet,  wfienf  it  appeated,  wis  <f6h- 
vbyed  by  a:  vety  superior  force,  and  Greentilie'  Was  tivged 
t6  tatet  ^out ;  but  he  prtefenredv  and  no  do^abtfcis'sAiFors 
agreed  with  him',  taking  cbantie  of  bfe^kirtg*  throtigfii  -the 
ctitftfiy's*  flec^,  which  almost  itnnrtted^ately  sim^otrttlea' hita'. 
'l*be'  Spatttl^h  ddmiraf ,  wkh  fbur  other  ships,  began  t  cfos^* 
attack 4t'  three  iit  tSre  afternoon-;  the  engagettiie'nt  Idsferf 
tifl*  hteAot  diy  rtext  morning;  dWing  Which  the  Sjniiiiarrfs, 
notwithstaotling  their  vaJSt  superiority,  were'  dtiveh*  dff  tiU 

1  Walpole's  Alil^adte^.^Pilkington. 


teen  tines.    At  length  the  greater  part  of  the  Engli^ 
crew  being  either  killed  or  wounded,  and  the  ship  reduced 
to  a  wreck,  no  hope  of  escape  femained.     The  brave  com- 
mander had  been  wounded  at  the  beginning  of  the  actioa^. 
but  he  caused  his  wounds  to  be  dressed  on  dfeck,  and  re- 
fused to  go  down  into  the  hold,  and  in  that  state  he  was 
shot  through  the  body.     He  was  now  taken  to  the  cabioi^ 
and  while  in  the  act  of  being  dressed,  the  surgeon  was 
killed  by  his  side.    The  admiral  still  determined  to  hold 
out,  wishing  rather  to  sink  the  ship  than  surrender,  but 
the  offers  of  quarter  from  the  Spaniards  induced  the  men 
to  yield.    Sir  Richard  was  tsJien  on  board,  the  Spanish  ship, 
and  honourably  treated,  but  died  of  his  wounds  in  about 
three  days.     He  has  sometimes  been  blamed  for  rashness, 
bfut  of  this  his  censurers  appear  to  be  very  imperfect  judges.*; 
GREENVILLE  (Sir  Bevjl),  a  brave  and  loyal  officer, 
grandson  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  1596.     He  was 
educated  at  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  where  his  accomplish-  • 
ments  were  acknowledged,  and  his  principles  of  loyalty, 
and  relieion  indelibly  fixed,  under  the  care  of  Dr.  Prideaux.. 
After  taking  possession  of  his  estate  he  sat  in  parliament ; 
and  in  163d  attended  the  king  with  a  troop  of  horse,  raised 
at  his  own  expence,  in  an  expedition  to  Scotland,  on  which. 
Occasion  he  received  the  honour  of  knighthood.  Abhorring, 
the  principles  which  then  broke  out  in  open  rebellion,  he> 
joined  the  royal  army,  and  had  a  command  at  the  battle  of 
Stratton,  in  1643,  when  the  parliamentary  forces  were  de- 
feated^  and  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  other  engage^ 
ments,  particularly  that  at  Lansdown,  near  Bath,  fought 
successfully  against  sir  William  Waller,  July  5,  1643,  but 
received  a  fatal  blow  with  a  pole-axe.     Many  of  his  brp-. 
ther  officers  fell  with  him,  and  their  bodies  were  found 
surrounding  his.      Lord  Clarendon  says,   ^^  That  which, 
would  have  clouded  any  victory,  was  the  death  of  sir  Be- 
vil  Greenville.  He.  was,  indeed,  an  excellent  person,  whose 
activity,    interest,  and  reputation  was  the  foundation  of 
^what  had  been  done  in  Cornwall,  and  his  temper  and  affec- 
tion so  public,  that  no  accident  which  happened  could 
make  any  impression  on  him ;  and  his  example  kept  others 
from  taking  any  thing  ill,  or  at  least  seeming  to  do  so ;  in 
a  wordy  a  brighter  courage  and  gentler  disposition  were 
.  sever  married  together,  to  make  the  most  cheerful  and 

?  Bioff,  Brit. 

O  U  £  E  N  V  I  L  L  C«  249 

ifiiioeent  conventation/'^    His  desicendaeit,  lord  Laii9downe» 
eittcted  a  monument  on  the  spot  where  be  was  killed.' 

GREENVILLE  (Denis),  a  younger  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, and  brother  to  sir  John  Greenville  first  earl  of  Bath 
of  bis  name,  was  bom  in  Cornwall,  admitted  gentleman 
commoner  of  Exeter  college,   Sept.  22,  1657,  actually 
ci:eated  in  convocation  master  of  arts  Sept.  28,   1660* 
About  this  time  he  married  Anne,  the  daughter  of  Dr. 
Cosin,  bishop  of  Durham,  who  conferred  several  prefer<- 
ments  on  htm,  as  the  rectories  of  Easington  and  Elwick  ia 
the  county  palatine  of  Durham ;  the  archdeaconry  of  Dur* 
ham,  to  which  he  was  collated  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Gabriel 
Clarke,  Sept.  16,  1662,  and  to  the  first  sull  of  preben- 
daries of  the  church  of  Durham,  Sept  24,  1662,  from 
whence  he  was  removed  to  the  second,  April  16,  166S» 
On  Deoember  20, 1670,  he  was  created  doctor  of  divinity, 
being  then  one  of  the  chaplains  in  ordinary  to  Charles  II.  $ 
and  on  the  14th  of  December,  1684,  he  was  installed  dean 
of  Durham  in  the  place  ctf  Dr.  John  Sudbury  deceased.    Ia 
the  register  of  Eton  college  we   find  that  immediately 
after  the  restoration,  Dr.  Greenville  was  recommended  in 
very  strong  terms  to  the  master  and  fellows  for  a  fellow* 
ship,  by  three  several  letters  from  the  king,  but  for  what 
reason  this  recommendation  did  not  take  effect,  does  not 
appear;  probably  he  might  wave  his  interest  on  account 
oiJF  other  preferment  which  was  more  acceptable  to  hiau 
On  the  1st  of  February  1690,  he  was  deprived  of  all  his 
preferments  upon  his  refusal  to  comply  with  the  new  oaths- 
of  allegiance  and  supremacy  to  the  prince  of  Orange  then 
in  possession  of  the  throne,  a  change  which  he  utterly  ab« 
borred,   always  considering  the  revolution  as  a  rebellion 
and  usurpation.   Soon  after  the  prince  of  Orange's  landing, 
he  left  Durham  in  order  to  retire  into  France ;  and  some«> 
times  lived  at  Corbeil  (from  whence  it  is  supposed  his  fa- 
mily originally  sprung),  but  more  frequently  at  Parib  and 
St.  Germain's,  where  be  was  very  civilly  treated  and  much 
countenanced  by  the  queen-mother,  as  we  find  in  several 
of  his  4>wn  letters,  notwithstanding  what  has  been  falsely 
asserted  by  Mackay  in  an  account  of  the  court  of  St  Ger- 
main's.     He  owns   he   was  sometimes  attacked   by  the 
priests,  but  with  much  good  manners  and  civility,     Mr« 
Wood  says,  that  during  his  retirement,  he  was,  on  the 

I  Fiojip,  Brit"— ClarendOB'i  History, 

&«»  G  Jt  i  &  K  V  1 1  L  e. 

d«Mb  6f  Dr.  Ldtnptitgb^  liotniMted  io  ttl«  ite  «C  Tirrk,  l^f 
'    king  Jame0  II.  though  nevtt  dotfseeirftMd;  tnic  tttto  ftMOln 
"ftry  doubtfnl.     In  April  1695  he  canfife  iMognitif  iMo  Efig- 
liiAd ;  but  MMHi  retmrned.     For  *aiti6  tilM  b^fof^i  hi4  detftik 
he  «fyj<>]f  «d  but  II  T«ry  fttdifferent  8«ftte  ef  h«dklfl^  b4tii^ 
been  mtich  troubled  with  a  sciMct,  mA  otb^  toflfttikiesi 
He  died  at  Pftris,  nft6r  a  series  'of^  ffltifty  duffifrittgs^  6:^ 
A]f]hrii  7,  1703,  N<  S.  and  Was  buried  l»i  the  loW^r  ei^d  ef 
Ibe  Hdly  IfinoGetit®'  cbureb  in  tbinc  city.     Lord  LMsdown^ 
ill  a  leuer  to  a  nephew  of  his,  who  tfM  gtAng  to  mtet  itii^ 
boljr  orders^  9*ys  of  hii»,  <<  You  bad  ati  uncle  WhO^e  i6e-« 
«K>ty  I  shall  ever  revere :  make  bim  your  eicample.     SMt-^ 
tity  sate  so  easy^  90  unaffected^  afid  so  ^rae^fdl  U|>oti  Mtet, 
that  in  bim  nve  b^^ld  the  very  beauty  of  bdKness.r     Hd 
was  as  eheerM,  ea  fatiiiliaf,  m  condeseending  t*  bis  Mtt^ 
Tersation,  as  be  was  striet,  regolir,  and  exeoiptory  iil  hM 
piety ;  as  well  bred  and  aceompHshed  aa  a  eoortier,  and 
AS  reverend  and  venerable  as  an  apostle..    He  wns  indeed 
upost^ticat  in  every  thing,  for  he  abandoned  dl  to  feKovif 
ftis  Lord  irnd  Master."    Tbere  seenfis  littte  reason'  to  doubl 
ibis  ebsinieter,  as  ht  as  it  respects  Dr.  GreenvtHe's  priwB^ 
ebaracter,  bat  in  bigotry  for  restoration  ef  Jajo^eS'  II.  h^ 
yyobably  excelled  ail  his  -contemt^oraiies^  afld  frofii  s6ni# 
eorrespondence  la^ly  pufblbbed  in  the  Li^  Of  Dr<  €oix^bery 
Ilia  successor  in  fbe  deanery  of  Durhaiti,  there  is  reason  td^ 
deubt  whether  in  bis  htter  days  bis  mind  «^as  net  uiMmind.*  - 
'   Me  pubfisfaed^  I.  <^The  Con^plete  Confermist^  or  se^ 
aonable  advice  concerning  strict  conforo^ity  and  frecftfentf 
eelebration  of  che  Holy  Comeiunionf/*  preached  ew  Ibe  7^ 
of  January,  being  the  frrst  Sunday  after  the  t^fAphtityi 
3%$^y  in  the  cathedral  chdrch  of  Ddrbatti,  on  Joh»  i.  29^,^ 
Lond.  1 6S4, 4to.     Td  whieh  is  added  **  Adviee :  o#  s(  le^ei^ 
written  to  tbe  clergy  of  the  swrtjideaconry  of  Durbltitf,**  te> 
the  same  purpose.     0.  **  A  Sermon  preached  In  fbe  cetbe^ 
dra^  ehur^b  of  Durbam,  open  the  revival  of'  the  Mcietlt: 
'  aind  taudabfe  practice  of  thai  and  sdi)fie  other  eatliedruk,  kt 
having  sermons  on  Wednesdsys  and  Fridays^  d«ring  Adveff# 
atifd  Lent,"  oir  Ron)^.  KtVu  11,  Lend.  1686y  4t0.    3.  "CoUrt*' 
seh  and  Divections  divine  and  moral :  in  pfain  arrd^  femili«r 
letters,  of  ddvice  to  a  young  gentleman^  his  nephew^  sOOfl- 
after  his  admisstow  into  a  college  in  O^^ford,*'  Lond.^  ($^5y 
aro;     BesFfdes  these  pfecesi  wbich  we  beve  just  ei^tioned^ 
our  author,  immediately  after  bis  retiring  into  France,  pub« 
lished  some  small  tracts  at  Rouen^  wbicfii  are  very  scarce^    ' 



Slid  Mt  very  correctly  primed ;  and  perhaps  it  k  i'eaiark«' 
«Me  that  Btich  an  ttnosottl  faroiir  should  he  petaiitfced  in  t 
popish  eoiinrtry  to  a  dignified  elergytnati  of  the  churcfar  of 
£»giiiiMl.  The  title*  of  the  {Neces  printed  at  Rottea  are, 
vte.  4<  <<The  resigned  attd  resolved  Cbridtian  and  faitfafuil 
and  ttfidaunted  lojralist :  in  tvro  plaine  fareirelt  sermons, 
add  a  Wjral  forewell  visiutioii  speech.  Both  delivered 
aaofidst  the  laiftencable  cofifusions  occasioned  by  the  late 
f«reigvi  tfi^^ion  end  home-defeotion  of  his  tnajestie^tf  stib-' 
jeeM  in  England.  By  Denis  Oranville^  D.  D.  deatie  and 
arohdkeAoon  of  Durham,  now  in  exile^  chaplaine  in  ordinary 
th  bis  iiiajestie....Whereamo  are  added  certaine  Letters  to 
his  reldtioos  and  friends  in  England,  shewing  the  reasoni^ 
and  milliner  of  his  witbdrawiog  but  of  the  kingdom.''  ^  A 
Letter  to  bis  btiQther  the  e^rl  of  Batbe.^  **  A  Letter  to 
bis  bbbep  t»he  bishop  of  Durbatfi.''  **  A  Letter  to  bis  bre-* 
tkreit-lhe  prebendaries.'*  '*  A  Letter  to  the  clergy  of  bitf 
afvitidetteotffy.''  <*  A  Letter  to  his  curates,  at  Easington 
and  SedgeAeld,"  printed  at  Ro«ien,  1689.  5.  ^*  The 
chiefest  matters  contained  in.  sundry  Discourses  made  to* 
the  cl^gy'of  the  archdeaconry  of  Durham,  since  his  ma- 
jestie^s  eomiog  to  the  crown.  Summed  up  arid  seasofiaUy ' 
broogbt  again  to  their  view  in  a  loyal  farewell  visreatioti 
speech  on  tlie  I3tb  of  November  b^t,  98,  being  ten  day« 
s^lUir  the  landing  of  tbe  prince  of  Orange.''  This  is  datetf 
frott  bf*  study  at  Roaen  Nov.  15,  1689.  Witb  a  preface 
to  Ae  reedet  and  an  ad^ertisemeiit.  6.  "  A  copy  of  a 
paper  penned  at  Durham,  by  the  author,  Aug.  27,  1688, 
by  way  of  reflection  on  tiie  ttien  disiHal  prognostics  of  the 
time.^  7.  *•  Directions  wbicb  Dr.  GtanviBe,  archdeacfon 
o# Durham,  rector  of  Sedgefield  and  Easingcon,  enjoins  to' 
be-  observed  by  the  curates  of  those  bis  parishes,  given 
tfaetti  in  charge  at  Easter-visitation  held  at  SedfgeBelrd,  in 
tbe  year  i(W9."* 

GRBOORY,  sumamed  the  GafcAT,  Was  b<^n  ^  a  pa- 
tricliin  family^  equally  conspicuous  for  it*  virtue  and  nabi- 
lily  al  RoiAe,  vrhei^  his  father  Oordian  was  a  senator,  and 
efttrem^y  rich ;  tod,  marrying  a  lady  of  distiaction,  <5aHed 
S^tai,  bad  by  ber  this  son,  about  the  year  544.  From 
bfa* earliest  ^eart^  be  diseovere'd  genius  and  judgment ;  and, 
applying  himself  particularly  to  the  apophthegms  of  cfte 

1  CtoB.  Dwt— Biof.  Bdt—Ath.  0x.^6l.  Ik— H«tolanwrfS  X^hmiH  *•!•  » 
p«I6T.— <^m6€r'8jSfe  of  GomUsr,  pp.139,  909. 

452  IG  R  E  G  O  R  Y, 

ancients,  he  fixed  evexy  thing  worth  notice  in  bis  memoffy^ 
where  it  was  faithfully  preserved  as  in  a  stere-house ;  he, 
also  improved  himself  by  the  conversation  of  old  men,  ia; 
which  he  toctk  great  delight.     By  these  methods  be  made, 
a  great  progress  in  the  sciences,  and  there  was  not  a  mw 
in  Rome,  who  surpassed  him  in  grammar,  logic,  and  rhe- 
toric ;  nor  can  it  be  doubted  but  he  had  early  instructions 
in  the  civil  law,  in  which  his  letters  prove  him  to  have, 
been  well  versed  :  he  was  nevertheless  entirely  ignorant  of 
the  Greek  language.     These  accomplishments  in  a  young 
nobleman  procured  him  senatorial  dignities,  which  he  filled 
with  great  reputation;  and  he  was  afterwards  appointed 
prsefect  of  the  city  by  the  emperor  Justin  the  Younger; 
but,  being  much  inclined  to  a  monastic  life,  he  quitted 
that  post,  and  retired  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Andrew,. . 
which  he  himself  had  founded  at  Rome  in   his  father^ 
bouse,  and  put  it  under  the  government  of  an  abbot,  called 
Valentius.    Besides  this,  he  founded  six.other  convents  ia 
Sicily ;  and,  selling  all  the  rest  of  his  possessions,  be  gave 
the  purchase- money  to  the  poor.  » 

He  bad  not,  however,  enjoyed  his  solitude  in  St.  An« 
drew^s  long,  when  he  was  removed  from  it  by  pope  Pela4 
gius  II.  who  made  him  his  seventh  deacon,  and  sent  him  as 
his  nuncio  to  the  emperor  Tiberius  at  Constantinople, .  to  . 
demand  succours  against  the  Lombards.  The  pope,  it  i^ 
said,  could  not  have  chosen  a  man  better  qualified  than  Gre- 
jgory  for  so  delicate  a  negociation  ;  but  the  particulars  of 
it  are  unknown.  Meanwhile,  he  was  not  wanting  in  exertr 
ing  his  zeal  for  religion.  While  he  was  in  this  metropolis, 
he  opposed  Eutycbius  the  patriarch,  who  had  advanced  an 
opinion  bordering  on  Origenisra,  and  maintained,  that, 
after  the  resurrection  the  body  is  not  palpable,  but  more 
subtile  than  air.  In  executing  the  business  of  his  embassy, 
he  contracted  a  friendship  with  some  great  men,  and  so 
gained  the  esteem,  of  the  whole  court,  by  the  sweetness  of 
bis  behaviour,  that  the  emperor  Maurice  chose  him  for  a 
godfather  to  one  of  his  sons,  born  in  the  year  583.  Soon 
after  this  he  was  recalled  to  Rome,  and  made  secretary  t6 
the  pope ;  but,  after  some  time,  obtained  leave  to  retire 
again  into  his  monastery,  of  which  he  had  been  chosen 

Here  he  had  indulged  himself  with  the  hopes  of  gratify- 
ing  his  wish,  in  the  enjoyment  of  a  solitary  and  unraflled 
lite,  when  Pelagius  II.  dying  Feb.  8,  590,  be  was  dbctei^ 

ORE  GORY.  25$ 

pope  by  the  clergy,  the  senate,  and  the  people  of  Rome ; 
to  whom  he  had  become  dear  by  bis  charity  to  the  poor. 
Whom  the  overflowing  of  the  Tiber,  and  a  violent  plague, 
had  left  perishing  with  hunger.  This  promotion  was  so 
disagreeable  to  him,  tl^at  he  employed  all  possible  methods 
to  avoid  it ;  be  wrote  a  pressing  letter  to  tbe  emperor, 
conjuring  him  not  to  confirm  his  election,  and  to  give 
orders  for  the  choice  of  a  person  who  had  greater  capa« 
city,  more  vigour,  and  better  health  than  he  could  boast ; 
and  hearing  bis  letter  was  intercepted  by  the  governor  of 
Rome,  and  that  his  election  would  be  confirmed  by  the 
imperial  court,  he  fled,  and  hid  himself  in  the  most  solitary 
part  of  a  forest,  in  a  cave ;  firmly  resolved  to  spend  bis 
days  there,  till  another  pope  should  be  elected  :  and,  the 
people  despairing  to  find  him,  a  new  election  ensued.  la 
this  <^ase,  the  Roman  clergy,  always  fond  of  miracles,  tell 
^s  that  Gregory  would  never  accept  the  papal  chair,  till  be 
bad  manifestly  foQnd,bysome  celestial  signs,  that  God  caljed 
him  to  it.  It  is  pretended,  that  a  dove  flying  before  those 
who  sought  for  him,  shewed  them  the  way  they  were  to  go; 
or  that  a  miraculous  light,  appearing  on  a  pillar  of  fire 
over  his  cavern,  pointed  out  to  them  the  place  of  bis  re- 
treat - 

However  that  be,  it  is  almost  as  certain  that  his  reluct* 
ance  was  sincere  *,  as  that  be  at  length  accepted  the  dig- 
nity, and  was  enthroned  pope,  Sept.  3,  S90.  And  it  ap- 
peared by  hi;}  conduct,  that  they  could  not  have  elected  a 
person  more  worthy  of  this  exalted  station;  for,  besides 
his  great  learning,  and  the  pains  h.e  took  to  instruct  the 
church,  both  by  preaching  and  writing,  be  had  a  very 
happy  talent  to  win  over  princes,  in  favour  Of  the  tempo* 
fal  as  well  as  spiritual  interests  of  religion.  ^  It  would  be 
tediqus  to  run  oyer  all  the  particulars  o£  his  conduct  on 
these  occasions ;  and  his  converting  the  English  to  Chris- 
tianity, a  remarkable  fact  in  our  history,  is  on  that  account ' 
generally  known  f.     In  this  attempt  Gregory  owed  his 

*^  Hit  famoiiB  paftoral  is  alledsed  appelUtioo,  ''Your  Beatitude,  ^•'^ 

(SB  the  fide  ef  his  slncerily.    Gregory  which  had  been  girtn  to  his  predeces* 

wrote  it  in  answer  to  John,  bishop  of  son. 

%avennai  who  had  giren  him  .a  friendly  f  He  first  set  oat  on  his  mistioB 

rsfUVMif  for  hiding  fainself,  in  order  to  himself;  while  he  was  a  monk  only^ 

avoid  the  pontificate.    This  condnet  is  and  was  adranced  three  days'  joamey. 

aseribad,  and  not  nndesenredly,  to  his  when  Pelagias,    then  pope,  reokltM 

Wmiiity  ;  and,  after  his  promotion,  he  him  to  Rome  at  the  instigation*  of  th* 

f^re  another  evidence  of  his  sincerity,  people,  who  etea  elamorously  prassa^ 

Jacoli8taDtlydicIariaghJi4itlil(«ofthe  hint^it. 

jM  s  »  E  o  0  R  y. 

•uc^^f^  -to  the  nasiflitiatio^  qF  qwen  £tbelI>lHr|^  wko  no^ 
only  prompted  th^  king  Etb«lbert  her  consort,  tp  Irent  the 
pope's  missionaries  kiiHlIyi  but  also  to  becooio  tumsdtf  s 

The  new  pope,  according  to  custpm,  h«ld  a  9yiiod  at 
Kome.ihe  same  year,  591 ;  whence  he  sei^t  letten^  to  thm 
iioor  patriarchs  of  the  East,  with  a  confession  of  hip.  faitb^ 
declaring  his  reverence  to  the  four  general  coue^ils^  and 
the  fift]^  too,  a$  weU  as  the  four  gospels.  In  tbie  mo4esty 
he  ^Wk  pot  followed  by  bis  successors ;  and  he  even  ex-* 
iseeded  pome  of  his  predecessors  in  that  and  other  virtuea, 
f^bich  for  many  ages  pa^t  have  not  approached  the  chair 
pf  St«  Pete5  A^  he  had  governed  his:  monastery  with  jn 
^verity  u|)paralle)ed  in  those  times;  so  now  be  was  partis 
f{|ilar)y  careful  to  reguUte  his  house  and  person  according 
tp  3t.  Pa^l^s  direptions  to  Timothy.  Even  in  performing 
divine  worsjiip,  he  jused  ornameati  of  bet  a  moderate 
prif;es  and  hip  common  garments  were  still  noore  simple* 
Nothing  was  moipe  dectol  iban  the  furniture  of  his  boMSOf 
fmd  hie  reteiiied  none  but  clerks  and  religious  in  his  servicer 
$y  this  mei^as  his  palace  became  a  kind  of  monastery,  io 
vbich  theie  were  na  \19eless  people;  every  thing  ip  his 
house  bad  the  appearance  of  an  angelic  life,  and  his  cha^ 
rity  surp^ed  all  description.  He  employed  the  revenues 
^  the  ehurch  entirely  for  the  relief  of  the  poor ;  be  wan 
a  cpmitant  ^nd  indefatigable  preacher,  and  devoted  all  Ua 
talents  f9r  the  inatructioo  of  his  flock; 

In  the  oaesin  timOt  be  extended  bis  care  ^  the  otbec 
eburfhea  updear  bis  pontifical  jurisdiction,  and  aapeciatlji 
tbQ%e  of  Sicily,  for  whom  he  had  a  particukar  respect ;  be 
put  i^n  end  ^  the  scbiati  in  the  chutch  of  Iberia  tbe  sfime 
yesM^ :  tbia  was.  effected  by  the  gentle  methods  of  pertmn 
^ion^  to  wbicb^  however,  he  had  not  recourse  tiU  after  be 
bl4  beeu  hindered  from  uaiug  violence.  Upoo  this  ae^ 
9oqnt  be  is  censured  as  an  intolerant^  and  it  ia  oeitain  iua 
maxima  en  ibat  bead  were  a  little  inconsistent.  He  dbi^ 
not,  for  instance,  approve  of  forcing  the  Jews  to  receive 
baptism,  and  yet  he  approved  of  compelling  heretics  tg^ 
return  to  the  church.  In  some  of  bis  letters  too  he  e»r 
claims  against  vielence  111  the  method  of  making  eonvertsy 
yet  at  the  same  time  was  for  laying  heavier  taxe;;^  on  sucb^ 
2ia  would  not  be  ooovefted  by  penutasive  means ;  and  i» 
the  year  599^  he  sejit  ^  nuncio  tp  Constantinople,  and 
wrote  a  letter  the  same^year  to  the  empttr^  JDdauxicet  de«> 

j^r§9.^hp^^  the  «fime  resp^t  to  (b^  kiogf  pf  Italy,  (bpugb 
'tbipy  we^ie  hqretica. 

[    The  sim^  ye^r  hQ  coiuposeid  hit  ^'  DUlogueS)^'  a  wort: 
j5II^d  with  fabulous  mir^'cle^  and  iacredible  stari^t;  tb^ 
Myl^  is  al^o  Ipw,  and  the  narra^on  coarse  \  yet  they  ww$ 
jTQceiv^d  with    astonishing    appUuse^    and  Tbeqdi|tio4% 
i^uei^il  of  the  Lombard^!  having  cqnvert^d  b«r  bu«banU  t0 
ibe  catholic  faith,  the  pope  rejoiced  at  %  aud  aent  hi$ 
^'  Dialogu^V'  c^ompoaed  th^  following  y^ar,  to  Uv^t  prU^ 
c^$s..    3h9  i9  thought  to  have  noade  x\m^  of  bia  book  at  tbi$ 
iipfie  for  (he  pon version  of  that  pepplo^  who  were  ea^ilj^ 
j|pSu4^ap§d  by  «uqh  compositions.    For  tbe  wijm  r^aaoa 
ppp^  ^^haryi  about  150  year3  after,  tf^nal^itod  it  iatu 
yi^ek  for  tbi^  i^e  of  those  people^  who  wer#  90  4eligb<)94 
ivitb  it»  that  they  gave  St.  Gregory  tb^  avrnaweof  Oia* 
fogist.     Still  t^h^sje  di^tpgu^^  b^iug  (he  ^ooipoaition  of 
{^r^ory  i$  a  ppint,  now  thought  v^y  doub^fui     la  the 
y^at  Jt94|  biE^  ^QomiQunicated  find  sKspi^aded  the  bi»bp|l 
of  Sa(9na»  tb^  o^iropplis  of  PaLmatia^  wh^^  hQw^var,  panl 
DOt  X^^^^  to  the  e^^rci^  q(  his^  px^w^r  ia  tb^s^  «^i;\9^K(if« 
T^fi  papa'e  year  W  laboured  tp  cmveiift  t^e  i^fidfU  in  Si^r^ 
^ini^  by  gpntle  wethqd?,  according  to  bis  sy^tenft  :  wbioki 
^^  io  punish  ber^tiqs,  ^specially  s^t  ^tbeir  iirat  ri9e»  ad 
XQ})i^h.  and  tcaitor^^  but  to  coippel  infidels  ooly  iodirecitty  9 
£b^t  19^  greatlng  the  obstinate  with  saqfiq  rigoar»  ainl  per-* 
suadipg  tb^o^  as  nc^u<;h  by  proooisieSf .  tbreat^j  an4  g^n^il^ 
i^everi^^s,  as  by  arguoieut  and  reason.    Thvs  v^as  the  dia^ 
tLU<;tip.Q  he  made  io  treating  with  th^  Mai^icheei&and  pagai^w 
Ivy  th^.yj^ja^  5dj^>  be  refused  to  s^nd  the  efpp^es^t  Coiir 
st,^jni.(ia  apy  reUQ9^  pf  St.  Paul»  .isfbich  she  had  ijeque^/t^ 
desufing  tP  look;  at  the  body  of  that  apostle.     On  tbia  ocn 
^asioa  he  cel^jte^  several  miraculous  piinishments  for  sudla 
a  r^sh  attempt^  a}l  as  simply  devised  as  tbo^e  in  hj/»  *<  Dii^ 
logue$/'     The  sam^  ye^r  he  warmly  opposed  Johp  pa^ 
tjri^rch  of  Cojn^^ntinopl^,  for  assuming  ti)^  title  of  oeiQuoa^ 
uical  px  UQJ;vQ^$al».  which  he  himself  disclaimed,  a^  having' 
DO  ri^bjt  to  i;educe  the  other  bishops  to  be  bis  subfi^itute« ;. 
and.  aftejr^ards.  forbad  his  nuncio  there  to  CQ0imui^<;j8^e 
^iib  th^ft  paf^rl^rchi)  till  he  sboi^d  renpuaee  tb^  (title.     Hia 
humility^  bowevec,  did  not  keep  him  from  veseatin^  aJ9b 
affroat^  pxit,  i^ppn  b^^  understanding,  as  be  thpqght^  by  th^ 
emperor,  for  proposing  terms  of  peace  (o  the  Lombamk^ 
who  b^ieg^d  Rpipe  this  year :  the  samayei^r  he  epceou^tod 


l|ie  fiiinous  mission  into  England  ;  and  as  Bninehaut^  qneeft 
of  France,  had  been  very  serviceable  in  it,  he  wrote  ^ 
letter  of  thanks  to  her.  on  the  occasion.  The  princess  is 
represented  as  a  profligate  woman,  but  very  liberal  to  the 
ecclesiastics ;  founding  churches  and  convents,  and  even 
iueing  to  the  pope  for  relics.  This  was  a  kind  of  piety 
which  particularly  pleased  Gregory;  and  accordingly,  he 
wrote  to  the  queen  several  letters,  highly  commending  her 
conduct  in  that  respect,  and  carried  his  complaisance  so 
far  as  to  declare  the  French  happy  above  all  other  nations 
in  having  such  a  sovereign.  In  the  year  598 j  at  the  re« 
quest  of  the  Christian  people  at  Caprita,  a  small  island  at 
the  bottom  of  the  gulph  of  Venice,  he  ordered  another 
bishop  to  be  ordained  for  that  place,  in  the  room  of  the 
present  prelate,  who  adhered  to  the  Istrian  schism.  .  This . 
was  done  contrary  to  the  orders  of  the  emperor  Maurice^ 
against  taking  any  violent  measures  with  schismatics. 

In  the  year  599,  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Serenus  bishop  of 
Marseilles,  commending  his  zeal  in  breaking  some  images 
which  the  people  had  been  observed  to  worship,  and  throw* 
iBg  them  out  of  the  church ;  and  the  same  year  a  circular 
letter  to  the  principal  bishops  of  Gaul,  condemning  simo^ 
niacal  ordinations,  and  the  promotions  of  laymen  to 
bishoprics :  he  likewise  forbad  olerks  in^holy  orders  to  live 
with  women,'  except  such  as  are  allowed  by  the  canons  ; 
and  recommended  the  frequent  holding  assemblies  to  re« 

Jrulate  the  affairs  of  the  church.  The  same  year  he  re^ 
used^  on  account  of  some  foreseen  opposition,  to  take 
ijbgnizance  of  a  crime  alleged  against  the  primate  of  By- 
;Eacena,  a  province  in  Africa.  About  the  same  time  he 
wrote  an  important  letter  to  the  bishop  of  Syracuse,  con- 
cerning ceremonies,  in  which  he  says,  '*  That  the  church 
of  Rome  followed  that  of  Constantinople,  in  the  use  of 
ceremonies ;  and  declares  that  see  to  be  undoubtedly  sub- 
ject to  Rome,  as  was  constantly  testified  by  the  emperor 
and  the  bishop  of  that  city.*'  He  had  already  this  year 
reformed  the  office  of  the  church,  which  is  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  actions  of  his  pontificate.  In  this  reform,  as  i| 
is  called,  he  introduced  several  new  customs  and  supersti* 
tions;  amongst  the  rest,  purgatory.  He  ordered  pagan 
temples  to  be  consecrated  by  sprinkling  holy  water,  and 
an  annual  feast  to  be  kept,  since  called  wakes  in  England, 
on  that  day ;  with  the  view  of  gaining  the  pagans  in  Eog* 
land  to  the  church-service*    Besides  other  least  importaat 

G  ft  E  G  O  R  Tf . 


^er0inoTii^9  a4<led  to  the  pabiic  fornas  of  prayier,  be  mad* 
it  hU  chief  care  to  reform  the  psalmody^  of  which  he  vfa$ 
excessively  fond.  Of  tbis  kind  he  composed  the  ^'  AntU 
phone  */'  and  sUch  tunes  as  best  suited  the  psalms,  th^ 
hymnS)  the  prayers,  the  verses,  the  canticles,  the  lessonsi 
tike  epistles  and  gospels,  tlie  prefaces,  and  the  Lord's 
prayer.  He  likewise  instituted  an  academy  of  chanters  fo^ 
1^1  the  clerks^  as  far  as  the  deacons  exclusively  :  he  gav$ 
them  lessons  himself,  and  the  bed,  in  which  he  continued 
to  chant  amidst  bis  last  illness,  was  preserved  with  great 

*  It  is  to  tbit  pope  that  t^e  dire  the 
ifiVJentioB,  if^ed  tn  this  day,  of  etprestf- 
tegp  mu8ica4  souods  by  tte  teTv^n  firsi 
letters  of  the  alphabet.  Indeed  the 
Qreeki*  lAade  use  of  ihe  lettert  of  theif 
al|»lmbaet  to  tbe  like  ptWpoee :  but  id 
tb^ir  scal«  ihev  wanted  more  signsi  or 
nmrkf,  than  there  were  letters,  which 
%ert  fttppHed  oat  of  th«  same  adphS'^ 
bei,  by  ititfcmg  the  sajne  fetter  exprett 
different  notes,  as  it  was  placed  upright, 
bf  Reversed,  6t  otherwise  put  Out  of  the 
•omnion  p<»sition  $  alto  makiiig  them 
liaperfeot  by  cutting  off  sometbiugf  or 
by  doubling  some  strokes,  ^or  exaiti- 
)>lr,  tbt  letter  Pi  ftitpfeMes  different 
notes  in  alt  these  posiiioot  o«d  forftts, 
ft  n  C  G  rt  n  &c.  Tbey  who  are 
fkiired  io  musii*,  oeed  not  be  totd  what 
A  task  the  iebolar  hod  in  this  method 
to  loam,  la  Boethiiis's  time  the  Ro- 
miins  eased  themselves  of  tbis  diffi- 
oiiky  at  onoecOHary,  by  making  o«e 
•oly  of  tbo  ffrst  15  letters  of  tfaoir  al- 
phabet. But  afterwards,  this  pope, 
Coftsiderinjr  that  the  octavo  #H8  the 
iftoto  iit  effSset  with  the  first  noto,  add 
thftt  tbo  order  of  degrees  was  the  same 
in  the  upper  and  lower  octave  of  the 
4iagnim>  introduced  the  use  of  seven 
letters*  whiicbwera  repealed  in  a  differ- 
rent  character.  Malcolm  on  Music, 
ebdip.  tit.  §  4.  Dr.  Burntiy  ftayft  on 
lhl»  aokijeety  **  Baclesiaatioal  writers 
leem  unanimous  in  allowing  that  it  was 
the  loarrned  and  active  pope  Gregory 
tiie  Great,  whooollected  the  iiHtf»idal 
lM|;0ientoof  tuoh  AUcient  hymns  ami 
psalmt  as  the  first  fathers  of  <he  church 
llOil  dpproted,  and  recoitfniended  to 
llMr  ^imitivo  CtaristioM  j  mA  thot  ^e 
aelected,  methodized,  and  arranged 
fheito  irt  the  order  which  was  long  con- 
ffHued  at  Rotde,  and  ioo»  adopted  by 
^  ekief  pari  Of  tbo.  weotfra  ehiirch. 
TUo   anouymous    aotbor  of  bis  Ufe« 

Vot.  XVI. 

published  by  danisiust  speaks  of  thif 
transaction  in  the  following  Wot-ds  & 
'*  This  pobtiff  oompostd,  arran^ad^ 
aiKl  coosntu'ed  the  Aniiphonarium  and 
chants  nsed  io  the  mornjog  and  even^ 
ia^  service."  Fleuryt  in  his  HM 
EcOl.  todi.  VI  [,  p.  1 5U,  <ivf B  a  cii  oual* 
stantial  accouut  of  the  Scola  Cantorum^ 
inaUtuted  by  St.  Oregtn  y.  It  stiliftigu 
ed  dOO  years  after  tihe  death  tif  that 
pontiff,  which  happenexl  in  the  yeaf 
604,  ab  *d  are  inroriAed  ISy  ^ohn  Dia- 
codnS)  author  of  his  life.  Tw^  ook 
leges  wece  appropriated  to  these  st-ti« 
dies ;  one  near  the  church  of  St.  Pe^k 
ter,  and  one  near  that  of  ^.  Jdhi>  Ln^ 
teran  ^  both  of  trhieb  woro  teidowoA 
with  lands. 

*<  It  hab  b«eb  inlagined  that  Sit.  dfe-» 
gofy  was  rather  a  compiler  tb<in  « 
composer  of  ecelesiastioal  chanU,  a# 
music  had  been  established  in  tlio 
church  loi)g  before  hfs  pooti6cate ;  atwl 
Joiia  Diaconu?,  hi  biit  life,  (lib.  u  ■ 
cap.  6.)  calls  his  collection  *  Anlipho* 
niLrium  Ceiltonem,*  the  grOund-Worlt 
of  whioh  *as  the  ancient  Gr^k  ehiKitf 
upon  the  principles  of  which  it  wA« 
formed.  This  is  the  opinion  of  the 
abhig  Lebceuf,  (Traitfc  Historitjoe  et* 
Pratic^ue  sur  ie  Chant  Bociesiaatii^UV^ 
chap,  iii.)  and  of  many  others,  Tho 
derivatioil  \%  respectable  ;  but  if  th^ 
Romans  in  the  time  of  St<  AiabFOM 
had  any  music,  it  must  have  t>«eq 
composed  upon  the  Greek  system :  all 
the  arts  at  Rome,  during  the  time  of 
the  emperors,  were  Q reek,  and  chte6yi 
cultivated  b'y  Greek  artists;  and  wo 
hear  of  nr>  mtlslcal  systetti  id  ds6 
amoog  ttie  RooMuS,  or  at  leAlt^dOM 
is  mentioned  by  their  writers  oo  tbo 
art,  but  that  of  the  Greeks.^'  fiur-% 
noy'»  Hist,  of  Musio,  and  Hett^A  Cy« 
olcq^adiai  art*Q^|iooaT. 

«5f  6  a  £  G  O  &  Y. 

veneration  in  the  palace  of  St.  John  Lateran  for  at  long 
time,  together  with  the  whip  with  which  be  used  to  threa* 
ten  the  young  clerks  and  singing  boys,  when  tbey  sang 
out  of  tune.  He  was  so  rigid  in  regard  to  the  chastity  of 
ecclesiastics,  that  he  was  unwilling  to  admit  a  man  into  the 
priesthood  who  was  not  strictly  free  from  defilement  by  any 
commerce  with  women.  The  candidates  for  orders  were 
according  to  his  commands  questioned  particularly  on  that 
subject.  Widowers  were  excepted,  if  they  had  observed 
a  state  of  continency  for  some  considerable  time. 

At  this  time,  as  well  as  the  next  year  600,  he  was  con* 
fined  to  his  bed  by  the  gout  in  his  feet,  which  lasted  for 
three  years ;  yet  he  celebrated  mass  on  holidays,  al* 
though  with  much  pain.  Thi$  brought  on  a  painful  bnru- 
ing  heat  all  over  his  body,  which  tormented  him  in  the  year 
601.  His  behaviour  in  this  sickness  was  very  exemplary. 
It  oiade  him  feel  for  others,  whom  he  compassionated^  ex- 
horting them  to  make  the  right  use  of  their  infirmities^ 
both  by  advancing  in  virtue  and  forsaking  vice.  He  was 
always  extremely  watchful  over  his  flock,  and  careful  to 
preserve  discipline  ;  and  while  he  allowed  that  the  misfor- 
tunes of  the  times  obliged  the  bishops  to  interfere  in 
worldly  matters,  as  he  himself  did,  he  constantly  exhorted 
them  not  to  be  too  intent  on  them.  Thi;^  year  he  held  a 
council  at  Rome,  which  made  the  monks  quite  independent 
by  the  dangerous  privileges  which  he  granted  them.  Gre- 
gory forbad  the  bishops  to  diminish  in  any  shape  the  goods^ 
lands,  and  revenues,  or  titles  of  monasteries,  and  took  from 
them  the  jurisdiction  they  ought  naturally  to  have  over  the 
converts  in  their  dioceses.  But  many  of  his  letters  shew, 
that  though  he  favoured  the  monks  in  some  respects,,  he 
nevertheless  knew  how  to  subject  them  to  all  the  severity 
of  their  rules.  The  same  year  he  executed  a  second  mis- 
sion into  England,  and,  in  answer  to.  the  bishop  of  Iberia, 
declared  the  validity  of  baptism  by  the  Nestorians,  ai 
being  performed  in  the  name  of  the  Trinity. 

The  dispute  about  the  title  of  Universal  Bishop  and  the 
equality  of  the  two  sons  of  Rome  and  Constantinople  still 
subsisting,  and  the  emperor  Maurice  having  declared  for 
the  latter,  our  pope  saw  the  murder  of  him  and  his  family 
without  any  concern  by  Phocas.  This  usurper  having  sent 
his  picture  to  Rome  io  the  year  603,  Gregory  received  it 
with  great  respect,  and  placed  it  with  that  of  the  empress 
his  consort  (Leontia)  in  the  oratory  of  St.  Cassarius  in  the 

0  R  E  G  0  R  Y.  25^ 

}>a;tdte ;  and  soan  after  congratulated  Pbocas^s  accession  to 
the  throne.  There  are  stiil  extant,  written  upon  this  oc« 
caaioDy  by  the  holy  pontiff,  three  letters,  wherein  be  ex- 
presses his  joy,  and  returns  thanks  to  God,  for  that  e^e* 
crabie  parricide's  accession  to  the  crown,  as  the  greatest 
blessing  that  could  befall  the  empire  ;  and^  he  praises  God, 
that,  after  suffering  under  a  heavy  galling  yoke,  bis  sub- 
jects begin  once  more  to  enjoy  the  sweets  of  liberty  under 
ills  empire  :  flatteries. unworthy  a  man  of  honour,  and  es- 
pecially a  pope  ;  and  for  which  his  historian,  Maimbourg, 
condemns  thein.  But  Gregory  thought  himself  in  con- 
science obliged  to.  assert  the  superiority  of  bis  see  above 
that  of  Constantinople,  and  he  exerted  himself  much  to 
secure  it.  In  general  he  had  the  pre-eminence  of  the 
holy  see  much  at  heart;  accordingly  this  same  year,  one 
Stephen,  a  Spanish  bishop,  having  complained  to  him  of 
an  unjust  deprivation  of  his  bishopric,  the  pope  sent  a 
delegate  to  judge  the  matter  upon  the  spot,  giving  him.  a 

.  -memorial  of  his  instructions,  in  which  among  other  particu-^ 
]ars  he  orders  thus :  **  If  it  be  said,  that  bishop  Stephen 
bad  neither  metropolitan  nor  patriarch,  you  must  answer^ 
that  he  ought  to  be  tried,  as  he  requested,  by  the  holy  see, 
which  is  the  chief  of  all  churches.'*  It  was  in  the  samb 
spirit  of  preserving  the  dignity  of  his  pontificate,  that  he 
resolved  to  repair  the  celebrated  churches  of  St.Peter  and 
SU  Paul ; '  with  which  view,  he  gave  orders  this  y^ar  to  tha 

.  subdeaeon  Sabinian  (afterwards  his  successor  in  the  pope? 
dom),  to  fell  all  the  timber  necessary  for  that  purpose  in 

» the  country  of  the  Brutii,  and  send  it  to  Rome :  he  wrote 
several  other  letters  on  this  occasion,  which  are  striking 
.proofs  of  his  zeal  for  carrying  on  the  repairs  of  old  churches, 
although  he  built  no  new  ones.  .     . 

i  But  while  he  was  thus  intent  in  correcting  the  mischiefs 
of  the  late  war,  he  saw  it  break  out  again  in  Italy,  and  $till 
to  the  disadvantage  of  the  empire,  the  affairs  of  which 
were  in  a  critical  situation,  not  only  in  the . provinces. pf  the 
west,  but  every  where  else.  Gregory  was  much  afflicted 
with  the  calamities  of  this  last  war,  the  s^me  time 
his  illness  increased.  The  Lombards  made  a  truce  in  No- 
vember 603,  which  was  to  continue. in  forc«  till  April  $05. 
Some  time  after,  the  pope  received  letters  from  queen 
Theodiiinda,  with  the  news  of  the  birth  atid  baptism  of  hec 
son  Adoaldus.  She  sent  him  also  some  writings  of. the 
abbot  Secundinus  upon  the  fifth  council,  and  desired  hioi 

S  2 

t«0  O  R  E  G  O  K  T. 

CO  answer  them.  Gregory  ^<  congratttlates  faer  on  bamg. 
eausied  the  young  prince^  destined  to  reign  over  die  Loin-» 
bards,  to  be  baptised  in  the  catholic  cfaurch."  And  as  to 
Secnndinus,  he  excuses  himself  on  account  of  his  iUness; 
^^  I  am  afflicted  with  the  gout^''  says  he,  *^  to  soch  a  de«^ 
gree,  that  I  aiq  not  able  even  to  speak,  as  yjour  envoys' 
know;  they  found  ine  ill  when  they  arrived  here,  and  left 
me  in  great  danger  when  they  departed.  If  God  restcnrea 
siy  healtb>  I  will  return  an  exact  answer  to  all  that  tbm 
abbot  Secundinus  bas  written  to  nie«  In  the  mean  time,  I 
send  you  the  council  held  under  the  emperor  Justinian^ 
that  by  reading  it  he  may  see  the  ftilsity  of  all  that  be  baa 
beard  against  the  holy  see  and  the  catholic  church*  God 
forbid  that  we  sfaoul4  receive  the  opinions  of  any  heretie, 
or'^depart  in  any  respect  from  the  letter  of  St.  Leo,  aa4 
the  four  councils  :\'  he  adds,  '>  I  send  to  the  prince  Ado« 
aldus,  yt^t  ^on,  a  cross^  and  a  book  of  the  gospel  in  a  Per« 
iian  box ;  and  to  your  daughter  three  rings,  desiring  yoa 
to  give  them  these  things  with^ytitor  own  band,  to  enhance 
tbe  falue  of  the  preisent  I  likewise  beg  of  you,  to  cetum 
|liy>  thanks  to  tbe  king^  your  coosoct,  £of  the  peace  he  made 
for  us,  and  engage  him  to  maintsUn  it,  as  you  have  akready 

t  This  letter,  wyitjten  in  January  604,  is  the  last  of  Gre« 
gory^s  that  bas  any  date  to  it;  he  died  tbe  12th  of  Mareb 
feUowiftg,  worn  out:  with  violent  aiyd  almost  incessant  ill* 
ne^.  His  remains  were  interred  in  a  private  manner,  near 
the  old  sacristy  of  St.  Peter's  church,  at  tbe  end  of  tb^ 
great  portico,  in  the  same  place  with  those  of  some.pre^ 
ceding  po{>es«  It  is  thougti^  he  was  not  above  sixty  yean 
of  age.  W4>  ^all  oaly  add  one  particular  rehiting  to  our 
own  country.  Augustin  the  missionary  having  followed 
the  rule  approred  by  former  popes  of  dividing  the  revenues 
of  all  the  English  chprches  into  four  parts,  the  first  for  tb« 
hhhfgifpf  the  second  for  the  elergy,  the  third  for  the  pooi^ 
mnd  the  fourth  for  repairing  the  church ;  this  divisioa  mm 
cobflmed  \fy  Gregory,  who  directed  farther,  tbat  die 
bisho^*s  share  should  be  not  only  for  himself  but  likewise 
for  all  his  nedessary^  attendants,  and  to  keep  np  hospital ity» 
.  It  remains  to  be  observed,  in  justice  to  thi^pope^  ttnit^ 
ib^  ebat^  of  bis  causing  tbe  noble  monuments  of  the  an^  ' 
tient  splendour  of  tbe  Roimans  to  be  destroyed,  in  ordct  to 
prevent  tboee  who  went  to  Rome  from  paying  more  atteii>» 
tion  to  .tb#  triumphal  archesi  &ew  thao  to  ibingt  saored^  m 

O  R  £  C  O  R  Y.  261 

bj  P)iitin»  aa  a  ca1umi>y.  Nor  is  the  story,  tboagh 
^rediied  by  several  learned  autbors,  particularly  by  Brucker, 
0i  bis  reducing  to  ashes  the  Palatine  library  founded  by  Au- 
•gQstiw,  and  the  burning  an  infiuite  number  of  pagan  bocjcsy 
particularly  Livy,  absolutely  certain.  However,  it  is  un* 
deaiable,  be  bad  a  great  aversion  to  all  such  books,  which 
be  carried  to  that  excess,  that  be  flew  in  a  violent  passios 
with  Didier,  archbishop  of  Venice,  fur  no  otber  reason 
tbun  because  he  sufiered  gramnfiar  to  be  taugbt  in  bis  dio^ 
Mse.  In  this  he  followed  the  apostolical  constitutions: 
Ibe  compiler  whereof  seeros  also  to  have  copied  froa  Gre^ 
gory  Nasiaazien,  who  thought  reading  pagau  books  would 
tttjra  the  minds  of  yo«tb  in  favour  of  their  idolatry ;  aiKt  we 
bave  seen  more  recently  the  same  practice  zealously  de^ 
fended)  and  upon  the  same  principle  too,  by  Mr.  Tilleoiont. 
Yet  Julian  tbe  apostate  is  cb^trged  with  using  the  same 
probibitioni  as  a  good  device  to  effect  the  ruin  of  ChriSf- 
|iamty»  by  rendering  tbe  professors  contemptible  on  ac«- 
eouut  of  tbeir  ignorance^  Dupin  says,  that  bis  genius  ,waa 
well  suited  to  morality,  and  be  bad  acquired  an  inexbaus^ 
^le  fand  of  spiritual  ideas,  which  be  expressed  noUj 
tnoiigb,  generally  in  periods,  rather  than  sentences;  bis 
eompcu^ition  was  laboured,  and  bis  languid  inaocurate^  but 
easy,  well  connected,  and  aWays  equally  supported.  H# 
ieft  more  writic^  behind  him  than  any  otber  pope  from 
ibe  foundation  of  tbe  see  of  Rome  to  tbe  present  penod. 
Tkiese  ooasist  of  twelve  bac^s  of  ^'  l^etters,"  amounting  to 
lifMrards  of  eigbt  buudred  in  number^  ^'  A  oonmienfe  om 
Ibe  book  of  Job,'*  generally  k0own  by  tbe  naviQ  of  **  Gre* 
geory^s  Morals  on  Job.''  <^  A  PastoraV*  or  a.  treatise  oil 
tbe  dtuties  of  a  pastior,  This  work  was  held  in  sucb  vene« 
f ation  by  tbe  Galliiean  cburcb^  that  all  tbe  biahopa  were 
obliged,  by  tbe  canona  of  that  church,  lo  be  thoroughly 
aoquainted  with  it,  aad  punctually  to  observe  the  rules 
eoatuiHed  in  it  He  was  author  also  of  '^  Homilies^  on  tb« 
prophet  Ezekiel-;  and  on  the  gospels,  aad  of  four  books 
ftf  ('  CisJogues.'^  Bis  works  have  been  printed  over  and 
ovtti  again,  in  almost  all  forma,  and  at  a  numbeir  of  differ 
rem  pbcea  on  ibe  continent,  as  Lyons,  Paris,  Rotten,.  Basils 
Antwerp^  Venice,  and  Rome.  Tbe  best  edition,  is  tbat  of 
Pafis>  is  1705,  in  4  vols,  fotio.^ 

1  Qfn,  Diet.— Bower's  Hist,  of  the  Popes.— Cave,,  vol.  I.— Pii|ini,— -Milacr^ 
^liureh  History,  in  which  Iris  works  «r«>  jumlyzed^ 

262  G  R  E  G  O  R  Y. 

GREGORY  XIII.  the  principal  event  in  whose  life  i» 
the  reformation  he  introdUiced  in  the  Roman  calendat,  was 
l>orn  at  Bologna  in  15012.  Hi$  name  before  his  promotion 
was  Hugh  Buoncompagno.  He  was  brought  up  to  the 
study  of  the  civil  and  canon  law,  which  he  taught  iii  his 
irattve  city  with  uncommon  reputation.  He  was  afterwards 
appointed  judge  of  the  court  of  commerce  at  Bologna. 
From  this  city  he  removed  to  Rome,  where,  after  variouik 
preferments,  he  was  on  the  death  of  Pius  V.  in  1572,  una- 
nimously elected  his  successor,  and  at  bis  consecration  he 
took  the  name  of  Gregory  XIII.  His  reformation  of  the 
calendar,  was  according  to  a  method  suggested  by  Lewis 
Lilio,  a  Cala/brian  astronomer,  which  after  his  death  was 
presented  to  the  pope  by  his  brother.  This  method,  which 
was  immediately  adopted  in  all  catholic  countries,  but  was 
rejected  by  the  protestants  and  by  the  Greeks,  was  intended 
to  reform  the  old  or  Julian  year,  established  by  Julius 
Csesar,  which  consisted  of  S65  days  6  hours,  or  365  days 
and  a  quartefr,  that  is  three  years  of  365  days  each,  and 
the  fourth  year  of  366  days.  But  as  the  mean  tropical 
year  consists  only  of  365  days  5  hours  48  minutes  57  se^ 
conds,  the  former  lost  1 1  minutes^  3  seconds  every  year, 
.which  in  the  time  of  pope  Gregory  had  amounted  to  "lO 
.days,  and  who,  by  adding  these  10  days,  brought  the  ac- 
count of  time  to  its  proper  day  again,  and  at  the  same  time 
appointed  that  every  century  after,  a  day  more  should  b6 
added,  thereby  making  the  years  of  the  complete  centu- 
ries, viz.  1600,  1700,  1800^  &c.  to  be  common  years  of 
•365  days  each,  instead  of  leap-years  of  366  days,  which 
makes  the  mean  Gregorian  ye£lr  equal  to  365  days  5  hours 
.45  minutes  36  seconds.  This  computation  was  not  intro- 
cluced  into  the  account  of  time  in  England,  till  1752,  when 
the  Julian  account  had  lost  11  days,  and  therefore  the  3d 
of  September,  was  in  that  year  by  act  of  parliament  ac^ 
counted  the  14th,  thereby  restoring  the  1 1  <lays  which  had 
thus  been  omitted. 

In  1584  Gregoiy  incurred  the  suspicion^  although  some 
think  without  foundation,  of  having  encouraged  the  assas* 
sination  of  Elizabeth  queen  of  England,  by  Parr,,  an  Eng« 
lish  <;atholic,  who  was  detected  in  a  conspiracy  against  the 
queen's  life.  This  pope  contributed  greatly  to  correct  and 
amend  Gratian's  decretals,  which  he  enriched  with  learned 
DOtes.     He  died  of  a  quinsey,  in  the  eighty-fourth  yeay  of 


Usage,  and  the  l4thof  his  pontificate,  in  1566.  Several 
of  his  '*  Letters,'*  <<  Harangues," &c,  are  said  to  be  in'  ex* 

GREGORY  (Nazianzen),  was  born  A.  D.  324,  at  Azl- 
anzum,  an  obscure  village  belonging  to  Nazianzuao, .  a 
town  of  the  second  Cappadocia,  situated  in  a  poor,  barren, 
and  unhealthy  country.  His  parents  were  persons  of  rank, 
and  no  less  eminent  for  their  virtues :  his  father,  whose 
name  was  also  Gregory,  had  been  educated  in  a  religion 
called  Hypsistarianism  *,  to  which,  being  the  religion  of  hit 
ancestors,  he  was  a  bigot  in  his  younger  years ;  and  the 
{deserting  it  not  only  lost  him  the  liindness  of  his  friends, 
jbut  estranged  him  from  his  mother,  and  deprived  him  of 
bis  estate.  This,  however,  he  bore  with  great  cbearfuU 
Jiess  for  the  sake  of  Christianity,  to  which  be  was  converted 
byhis  wife,  though  not  without  the  help  of  an  emphatical 
diceam ;  be  was  afterwards  made  bishop  of  Nazianzum, 
being  the  second  who  sat  in  that  ch^ir,  where  he  behaved 
with  great  prudence  and  diligence.  Nor  was  our  author's 
mother  less  eminent;  descended  of  a  pious  family,  she 
was  herself,  for  piety,. so  much  the  wonder  of  her  age,  that 
Ibis  son  was  said  to  have  been  the  pure  effect  of  bet 
prayers,  and  of  a  vow  to  devote  him  to  God,  after  the  ex-* 
ample  of  Hannah :  and  upon  his  birth  she  was  careful  to 
perform  her  vow. 

Thus  advantageously  born,  he  proved  a  child  of  preg-^ 
nant  parts ;  by  which,  and  the  advantage  of  a  domestic 
institution  under  his  parents,  he  soon  outstript  his  contem- 
poraries in  learning.  Nature  had  formed  him  of  a  grave 
and  serious  tempier,  so  that  bis  studies  were  not  obstructed 
by  the  little  sports  and  pleasures  of  youth.  After  some 
time,  he  travelled  abroad  for  his  farther  improvement ;  in 
which  rout,  the  first  step  be  took  was  to  Csesarea,  and  having 
riBed  the  learning  of  that  university,  be  travelled  to  Ca^sarea 
Philippi  in  Palestine,  where  soipe  of  the  most  celebrated 
masters  of  tliat  age  resided,  and  where  Eusebius  then  sat 
bishop.  Here  he  studied  under  the  famous  orator  Tbespa- 
sias,  and  bad  among  pther  fellow<-pupils,  Euzoius,  afterwards 

*  This  wai  a   kind   of  Samaritan  abstinence  from  some  kind  of  meats, 

mixture,  made  of  Judaism  and  Pagan-  but    disowned    circumcision.      They 

iuQ,  or  rather  some  select  rites  of  each,  pretended  to  worship  no  other  deitjr 

With  the  Gentiles,  they  did  honour  to  but  the  almighty,  supreme,  and  most 

hre  and  burning  lighu,  but  rejected  high    God;    whence    they    assumed 

ideU  and  sacriieet;  with  the  J«ws,  their  character'istic  aboTe-mentioned, 

tbey  ebserred  the  nbbaUi*  and  a  strict  v^itlot,  signifying  The  Most  Hi^k. 

A  Moreri.-«>Dvpiu.— Bower. 

114  a  R  E  G  O  R  V, 

1^  Arian  bishop  of  that  place.  He  it|l]^Ited  htflnsbiif  pi^v 
tlculariy  to  rhetoric,  minding  t^e  elegance,  not  the  iranity 
and  affectation,  which  then  too  much  disgraced  that  pror 
feBsion.  Hence  he  removed  to  Aieicandrid',  who^  schooU 
were  famous  nest  to  those  of  Athens,  which  he  designe4 
^r  his  last  stage ;  and  therefore  went  ahoard  a  ship  be*' 
longing  to  £gina,  an  Island  not  far  from  Athens,  the  )iia«- 
yiners  of  which  were  bis  familiar  acquaintance  ;  but  it  being 
about  the  middle  of  November,  a  season  for  rough  weather, 
they  were  taken  with  a  storm  in  the  road  near  Cyprus;  an4 
the  case  was  become  desperate,  when  suddenly  the  tem^ 
jpest,  it  was  affirmed,  ceased  by  the  prayers  of  Gregory. 
Thu^  miraculously  preserved,  he  arrived  safe  at  Athens^ 
where  he  was  joyfully  entertained,  his  great  abilities  ren* 
dering  him  the  admiration  both  of  the  scholars  and  profesr 
aers.  Here  he  commenced  a  friendship  with  St.  Basil,  tb« 
great  companion  of  his  life;  here  too  he  became  acquainted 
with  Julian,  afterward9  emperor  and  apostate,  ao  even^ 
which  he  remarkably  foretold,  althoegb  at  tbi^t  time  JuV 
lian  bad  given  no  ground  for  suspicion. 

After  the  departure  of  his  friend,  Nazianzen  was  prer 
Tailed  upon  by  the  students  to  undertake  the  professor'flf 
place  of  rhetoric,  and  he  sat  in  that  chair  with  great  ap? 
piauee  for  a  little  while  ;  but  being  now  thirty  years  of  age» 
and  mi:)ph  solicited  by  his  parents  to  return  botne,  he  com<« 
j)Iied,  taking  his  journey  by  lend  tb  Constantinople.  Here 
he  met  his  brother  CsBsarius,  just  then  arrived  from  Alex« 
andi'ia,  so  accomplished  in  all  the  polite  learning  of  thaf 
age,  and  especially  in  physic,  which  he  had  made  his  par<« 
tieular  study,  that  he  had  not  been  there  long  before  be 
had  public  honours  decreed  him,  matches  proposed  iVoi^ 
noble  families,  the  dignity  of  a  senator  offered  him,  sind  a 
^mmittee  appointed  to  wait  upon  the  emperor,  to  tntreal 
him,  that  though  the  city  at  that  tinle  wanted  no  leamec!! 
men  in  any  faculty,  yet  this  might  be  added  to  all  its  otliev 
glory,  to  have  Cesariu^  for  its  physician  and  inhabitant 
But  Nazianzen's  influence  prevailed  against  all  thesa 
temptations ;  and  the  two  brothers  returned  honie  together, 
to  the  great  joy  of  their  aged  parents, 

Nazians^en  ocxw  thougl^t  it  timp  to  fulfil  s^  vow  whiph  blS 
had  made  during  the  storm  aboye-mentioaed,  to  oonse*' 
cnite  himself  to  God  by  baptism.  Afterwards  he  was  or* 
cfattiuMl  a  presbyter  by  his  father,  who  soon  had  occasion 
to  ayaii  himself  of  his  assistance.     Gregory,  the  father, 

G  R  E  G  0  R  7.  t€B 

#iii(in^  8«Wrft}  of  the  eastern  bishops,  had  reoeiveiJi  a  creed 
i^ompoeied  by  a  convention  at  Constantinople,  in  the  jear 
^9Sf  in  which  the  word  consubstantial  being  laid  aside, 
ihat-article  was  expressed  thus  :  ^^that  the  Son  was  in  all 
things  like  the  Father,  according  to  the  Scriptures.**  In 
consequence,  the  monks  of  Cappadocia,  in  denying  him 
communion,  were  foliowe<l  by  a  great  part  of  the' people. 
Nazi^n^en,  therefore,  zealously  endeavoured  to  make  up 
4his  breach.  He  first  convinced  his  father  of  the  error, 
•ivhich  he  found  him  as  ready  to  recant,  and  give  public 
satisfaction  to  the  people ;  then  he  dealt  with  the  other 
p^ty,  whom  he  soon  prevailed  with  to  be  reconciled ;  and, 
pb  bind  all  with  a  lasting  cement,  he  made  on  this  occasion 
bis  first  oration,  **  Concerning  Peace.'* 
.  Julian  had  now  ascended  the  throne ;  and  in  order  to 
^oppress  Christianity,  published  a  law,  prohibiting  Chris- 
tians  not  only  to  teach,  but  to  be  taught  the  books  and 
learning  of  the  Gentiles.  The  defeat  of  this  design,  next 
U>  the  two  ApoUinarii  in  Syria,  was  chiefly  owing  to  Na- 
^ianzen,  who  upon  this  ocpasion  composed  a  considerable 
p^rt  qf  Jhis  poems,  comprehending  all  sorts  of  divine,  grave, 
arid  serious  subjects,  in  all  kinds  of  poetry;  by  which 
paeans  the  Christian  yoi^th  of  those  times  were  completely 
funiisbed,  and  found  no  want  of  those  heathen  authors 
ifaat  were  taken  from  them.  Julian  afterwards  coming  to 
Csosarea)  ip  the  roM  to  his  Persian  expedition,  one  part 
pf  the  ^my  was  quartered  at  Nazianzum,  where  the  com^ 
mander  peremptorily  required  the  church  (which  the  elder 
Gregory  had  not  long  since  built)  to  be  delivered  to  him. 
JBut  the  old  m^n  stoutly  opposed  him,  daily  assembling  the 
people  to  public  prayers,  who  were  so  affected  with  the 
common  cause,  that  the  officer  was  forced  to  retire  for  his 
ewp  safety.  :  Jiihan  being  slain  not  long  after,  Nazianzen 
published,  two  ipvective  orations  against  him,  which  are  at 
onee  remarkable  proofs  of  hi^  wit  and  eloquence,  but  which 
qualities  were  mixed  with  %o,o  much  virulence  and  acri* 
mony.  ' 

Haying  by  Julianas  death  obtained  some^  respite  from 
pnblie  concerns,  he  amade  a  visit  to  his  friend  Basil, 
who.  was  then  in  monastic  solitude  upon  a  mountain  in 
iVuMto^,  whither  he  had  often  solicited  Naeianzen*s  com* 
pany.  The  Utter  was  naturally  inclined  to  such  a  course 
oi  life,  and  always  looked  upon  his  entering  into  orders  as 
m  kipd  of  force  an4  tyranny  pqt  upon  him,  wbieh  he  coal4 

26€  GREGORY. 

bardly  digest ;  yet  he  knew  not  bow  to  desert  bis  parei^ 
But  his  brother  Csesarius  being  now  returned  frosd  coart, 
where  he  bad  heen  for  some  years^  with  a  purpose  to  fix  in 
his  possession,  at  home,  gave  him  an  opportunity  to  in« 
dulge  his  inclination.  He  accordingly  retired  to  his  old 
companion,  with  whom  in  bis  solitary  recess  be  reqoained 
several  years,  passing  the  time  in  watching,  fasting,  and 
alt  the  several  acts  of  mortification.  He  waa  thus  employed 
when  the  necessity  of  affairs  at  home  obliged  bim  to  quit 
his  retirement.  His  father  laboured  under  the  infirmities 
of  age,  and  being  no  longer  able  to  attend  his  charge,  pi^e* 
vailed  with  bim  to  come  home ;  he  retorned  accordingly 
about  Easter,  and  published  a  large  apologetic  in  excuse 
of  his  flight,  which  bad  been  much  censured.  He  bad 
not  long  entered  upon  his  charge  of  assistant  to  his  father, 
when  the  family  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  brother 
Csesarius,  who  departed  this  life  October  11,  358.  Somie 
time  after,  died  of  a  malignant  fever,  his  sister  Gorgonia^ 
whose  funeral-sermon  be  preached ;  as  he  did  also  that 
of  his  father,  the  aged  bishop  of  Nas^ianzumy  who  died  not 
long  after,  uear  one  hundred  years  old,  having  been  for ty-* 
five  years  bishop  of  that  place.  In  the  conclufiion  of  tbif 
latter  oration  he  addressed  himself  to  his  mother  Norma, 
to  support  her  mind  under  so  great  a  loss,  consolations 
which  were  proper  and  seasonable :  for  she,  being.  tbuB 
deprived  of  her  affectionate  partner,  and  being  nearly  of 
equal  years  to  her  husband,  expired,  as  may  probably  be 
conjectured,  soon  after. 

By  these  breaches  in  the  family,  Nazianzen  was  suf- 
ficiently weaned  from  the  place  of  his  nativity ;  and,  though 
he  was  not  able  to  procure  a  successor  to  his  father,  he 
resolved  to  throw  up  his  charge,  and  accordingly  retired  to 
Seleucia,  famous  for  the  temple  of  St«  ThercU,  the  virgin* 
martyr ;  where,  in  a  monastery  of  devout  virgins  dedicated 
to  that  saint,  he  continued  a  long  time,  and  did  not  return 
till  the  death  of  St.  Basil,  whom  he  deeply  regretted  be 
could  not  attend  at  his  last  hours,  being  himself  confined 
by  sickness.  About  this  cinae  be  was  summoned  to  ^coun* 
cil  at  Antioch,  holdea  anno  378, « to  consider  the  em-^ 
peror's  late  edict  for  tolerating  the  catholics,  in  ordef  to 
suppress  Arianism  ;  and,  being  ordered  by  the  council  to 
;^x  himself  for  that  purpose  at  Constantinople,  be  preaeatlj 
repaired  thither.  Here  be  found  the  catholic  interest  at 
the  lowest  ebb :  the  Ariansi  favoured  by  Yalens,  bad  posf* 

GREGORY.  467 

'•esfied  themselves  of  all  the  churches,  and  proceeded  to 
ftiich  extremities  that  scarcely  any  of  the  orthodox  dsured 
AVOW  their  faith.  He  first  preached  in  his  lodgings  to 
those  that  repaired  thither,  and  the  congregation  soon 
growing  numerous,  the  house  was  immediately  consecrated 
by  Nasianssen,  under  the  name  of  the  church  of  Anastasia, 
or  the  resurrection  ;  because  the  catholic  faith,  which  in 
'.that  city  bad  been  hitherto  oppressed,  here  seemed  to 
have  its  retMirreetion.  The  opposition  to  his  measures  but 
increased  bis  feme,  together  with  the  number  of  his  au- 
ditors, and  even  drew  admirers  and  followers  from  foreign 
parts  ;  among  whom  St.  Jerom,  lately  ordained  presbyter, 
caoie  on  purpose  to  put  himself  under  his  tutelage  and 
jdiscipUna;  im  honour  in  which  Jerom  glories  on  every  oc- 
casion* As  the  catholics  grew  more  considerable,  they 
xshose  him  for  their  bishop,  and  the  choice  was  confirmed 
by  Meletus  of  Antioch,  and  Peter  who  succeeded  Athana- 
«ius  at  Alexandria;  but  be  was  opposed  by  the  Arians, 
-who  consecrating  Maximus,  a  famous  cynic  philosopher 
and  Christian,  gave  him  a  great  deal  of  trouble.  The 
Arian  bishop,  however,  was  at  length  forced  to  retire,  and 
:his  successor  Demophilus  was  deposed  by  the  einperbr 
Theodosius,  who  directed  an  edict  to  the  people  of  Coni- 
stantinople,  February  27,  380,  re*establishing  the  ortho- 
>dox  faith;  and  afterward  coming  thither  in  person,  h^ 
treated  Nazian^eu  with  all  possible  kindness  and  respect, 
atid  appointed  a  day  for  his  instalment  in  the  see. 

But  this  ceremony  was  deferred  for  the  present  at  his 
own  request;  and  falling  sick  soon  after,  he  was  visited  by 
crowds  of  his  friends,  who  all  departed  when  they  had 
made  their  compliments,  ex<:ept  a  young  man  with  a 
pale  look,  long  hair,  in  squalid  and  tattered  cloaths,  who, 
standing  at  the  bed's  feet,  made  all  the  dumb  signs  of 
the  bitterest  sorrow  and  lamentation.  Nazianzen,  start- 
ing, asked  him,  '^  Who  he  was,  whence  he  came,  and 
what  he  wanted  ?"  To  which  he  returned  no  answer, 
but  expressed  so  much  the  more  passion  and  resent- 
ment, howling,  wringing  his  hands,  and  beating  his  breast 
in  such  a  manner  that  the  bishop  himself  was  moved  to 
teaiv.  Being  at  length  forced  aside  by  one  who  stood 
by,  he  told  the  bishop,  ^^  This,  sir,  is  the  assassin,  whom 
tome  had  suborned  to  murder  you  ;  but  his  conscience  has 
^molested  him,  and  he  is  here>  come  ingenuously  to  confess 
bis  fault,  and  to  beg  your  pardon.'*    The  bishop  repliedi 

»as  Q  E  E  G  O  R  y. 

y  Friendy  God  Almighty  be  propiuoqs  to  you,  bU  gmciooi 
preservation  of  me  obligQ^  me  freely  to  forgive  you  ;  tbr 
desperate  attempt  you  designed  has  made  you  mine^  nor 
do  I  r^uire  any  other  reparation^  than  that  bencefortb  yov 
desert  your  party,  and  sincerely  give  vp  yourself  to  God." 

Theodosius  being  highly  solicitors  abouit  the  peace  of  the 
churchi  summoned  a  council  to  meet  at  Constantinople  in 
May  anno  3^43.  This  is  called  the  seoopd  general  council^ 
in  which  the  Nicene  Creed  w^s  ratified ;  audi  because  the 
article  concerning  the  Holy  Ghost  was  but. barely  ineiir 
tioned,  which  was  become  one  qf  the  principal  QontrOf 
irersies  of  the  age,  and  for  the  determination  pf  whidb  the 
council  had  been  chiefly  summoned,  the  fathers  now  drew 
up  an  explanator}^  creed,  composed,  as  it  iai»id>  by  Grer 
gory  of  Nyssen,  and  is  the  same  which  in  our  litjjrgy  ia 
called  the  Nicene  Creed.  The  see  of  Constantinople  waa 
ulso  now  placed  nea^t  in  precedence  to  ib^  of  IWme.  Ouir 
ftutbor  carried  a  great  sway  in  tbat  council,  where  aU 
things  went  on  smoothly,  till  at  last  they  fell  into  disturi* 
b^pces  on  the  following  occasion. 

There  had  been  a  schism  for  some  time  in  tbe..ehurQb  ef 
Antioch,  occasioned  by  the  ordination  of  two  bishops  to 
that  see ;  and  one  of  those^  named  Melitus,  happening  to 
die  before  the  end  of  the  council,  Na^ianzen  proposed  tia 
continue  the  other,  named  Paulinus,  then  grown  old,  for 
bis  life.  But  a^  strong  party  being  mafle  for  one  Fl^vianusb 
presbyter  of  the  church,  these  last  carried  it ;  aed,  not 
content  with  that,  resolved  to  deprive  their  grand,  opp^ser 
of  his  se^t  at  Constantinople.  To  prevent  this  he  made> 
formal  resignation  to  the  emperor,  ^nd  went  to  his  paternal 
estate  at  Na^ianzum,  resolving  never  to  epiacopise  any 
more;  insomuch,  that  though,  at  bis*  return,  be.foiiQdtbe 
see  of  N^zianzum  still  vacant,  and  over^run  with.the  heresy 
of  Apollinarius,  yet  he  pertinaciously  resisted  all  io,trealies 
that  were  made  to  take  that  cbfurge  upon  him*  And,,  whett 
be  was  summoned  to  the  re-s^sembUng  of  thie  couucil  tbe 
following  year,  he  refused  to  give  bis  attendance,  and  even 
did  not  stick  to  ceu^ure  all  such  qteetillgs  as  factious,  %iid 
governed  by  pride  wA  f^mbition.  I|i  tbe  ivieao  timo»  tft 
defence  of  his  conduct,  he  wrote  letters  tQ  the  lUwan  pnr^ 
torian  pr^efect,  and  the  consul ;  assuring  tbemn  ^^al,  'though 
he  had  withdrawn  himself  from  public  afikirs,  it  wtia  pel,  aa 
some  im^ginedi  Arom  any  discontent  for  tbe  losa  ol  tht 
great  place  he  h^d  quitted  {  and  that  he  WQiild  ftot^ibiwiiditji 

q^  R  £  G  O  R  Y.  Mf 

U^tt  600)0100  intek-^iU  of  religion ;  that  his  retireineoi  wtit 

ann^ter  of  choice  more  thaii  necetsiiy,  in  n^hich  he  took 

at  great  pleasure  as  a  man  that  has  been  tossed  in  a  long 

atorxD  at  sea  does  in .  a  safe  and  quiet  harbour.    And^  in*" 

dtf^dy  being  now  freed  from  all  external  cares,  he  entirely 

gave  himself  ap  to  solitude  and  contenaplauon,  and  the 

exercise  of  a  strict  and  devout  life.     At  vacant  hours  be 

cefresbed  the  weariness  of  his  old  age  with  poetry^  which 

be  generally  employed  upon  divine  subjects,  attd  serious 

reflections  upon  the  former  passages  of  his  life ;  an  ae* 

couat  of  which  he  drew  up  in  iambics^  whence  no  incon* 

sideyable  part  of  his  memoir  is  derived.     Thus  be  passed 

the  remainder  of  his  days  till  his  death  in  the  year  3S9« 

He  made  a  will,  by  wbicbi  except  a  few  legacies  to  some 

relations,  lie  bequeathed  his  whole  estate  to  the  poof  of 

the  diocese  of  Naaiaazum.    In  this  spirit,  daring  the  three 

years  that  he. enjoyed  the.  rich  bishopric  of  Constantioople» 

be  never  .touched  any  part  of  the  revenues,  but  gave  it  alt 

to  the  poor,  to  wliom  he  was  extremely  liberal. 

.    He-  was  one  of  the  ablest  champions  of  the  orthodox  faith 

cioiicerning  the  Trinity,  whence  he  had  the  title  given  hint 

of  i,dsi>(n!^f  ^^  The:  Divine/'  by  unanimous  consent.     His 

mav^X  and  religious  qUalitieft  were  attended  with  tiie  natural 

graces  of  a  sublime  wit,  subtle  apprehension,  clear  judg-^ 

ment)  and  easy,  and  ready  elocution,  which  were  all  set  off 

vdiik  as  great  a  stock  of  huodan  learning  as  the  schools  of 

the  £asii,  as  Alexandria,  or  Athens  itself,  was  able  to  afford. 

AH  these  excellences  are  seeu  in  his  works,  of  which  we 

have  the  following  character  by  Erasmus ;  who,  after  bav<* 

log  enriphed  the  western  church  with  many  editions  of  the 

anueien^  Catbera^  confesses^  that  he  was  altogether  discou*' 

raged  from  attempting  the  translation  of  NazLanzen,  by 

the  acumen  arid  smartness  of  his  style,  the  grandeur  and 

sisbUmity  of  his  matter,  and  those  somewhat  obscure  allu«» 

aions  that  sure  frequently  interspersed  among  his  writings* 

Upoa  the  whole,  Erasmus  doubts  not  to  affirm,  that,  as  he 

lived  .in  the  most  learned  age-of  the  church,  so  he  was  the 

beat  scholar  of  that  age*     His  works  consist  of  sermons, 

letters,  and  poems,  tbe  latter  evidently  imbued  with  ge^ 

Aitti,  and  have  been  printed  in  Greek  and  Latin,  Paris, 

IM9  and  1^11,2  vols.  fol.  with  notes  by  the  learned  abbo« 

4e  Billi,  who  was  also  author  of  tbe  Latin  translation.  Thie 

edition  is  more  esteemed  than  tbe  new  one  of  1630.   There 

»10  GUtGOnt, 

are  some  poems  by  St.  Gregory  in  ^^  Tollii  insignia  idtteM 
rarii  lialici,'*  Utrecht,  1696,  4to,  never  printed  before.  * 

GREGORY  (Nyssen),  was  the  younger  brother  of  St* 
Basil,  and  had  an  equal  care  taken  of  bis  education,  being 
brought  up  in  all  the  polite  and  fashionable  modes  of  leartir* 
ing;  but,  applying  himself  particularly  to  rhetoric,  he 
valued  himself  more  upon  being  accounted  an  orator  than 
^  Christian.  On  the  admonition  of  his  friend  Gregory 
Naziauzen  he  quitted  those  studies ;  and,  betaking  him** 
self  to  solitude  and  a  monastic  disciplinei  he  turned  his 
attention  wholly  to  the  holy  scriptures,  and  the  contro- 
yersies  of  the  age  ;  so  that  be  became  as  eminent  in  the 
knowledge  of  these  as^  he  had  before  been  in  the  course  of 
more  pleasant  studies.  Thus  qualified  for  the  highest  dig** 
nity  in  the  church,  he  was  placed  in  the  see  of  Nyssa,  » 
city  on<  the  borders  of  Cappadocia.  The  exact  time  of  his 
promotion  is  not  known,  though  it  is  certain  he  was  bishop 
in  the  year  371.  He  proved  in  this  station  a  stout  cham-* 
pioQ  for  the  Nieene  faith,  aDd  so  vigorously  opposed  the 
Arian  party,  that  he  was  6oou  after  banished  by  the  em- 
peror Valens ;  and,  in  a  synod  held  at  Nyssa  by  the  bishop 
of  Pontus  and  Galatia,  was  deposed,  and  met  with  very 
hard  usage.  He  was  hurried  from  place  to  place,  heavily 
fined,  and  exposed  to  the  rage  and  petulance  of  the  pb« 
pulace,  which  fell  heavier  upon  him,  as  he  was  both  un^ 
used  to  trouble,  and  unapt  to  bear  it.  In  this  condition 
be  remained  for  seven  or  eight  years,  during  which,  how- 
ever, he  went  about  countermining  the  stratagems  of  the 
Arians,  and  strengthening  those  in  the  orthodox  faith ;  and 
in  the  council  of  Antioch  in  the  year  378,  he  was»  among 
others,  delegated  to  visit  the  eastern  churches  lately  ha- 
rassed by  the  Arian  persecution. 

,  He  went  not  long  after  to  Arabia;  and,  having  dis- 
patched the  affairs  of  the  Arabian  churches,  be  proceeded 
to  Jerusalem,  having  engaged  to  confer  with  the  bisht^s  of 
those  parts,  and  to  assist  in  their  reformation.  Upon  his- 
arrival,  finding  the  place  overrun  with  vice,  schism,  and 
faction,  some  shunning  his  communion,  and  others  setting 
up  altars  in  opposition  to  him,  he  soon  grew  weary  of  it, 
and  returned  with  a  heavy  heart  to  Antioch  :  and  being  on 
this,  occasion '  consulted  afterwards,  whether  it  \vas  an  es- 
sential part  of  religion  to  make  pilgrimages  to  Jerusalem 

I  Cave.— Da^in.— •Moreri.— Milner's  Cburcb  Hist.— Stxii  OdmmiI. 

GREGORY.  f?l 

i(whkh,  it  seems,  was  the  opinion  of  the  monastic  discipli- 
narians at  th^t  time),  he  declared  himself  freely  in  the  ne« 
gative.  After  this,  he  was  summoned  to  the  great  council 
at  Constantinople,  where  he  made  no  inconsiderable  figure, 
his  advice  being  chiefly  relied  on  in  the  most  important 
cases ;  and  particularly  the  composition  of  the  creed,  called 
by  us  the  Nicene  creed,  was  committed  to  his  care.  He 
ccrmposed  a  great  many  other  pieces,  commentaries  on 
different  parts  of  the  scriptures ;  sermons;  liyes,  and  let- 
ters. There  is  a  good  edition'  of  his  works  by  Fronton  da 
Due,  1615,  2  vols.  fol.  and  another  of  1638,  3  vols.  fol. 
more  ample,  but  not  so  correct.  They  are,  however,  ia 
'less  estimation  than  the  works  of  almost  any  of  the  fathers^. 
He  lived  to  a  great  age,  and  was  alive  when  St.  Jerom 
wrote  his  **  Catalogue  of  Ecclesiastical  Writers"  in  the  year 
392  ;  and  two  years  after  was  present  at  the  synod  of  Con- 
stantinople, on  adjusting  the  controversy  between  Agapius 
and  Bagaditts,  as  appears  by  the  acts  of  that  council.  He 
died  March  9,  396.  He  was  a  married  man,  and  lived 
with  his  wife  Theosebia,  even- after  he  was  bishop.  Gre- 
gory Nazianzen,  in  a  consolatory  letter  to  his  sister  on  her 
death,  gives  her  extraordinary  commendations.' 

GREGORY  {THEODORDS)^surnamed  Thaumaturgus,  was 
descended  of  parents  eminent  for  their  birth  and  fortune, 
at  Neo-Cesarea,  the  metropolis  of  Cappadocia,  where  he 
was  born.  He  was  educated  very  carefully  in  the  learning 
and  religion  of  the  Gentiles  by  his  father,  who  was  a  warm 
zealot;  but,  losing  this  parent  at  fourteen  years  of  age,  he, 
enlarging  his  inquiries,  began  by  degrees  to  perceive  the 
Vanity  of  that  religion  in  which  he  had  been  bred,  arid 
turned  his  inclinations  to  Christianity.  Having  laid  the 
necessary  ground-work  of  his  education  at  home,  and 
stiidied  the  law  for  some  time,  to  which  he  bad  no  great 
inclination,  be  resolved  to  accomplish  himself  by  foreign 
travels,  to  which  purpose  he  went  first  to  Alexandria,  then 
become  famous  by  the  Platonic  school  lately  erected  there. 
Departing  from  Alexandria,  he  came  back  probably  through 
Greece,  and  staid  awhile  at  Atb^n^.;  whence  returning 
home,  he  applied  himself  to  his  old  study  of  the  law ;  but 
again  growing  weary  of  it,  he  turned  to  the  more  agreeable 
speculations  of  philosophy. 

*  The  fame  of  Origen,  who  at  that .  time  bad  opened  a 

■ '  / 

.  1  Cart't  Lires.of  tke  Fathers.— Milaec's  Charch  Hist. — Saxii  Onomasticon, 

2ii  Gregory. 

schdol  at  C«er&re»,  id  Palestine^  ami  vrho9^  retiOfrfl  m 
doubk  was  great  at  Alexandrk,  «oon  reached  bis  Mrs.  Tqr 
Ibat  city  therefore  he  betook  himself,  wbi^e  itfeettng  wkb 
Fermilian,  a  Cappadocian  gentleman,  aod  Hfter^ards  bi^bop^ 
of  Caraarea,  in  that  counti^y  he  eooimenced  H  frieiidsfaiil 
with  him,  tbefe  being  an  rxtfaordinary  sympanhy  and 
agreement  in  their  tempers  and  studies  ;  aod  they  jointly 
put  themselves,  together  witb  bis  .brother  AtbenodmriM^ 
under  the  tutorage  of  that  celebrated  master.  Origen  en^ 
deavoured  to  settle  him  in  tbe  full  belief  of  Cbristiamtyi 
of  which  he  had  some  insight  before,  and  to  ground  him  ia 
the  knowledge  of  the  holy  jcriptur es,  as  the  best  sysleaa  eS 
true  wisdom  and  philoso^y. 

Neo^Caesarea  was  a  large  and  popuknis  place,  but  being 
miserably  overgrown  with  superstition  and  idolatry,  Cbris^ 
tiaiiity  had  as  yet  scarce  made  its  entrance  .tbere»     How«» 
ever,  our  young  pbilxMopbet  was  appointed  lo  be  a  gitid^ 
of  souls  in  the  place  of  his  nativity.     Pfasedinius^  bishop  of 
Amasia,  a  neighbouring  city  in  that  province,  east  his. eye 
upon  him  for  that  purpose ;  and  it  was  thought  biavela^ 
tion  to  the  plaee  would  more  endear  the  emp)oyfireii>t  to 
him.     But,'  upon  receiving  the  first  iniimiattofi  of  the. de? 
sign,  he  shifted  his  quarters,  gnd^  as  oft  as  soogbt  for,  .0ed 
from  one  desert  to  another ;  so  that  the  btshcq^  by  all  bis 
arts  and  industry  i^ould*  not  obtain  inteiligeiice  of  him ;  be 
therefore  constituted  bim  bishop  of  the  plate  in  bii  ab* 
sencey^and  bow  averse  soever  he  seemed  to  be  befose,  be 
now  accepted  the  charge,  when  perbapa  he  bad  a  ntkote 
formal  and  solemn  eonsecration.    The  proriace  be  entefdd 
upon   was   difficult ;  the  city  and   neighbourhood  beii^ 
wholly  addid^rd  to  the  worship  of  demons,  arid  there  not 
being  above  sevente^i  Christians  in  those  parts^  so  that  he 
must  find  a  church  befone  be  could  govern  it.     The  couo* 
try  was  overrun  witb  heresies  ;^  and  fatmielf,  though  ae^ 
complished  sufficiently  in  bQQMua  learnings  was.  allogetfaer 
unexercised  in  theological  studies  and  the  mysteries  of  re^ 
ligion.     But  here  again  be  had  immediai:e  asMstance  frool 
heaven  ;  for,  one  night,  as  it  is  related  by  his  biographer^ 
Gregory  of  Nyssen,  with  the  sttperstkioas.  ^fmrit  then  pre^ 
Talent,  while  he  was  naussng  upon  tliese  tthiogs^  «iid  dis« 
cussing  matters  of  faith  in  his  own  mind,  he  had  a  visionjt 
in  which  St.  John  the  evangelist  and  the.  blessed  virgiqL  ap- 
peared in  the  chamber  where  he  was,  and  discoursed  be- 
fore him  concerning  those  points,    tn  ootiset[ueiite,  after  i 

G  R  E  o  o  a  T.  im 

their  departure,  be  immediately  penned  that  canon  and 
jrule  of  faith  vrbicb  they  bad  d^atred.  To  this  creed  be 
always  kept  himself,  and  bequeathed  it  as  an  inestimable 
deposit  to  bis  successors.  The  original,  written  with  his 
own  hand,  we  are  informed,  was  preserved  in  that  church 
in  bis  ntoie.  It  is  cited  by  Dr.  Waterland,  as  express  and 
eii:plicit  respecting  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity*  There  can 
be  no  doobt  of  its  authenticity,  although  the  Socinians 
hare  taken  much  pains  to  ,proTe  the  contrary. 

Thus  furnished,  be  began  to  apply  himseif  more  directly 
to  the  cbai|;e  ccmimitted  to  him,  and  be  was  said  to  be  en- 
dowed with  the  power  of  working  miracles :  hence  the  title 
of  Thaumaturgus,  or  wonder-worker,  is  colistantly  ascribed 
ta  him  in  the  writings  of  the  church.  St.  Basil  assures 
us,  tliat  upon  this  account  the  Gentiles  «sed  to  call  him  a 
aecbnd  Moses.  In  thk  faithful  and  successful  government 
of  his  flock  he  continued  quietly  till  about  anno  2  JO,  when 
lie  fled  from  the  Decian  persecution  ;  but,  as  ^oon  as  the 
storm  was  over,  he  returned  to  his  charge,  and  in  a  general 
visitation  of  his  diocese,  established  in  every  place  anni- 
versary festivids  asd  solemnities  in  honotft  of  the  martyrs 
wbo  had  soflered  in  the  late  persecution.  In  the  reie^  of 
GaHenus,  about  the  year  260,  upon  the  irruption  of  the 
Aorthera  nations  into  the  Roman  empire,  the  Goths  breaking 
into  Pontus,  Asia,  and  some  paru  of  Greece,  created  such 
/confusion,  that  a  neighbouring  bishop  of  those  parts  wrote 
to  Gregory  for  advice  what  to  do :  our  author's  answer, 
sent  by  Eupbrasymus,  is  called  bis  ^^  Canoivical  Epistle,*^ 
still  extant  among  his  works.  Not  long  afterwards  was 
convened  that  synod  at  Antioch,  wherein  Paul  of  Samosata, 
bishop  of  the  place,  which  he  dUd  not  care  to  losei,  made  a 
feigned  recantation  of  bis  heretical  opinions.  Our  St.  Gre- 
gory was  among  the  chief  persons  in  this  synod  wbith  met 
«n  the  year  264,  but  did  not  long  survive  it,  dying  either 
this  or  most  probably  the  following  year. 

St.  Ba»l  says  he  was  an  evangelical  man  in  bis  whole 
life.  In  his  devotion  he  shewed  the  greatest  reverence : 
yea  and  nay,  were  the  usual  measures  of  bis  communica- 
tion.  He  weas  also  a  man  of  uncommon  meekness  and  hu- 
mility, and  a  firm  adherent  to  truth.  With  respect  to  the 
miracles  ascribed  to  him,  they  do  not  rest  upon  the  autho- 
rity of  his  contemporaries,  and  are  more  num^erous  and 
extraordinary  than  ^ili  now  be  readily  credited.  His  works 
we^e  printed  in  Greek  and  Latin,  1626,  folio^  and  in  the 

VolXVL  T 

f^4  c  a  t  G  o  R  r 

library  of  the  fathers.  Gerard  Vossiut  ^it^d  prtih«d  M 
edition  at  Mentis  in  I664,  4to.  Many  of  his  mttitlgs 
however,  are  supposed  to  be  lost*       -  ^     • 

GREGORY  of  Toufs,  St  or  frequently  called  Oeoroiub 
FLoa£NTiDS  Gregorius,  an  eminent  bishop  and  writer  af 
the  sixth  century,  descended  from  a  npbie  family  of  Ao^ 
▼ergne,  was  born  about  the  year  544.  He  was  edfu;i||tfll 
by  his  uncle  Gallus,  bi»hop  of  Cle^mont,^  and  beoanie  so 
eminent  for  learning  «nd  virtue,  as  to  be  appointed  bishoip 
of  Toura  in  the  year  573.  He  assisted  at  the  coutieti  bei4 
at  Paris  in  the  year  577,  respecting  Pretextat,  bishop  xlf 
Rouen,  and  strongly  opposed  the  violence  of  some  of  the 
members  of  that  assembly,  particularly  Chilperic  and  Fr^ 
degonde.  He  went  afterwards  to  visit  the  tomb  of  the 
apostles  at  Rome,  where  he  formed  a  friendship  wkh  St. 
Gregory  the  Great,  and  died  November  27,  595^  Tkk 
bishop  wrote  a.  *<  History  of  France,**  in  ten  booka^  ^igiit 
books  of  <<The  Miracles,  or  Lives  of  the  Sainta;V  ami 
other  works,  in  the  library  of  the  fathers.  The  bc^edii. 
lion  Is  that  by  Dom  Ruinart,  1699,  fol.  His  history  is^very 
useful;  for  though  the  style  is  dry  aud^cmrsey  and  the 
author  extremely  aimple  aad  cjpedulous,  yet  atr  iagenkMlt 
critic  may  easily  separate  the  truths  contained  ilk  it  frcKk 
the  fiilsehoods.  This  work  has  been  tmnslated  into  Freoeh 
by  the  abbi  de  Mavolles,  1668,  2  vols^  8va*  ^'^- 

GREGORY  of  Rimini,  general  of  the  Augustinei  1357, 
who  died  in  135B,  was  a  celebrated  scholastic  dtvsine,  stir- 
named  the  Authentic  Doctor,  and  wrote  a  .'^  Comtn^itaiy 
on  the  Master  of  the  Sentences,*'  Vaientia,  1500^  foi^  ^ith 
an  addition,  printed  at  Venice,  1522,  fol.;  *^  A  Treatise 
on  Usury,'*  and  other  works,  Rtmtni,  1522,  foL' 
.  GREGORY  of  Sc  Vincent,  a  Flemish  geometrician^  was 
born  at  Bruges  in  1584,  and  became  a  Jesuit  at  Rome  at 
twenty  years  of  age.  He  studied  mathematics' under  the 
learned  Jesuit  Clavius.  He  afterward  became  a  reputable 
fyrofessor  of  those  sciences  himself,^  and  his  instructions 
were  solicited  by  several  princes  :  he  was  called  to  Prague 
by  the  emperor  Ferdinand  II. ;  and  Philip  IV.  king  of  Spua 
was  desirous, of  having  him  to  teach  the  mathematics  toiiis 
SOB,  the  young  prince  John  of  Austria.    He  was  not  :le$s 

'  .      - 

»  CaYC-^Motbeim. — ^MiJner't  Cburcb  Hiit — Douglas's  Criteriun,  p.  397.—- 
9s»t]  Onomast. 
,  •  Papio.-^Momri.— Vostiat  dt  Hist«  L«t.<««CtTC,  roL  I. 

6  R  E  0  0  R  Y.  f  7« 

tttimable  for  bis  virtues  than  his  skill  iii  the  sciences.  His 
lipeU*nieaRt  endeavours  were  very  commeudablei  when  his 
holy  zeal,  though  for  a  false  reli^ioP)  led  him  to  fuUow  the 
jurmy  in  Flanders  one  conipaign^  to  confess  the  wounded 
and  dying  soldiersi  in  which  he  received  several  wounds 
jiimself.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy  at  Ghent^  in  1667,  at 
eighty-three  years  of  age. 

Asa  writer,  Gregory  of  St  Vincent  was  very  diffuse  and 
voluminous,  but  he  was  an  excellent  geometrician^  He 
fiublisbed,  in  Latin,  three  mathematical  works,  the  prin* 
cipal  of  which  was  his  ^^  Opus  Geometricum  Quadraturas 
iSirculi,  et  Sectiooum  Coni,*^  Antwerp,  1647,  2  vols,  folio. 
^Idioogh  he  has  not  demonstrated,  in  this  work,  the'  qua* 
drature  of  the  circle,  as  he  pretends  to  have  done,  the 
book  nevertheless  contains  a  great  number  of  truths  and 
^portaiit  discoveries ;  one  of  which  is  this,  viz.  that  if  one 
a^mptote  of  an  hyperbola  be  divided  into  parts  in  geome? 
incal  prog^ression,  and  from  the  points  of  division  orditiates 
be-drawn  parallel  to  the  other  asymptote,  they  vjrill  divide 
the  space  between  the  asymptote  and  curve  into  equal  por« 
liona;  from  whence  it  was  shewn  by  Mersenne,  that,  by 
iaking  the  continual  sums  of  those  parts,  there  would  be 
ejbcained  areas  in  arithmetical  progression,  adapted  to  ab« 
f eissea  in  geometrical  progpressioo,  and  which  therefore 
were  analogous,  to  a  system  of  logarithms. ' 

GREGORY  (James),  the  first,  of  an  emment  family  of 
learned  men  in  Scotland,  was  the  son  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  John 
{Gregory,  minister  of  Drumoak  in  the  county  of  Aberdeen, 
aiid  was  born  at  Aberdeen  in  November  1638.  His  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  Mr.  David  Anderson  of  Finzaugb,  or 
Finshaugh,  a  gentleman  who  possessed  a  singular  turn  for 
mathematical  and  mechanical  knowledge.  This  mathema- 
lical  genius  was  hereditary  in  the  family  of  the  Andersons^ 
fuid  from  them  it  seems  to  have  been  transmitted  to  their 
descendants  of  the  names  of  Gregory,  Reid,  &c.  Alexr 
ander  Anderson,  cousin -german  of  the  said  David,  wa^ 
professor  of  mathematics  at  Paris  in  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  and  published  there  several  va- 
luable and  ingenious; works;  as  may  be  seen  in  our  vol.  IL 
The  mother  of  James  Gregory  inherited  the  genius  of  her 
family ;  and  observing  in  her  son,  while  yet  a  child,  a 
strong  propensity  to  mathematics,  she  instructed  him  her- 

1  lloreri.— Hutton't  OicUoasi^. 
T  2 

i7»  O  R  E  G  O  H  Y. 

ilelf  in  the  elements  of  that  science.  His  edueattcm  in  iim 
languages  be  received  at  the  gramniar»6chool  of  Aberdeeoi 
lind  went  through  the  usual  course  of  academical  studies  at 
Marischal  college,  but  was  chiefly  delighted  with  pbilosa* 
phical  researches,  into  which  a  new  door  bad  been  lately 
opened  by  the  key  of  the'  mathematics.  Galileo,  Kepler^ 
and  Des  Cartes  were  the  great  masters  of  this  new  method; 
their  works,  therefore,  Gregory  made  his  principal  study, 
tind  began  early  to  make  improvements  upon  their  disco*^ 
Teries  in  optics.  The  first  of  these  improvements  was  th^ 
invention  of  the  reflecting  telescope,  which^still  bears  hit 
name;  and  which  was  so  happy  a  thought,  that  it  bas 
given  occasion  to  the  niost  considerable  improyemifents 
made  in  optics,  since  the  invention  .of  the  telescope.  Ha 
published  the  construction  of  this  instrument  in  bis  ^^  Optica 
jpromota,^'  1663,  at  the  age  of  twenty-four.  This  disco* 
very  soon  attracted  the  attention  of  the  matbematiciansi 
both  of  our  own  and  foreign  countries^  who  immediately 
perceived  its  great  importance  to  the  sciences.  Sut  the 
manner  of  placing  the  two  specula  upon  the  same  axis  ap« 

t^  >earing  to  Newton  to  be  attended  with  the  disadvantage  of 
osing  the  central  rays  of  the  iai^er  speculum,  he  proposed 
an  improvement  on  the  instrument,  by  giving  an  oblique 
jposition  to  the  smaller  speculum,  and  placing  the  oj'e^glast 
in  the  side  of  the  tube.  It  is  observable,  however,  that 
the  Newtonian  construction  of  that  instrument  was  long 
abandoned  for  .the  original  or  Gregorian,  which  is  now 
always  used  when  the  instrument  is  of  a  moderate  sijce^ 
though  Herschel  has  preferred  the  Newtonian  form  for  the 
conistruction  of  those  immense  telescopes  which  he  has  of 
late  so  successfully  employed  in  observing  the  heavens. 
About  1664  or  1665,  coming  to  London,  he  became  ac« 

auainted  with  Mr.  John  Collins,  who  recommended  him  to 
le  best  optic  glass-grinders  there,  in  order  to  have  bis 
telescope  executed.  But  as  this  could  not  be  done  for 
want  of  skill  in  the  artists  to  grind  a  plate  of  metal  for  the 
object  speculum  into  a  true  parabolic  concave^  which  the 
design  required,  he  was  much  discouraged;  and  after  a 
few  imperfect  trials  made  with  an  ill-polished  spherical  dQe, 
which  did  not  succeed  to  his  wish,  be  dropped  the  pursuit, 
and  resolved  to  make  the  tour  of  Italy,  then  the  mart  of 
Mathematical  learning,  in  the  view  of  prosecuting  bis  &•* 
Tourite  study  with  greater  advantage. 

He  had  not  been  long  abroad  when  tlie  same  inventive 

G  R  I  G  O  K  Y«  t77 

g^enids,  tvht<$h  Kad  before  Aewo  itself  in  practical  mslhe^ 
itiatict,  Carried  him  to  some  new  improvements  m  the  spe«< 
culative  part.  The  ftublime  geometry  on  the  doctrine  of 
curves  was  then  hardly  passed  its  infant  state,  and  the 
femed  problem  of  squaring  the  circle  stiil  continued  a  re- 
proach to  it ;  when  our  author  discovered  a  new  analytical 
method  of  summing  up  an  infinity  converging  series,  by 
which  the  area  of  the  hyperbola,-  as  well  as  the  circle,'may 
be  computed  to  any  degree  of  exactness.  He  was  then  at 
Padua  ;  and  getting  a  few  copies  of  his  invention  printed 
there  in  1667  under  the  title  ^^  Vera  Circuli  et  Hyperbola 
Quaclratura/'  he  sent  one  to  his  friend.  Mr.  Collins,  wh6 
communicated  it  to  the  royal  society^  where  it  met  with 
the  commendation  of  lord  Brounker  and  Dr.  Wallis.  He 
teprinted  it  dt  Venice,  and  published  it  the  following  year, 
1668,  together  with  another  piece  entitled  '^  Geometric 
pars  universalis,  inserviensquantitatum  curvarum  transmu* 
tationi  et  mensurfis,"  isi  which  he  is  allowed  to  have  shewn, 
for  the  first  time,  a  method  for  the  transmutation  of  curves. 
These  works  engaged  the  notice,  and  procured  the  author 
the  correspondenee  of  the  greatest  matbemati<fian8  of  the 
age,  Newton,  Huygens,  Wallis,  and  others.  An  account 
of  this  piece  was  also  read  by  Mr.  Collins  before  the  royal 
society,  of  which  Gregory,  being  returned  from,  his  travels, 
was  chosen  a  member,  admitted  the  1 4th  of  January:  this 
year,  and  communicated  to  them  an  account  of  the  contro* 
versy  in  Italy  ^bout  the  motion  of  the  earth,  which  waa 
dented  by  Riccioli  and  bis  followers. 

The  same  year,  hir  quadrature  of  the  circle  being  at* 
tacked  by  Mr*  Hnygens,  a  controversy  arose  between  those 
two  eminent  mathematicians,  in  which  our  aUthot  pro« 
doced  some  improvements  of  his  series.  But  in  this  dis^ 
pute  it  happened,  as  it  generally  does  in  most  others,  that 
the  antagonists,  though  setting  out  with  decent  temper, 
yet  grew  too  much  heated  in  the  combat.  This  was  the 
case  here,  especially  on  the  side  of  Gregory,  whose  de^ 
fence  was,  at  his  own  request,  inserted  in  the  *^  Philoso* 
phical  Transactions;^'  but  Leibnitz,  who  allows  Gregorf 
the  highest  merit  for  his  genius  and  discoveries,  is  of  opi* 
nion,  that  Huysens  has  pointed  out,  though  not  errors, 
sonde  considerable  deficiencies  in  the  treatise  above-men-^ 
tiofled,  and  has  shewn  a  rnnch  simpler  method  of  attaining 
the  same  end.  Gregory  also  received  from  Mr«  GoUine, 
about  this  time,  an  account  of  the  series  inreoted  by  sk 

97*  GEE  GO  R  Y. 

Iiatfc  Newton  ;  who  th  tbat  bad  actually  elfedted  wbat'ovf 
muthor  was  stiffly  contending  against  Huygent  to  be  utterly 
impossible :  that  is,  the  ratio  of  tbe  diameter  of  a  circum-' 
ference,  expressed  in  a  series  of  simple  terms,  indepetidenl 
of  each  otber,  and  entirely  freed  froni  the  magic  vinottluixi 
of  sards,  in  which  they  had  till  then  been  tndissoiubly  held* 

In  16j68  our  author  published  at  London  another  werk^ 
entitled  ^f  Exercitationes  Geometricie,"  which  contributed 
still  much  farther  to  extend  his  reputation.  About  thi4 
time  he  was  elected  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  iini?er4 
sity  of  St.  Andrew's,  an  office  which  he  held  for  six  years. 
During  bis  residence  ^there  he  married,  in  1669»  Mary, 
the  daughter  of  George  Jamesoo^  thie  celebrated  painter^ 
whom  Mr.  Walpde  has  termed  the  Vandyke  of  Soot^ 
)and,  mid  wl|o  was  fellow  discij^e  with  that  great  artist 
in  the  schoof  of  Rubens  at  Antwerp.  His  fame  piaoed  btqi 
in  so  great  esleem  with  the  royal  academy  ^t  Pftris,  tbat| 
in  the  beginning  of  1671,  it  was  resTolved  by  t\^%  aca<» 
demy  to  recommend  htm  to  their  grand  monarch  fpr  J| 
pensidn ;  and  tbe  ^design  was  approved  even  by  Mr.  Hay? 
gens,  though  he  said  he  had  reason  to  think  himself  ink^ 
properly  treated  by  Mr.  Gregory,  on  account  of  the  gon-r 
trorersy  between  them.  Accordingly,  several  members  of 
that  academy  wrote  to  Mr.  Oldenburg,  desiring  him  to  ae» 
quaint  the  council  tf  tbe  royal  society  with  their  proposal  i 
iqforining  him  likewise,  that  the  king  of  France  wa«  willing 
to  allow  pensions  to  one  or  two  learned  Engltshmeui  whom 
they  should  recommend.  Biit  no  answer  was  ever  made 
to  t)iat  proposal ;  and  our  author,  with  respect  to  this  par* 
tieular,  looked  ppon  it  as  nothing  qiore  than  a  compliment, 

In  1678  he  published  ^*  The  great  and  new  art  of  weigh* 
jng  Vanity :  or  a  discovery  of  tbe  ignorance  and  arrogance 
of  the  gi^at  and  new  atrtist,  in  bis  pseudo-philosophical 
vfrifings.  By  M.  Patrick  Mathers,  arch^bedal  to  the  um« 
Tersity  of  St.  Andrew's.  To  which  are  annexed  some  ten-» 
tamina  de  naotu  penduli  et  projectorum.'^  Under  this 
assumed  name,  our  author  wrote  this  little  piece  to  expose 
tbe  ignorance  of  Mr.  Sinclare,  professor  at  Glasgow,  in 
his  bydrostatioa^l  writings,  and  in  return  for  some  ill-usage 
of  that  author  to  a  colleague  of  Mr.  Gregory's.  In  the 
same  year,  sir  Isaac  Newton^  on  his  wonderful  discoveries 
ill  thp  nature  of  light,  having  contrived  a  new  refliecting 
leliefcopey  and  made  several  objections  to  Mr.  Gregory^'S, 
thisgave  birth  tp  i^  duipute  between  thqse  two  pbUMoph^n;^ 

GREG  O  R  Yv  2» 

vilmlibiiqtt,  ooatniued  during  that  and  the  following  year^  in 
ibeiDoscaaiii^le  manner  on  each  side;  Mr.  Gregory  de« 
li^adiag  bis  Qivn  construction  so  far,  as  to  gi\'e  his  anta-^ 
gowist  the  whole  honour  of  having  made  the  catoptric  te«^ 
ktspopes  preferable  to  the  dioptric ;  and  shewing,  that  the|hese  ii^truments  were  not  so  much  owing 
^jk  defect  in  the  object^speculum  as  to  the  diflPereut  re- 
^aogthiJity  of  the  rays  of  light.  lii  the  course  of  this  dis* 
po^y  oAir  author  described  a .  burning  concave  mirror^ 
whieh  was  approved  by  sir  Isaac,  and  is  still  in  good 
esteem.  Several  letters  that  passed  iu  this  dispute  ar4s 
priiited  by  Dr.  Uesaguliers,  in  an  appendix  to  the  English 
edition  of  Dr.  David  Gregory^s  ^^  Elemeau  of  Catoptrica 
and .  Dioptrics.^'  AU  ibis  .while  he  attended  the  proper 
{Misijness  of  his  professorship  with  great  diligencoi  which 
^ing  up  the  greatest  part  of  his  time,  especially  in  the 
jfioiter  season^  interrupted  him  in  th^  pursuit  of  his  propet 
s|iidies»  These,  however,  led  him  to  &rtber  improvementi 
jfft  the  iaveotion  of  infuute  series,  which  be  occasionaUyi 
comiDunicated  to  his  intimate  frieod  and  correspondent 
Mr.  Collins.  In  1674  Mr.  Gregory  was  .called  to  Edia* 
burgh,  to  fill  the  chair  of  mathematics  in  that.ttniversity« 
This  place  he  liad  held  but  little  more,  than  a  yeap,  when, 
ia  October  1675,  being  employed  in  shewing  the  satellites 
of  Jupiiter  through  a  telescope  to  some  of  his  pupils, .  he 
^sy|  suddenly  struck  with  total  blindness,  and. died  a  few 
daysjtfter,  to.  the  great  loss  of  the  mathematical  world,  at 
only  thirty-seven  years  of  age. 

.  The  most  shining  part  of  Gregory^s  character  is  that  of 
his. mathematical  genius  as  an  inventor*  In  this  view,  par« 
iicalarly,  he  merits  a  place  in  these  memoirs }  aodthere^ 
fore  we  /shall  conclude  this  article,  with  .a  list  of  the  tnpsl 
leaiarkableof  his  inventions.  His  reflecting  telescope ;  bumir 
ing concave  mirror;  bis  quadrature  of  the  circle,  by  an  infi- 
oi4^  converging  series ;  and  his  method  for  transformation  of 
eurvesy  have  been  already  mentioned.  Besides  these,  h% 
was  the  first  who  g^ve  a  geometrical  deinonstration.of  lord 
Brounker's  series  for  squaring  the  hyperbola,  aa  it  had 
been  explained  by  Mercator  in  his  *^  Logarithraotechnia.** 
He  was  likewise  the  first  >yho  demonstrated  the  meridian 
line  to  be  analogous  to  ^>  scale  of  logarithmic  tangents,  of 
the  half  compliment  of  latitude*.     He  also  invented  and 

'  *  yh\%  intention  it  of  great  us*  in  inYeqlor  of'lhe  deiqonitratioa  of  it  mf% 
aavrf  ation  $  S«l  bit  just  mtrit  i»9  Ctie     aficrwarcltsMertcdli/Or.HstlejiWhi^ 

aftO  G.KEO  O  R  Y. 

demonstrated  geometrioally,  by  the  help  of  the  bypeibbia, 
a  very  simple  converging  series  for  making  the  iogartthmSf 
and  therefore  recommended  by  Dr.  Halley  as  very  proper 
for  practice.  He  also  sent  to  Mr.  Collins  the  solution  of 
the  famous  Keplerian  problem  by  an  infinite  series.  He 
found  out  a  method  of  drawing  tangents  to  curves  geo-» 
metrically,  without  any  previous  calculations.  He  gave  a 
rule  for  the  direct  and  inverse  method  of  tangents,  which 
Stands  upon  the  same  principle  (of  exhaustions)  with  that 
of 'fluxions,  and  differs  not  much  from  it  in  the  manner  of 
applicatipn.  He  likewise  gave  a  series  for  the  length  of 
the  arc  of  a  circle  from  the  tangent,  and  vice  versa;  a* 
also  for  the  secant  and  logarithmic  tangent  and  secant,  and 
vice  versa.  These,  with  others,  for  certifying,  or  measor* 
ing  the  length  of  the  elliptic  and  hyperbolic  curves,  were 
sent  to  Mr.  Collins,  in  return  for  some  received  from  htm 
of  sir  Isaac  Newton^s  ;  and  their  elegance  being  admirable, 
and  .above  whatever  he  had  produced  before,  and  after  the 
manner  of  air  Isaac,  gave  room  to  think  he  had  improved 
himself  greatly  by  that  master,  whose  example  be  foUowedi 
in  delivering  his  series  in  simple  terqns,  independent  on 
each  other. 

We  are  assured,  that  at  his  death  he  was  in  pursuit  of  a 
general  method  of  quadrature,  by  infinite  series,  like  that 
of  sir  Isaac.  This  appeared  by  his  papers,  which  came 
into  the  hands  of  his  nephew,  Dr.  David  Gregory,  who 
published  several  of  them  ;  and  he  himself  assured  Mr. 
Collins,  be  bad  found  out  the  method  of  making  sir  Isaac's 
series;  who  thiereupon  concluded  he  must  have  written  a 
treatise  upon  it.  This  encouraged  Mr.  Stewart,  professor 
of  mathematics  in  Aberdeen,  to  take  the  trouble  of-  exa* 
mioing  his  papers,  then  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  David  Gre« 
gory,  the  late  dean  of  Christ  church,  Oxford ;  but  no  such 
treatise  could  be  found,  nor  any  traces  of  it,  and  the  same 
had  been  declared  before  by  Dr.  David  Gregory ;  whence 
it  happens,  that  it  is  still  unknown  what  his  method  was  of 
making  those  serieses..  However,  Mr.  Stewart  affirms, 
that,  in  turning  oyer  his  papers,  be  saw  several  curioi^ 

however,  at  the  same  time  obsenrcs.  Curios,  vol.  If.  1727.    The  truth  i% 

that  it  wair  performed,  not  without  a  Gompiieation,  tediousness,    and  intri* 

IcMig  train  ef  eonseqneneet,  and  com-  caoy,  were  fanlti  compiatned  of  in  all 

l^licatioQS  ef  nroportioni,  whereby  the  bis  seriett  before  be  had  learned  to  ifli« 

evidence  ef  the  demoostration  was  in  a  prove  them  by  a  sight  of  those  of  sir 

freat   measure  lost,    and  the  reader  Isaac  Newtoo.  Comm/^rCi  EpistoL  No* 

wearied  before  he  attains  it.    Miscel.  53. 


onei  irpoif  particalar  subjects,  not  jet  printed.  On  the 
contrary,  some  letters  which  he  saw  confirmed  Dr.  David 
Gregory^s  remark,  and  made  it  evident,  that  our  author  had 
never  compiled  any  treatise,  containing  the  foundations  o( 
this  general  method,  a  very  shoit  time  before  his  death  ; 
so  that  all  that  can  be  known  about  his  method  can  only  be 
collected  from  his  letters,  published  in  the  short  history  of 
his  *^  Mathematical  Discoveries,**  compiled  by  Mr.  Collins^ 
and  his  letters  to  that  gentleman  in  the  ^^  Comtnercium  Epi* 
stolicum."  From  these  it  appears,,  that,  in  the  beginning  of 
1670,  when  Mr.  Collins  sent  him  sir  Isaac  Newton's  series 
'  for  squaring  the  circular  zone,  it  was  then  so  much  above 
every  thing  he  comprehended  in  this  way,  that  after  hav- 
ing endeavoured  in  vain,  by  comparing  it  with  several  of 
fais  own,  and  combining  them  together,  to  discover  the 
m^hod  of  it,  he  concluded  it  to  be  no  legitimate  series ; 
till,  being  assured  of  his  mistake  by  his  friend,  be  went 
again  to  work,  and  after  almost  a  whole  year's  indefatiga- 
ble pains,  as  be  acknowledges,  he  discovered,  at  last,  that 
It  might  be  deduced  frdfil  one  of  bis  Own,  upon  the  subject 
of  the  logarithms,  m  wtfieb  he  had  given  a'  method  .for 
finding  the  power  to  any  given  logarithm,  or  of  turning 
the  root  of  any  pure  power  into  ^n  infinite  series^  and  in 
the  same  manner,  viz.  by  comparing  and  combininig  his 
own  series  together,  or  else  by  dediiction  therefrom,  he  fell 
upon  several  more  of  sir  Isaac's,  as  well  as  others  like  them^ 
in  which  he  became  daily  more  ready  by  continual  prac* 
tice ;  and  this  seems  to  have  been  the  utmost  he  ever 
actually  attained  to,  in  the  progress  towards  the  discover* 
ing  Any  universal  method  for  those  series.^ 

GREGORY  (David),  elder  brother  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  in  1627  or  1628,  and  although  he  possessed  all 
the  genius  of  the  other  branches  of  his  family,  was  edii* 
cated  by  bis  father  ifor  trade,  and  served  an  apprenticeship 
CO  a  mercantile  house  in  Holland.  Having  a  stronger  pas* 
ston,  however,  for  knowledge  than  for  money,  he  aban* 
doned  trade  in  1655,  and  returning  to  his  own  country,  he 
succeeded,  upon  the  death  of  an  elder  brother,  to  the  estate 
of  Kinardie,  situated  about  forty  miles  north  of  Aberdeen^ 
where  he  lived  many  years,  and  where  thirty«two  children 
were  born  to  him  by  two  wives.    Of  these,  three  sons  made 

^  Bm^.  Brit — ^Hutton's  Oici.-«-M«vtiii*8  Biog.  PkUmk— Pre&et  to  Dr.  Joha 
Gregory's  Works,  &l]t,  1788,  4  tols.  12mo. 


a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  republic  of  letters,  hetng  aH 
professors  of  matheoiatics  at  the  same  time  in  three  of  the 
British  universities^  viz.  David  at  Oxford,.  James  at  Edin^ 
'burghy  and  Charles  at  St  Andrew's* 

Mr.  Gregory^  the  subject  of  this  memoir,  while  he  lived 
at  Kinardie,  was  a  jest  among  the  neighbouring  gentlemea 
for  his  ignorance  of  what  was  dpipg  about  his  pyrn  farni^ 
but  an  oracle  in  matters  of  learning  pnd  philosophy,  and 
particularly  in  medicine,   which  he  had  studied  for  his 
amusement,  and  began  to  practise  among  his  poor  oei'gh- 
hours.     He  acquired  «uch  a  reputation  in  that  science, 
that  he  was  employed  by  the  nobility  and  gentjemeu  of 
that  county,  but  took  no  fees.     His  hours  of  study. were 
singular.     Being  much  occupied  through  the  day  with 
those  who  applied  to  him  as  a  physician,  he  went  early  to 
bed,  rose  about  two  or  thr;ee  in  the  morning,  and,  after 
upplying  to  his  studies  for  some  hours,  went  to  bed^agaiu^ 
and  slept  an  hour  or  two  before  breakfatt.     He  was  thi^ 
first  man  in  that  country  who  had  a  barometer;  and  bav^ 
ing  paid  great  attention  to  the  changes  in  it,  and  the  cor** 
responding  cbaAges  in  the  weather,  he  was  once  in  danger 
of  being  tried  by  the  presbytery  for  witchcraft  or  conjura- 
tion.   A  deputation  of  that  body  waited  upon  him  to  an<» 
quire  iuto^  the  ground  of  certain  reports  that  had  come  to 
jtlieirears;  but,  affording  them  ample  satisfaction,  a  prose« 
putio^i  was  prevented, 

.  About  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  he  removed 
with  his  family  to  Aberdeen,  and  19  the  time  of  queen 
Anne's  wars  employed  his  thoughts  upon  an  improvement 
in  artillery,  in  order  to  make  the  shot  of  great  guns  more 
destructive  to  the  enemy,  and  executed  a  model  of  the 
engine  he  had  contrived.  The  late  Di*-  Reid,  in  his  adr 
ditions  to  the  lives  of  the  Gregorys,  published  in  Hutton*s 
dictionary,  informs  us  that  he  conversed  with  a  clock- 
maker  at  Aberdeen,  who  had  been  eipployed  in  making  this 
model ;.  but  having  made  many  different  pieces  by  direction 
without  knowing  their  intention,  or  how  they  were  to  be 
put  together,  he  could  give  x\o  account  of  the  whole.  After 
making  some  ei^periments  with  this  model,  which  satisfied 
him,  Mr,  Gregory  was  so  s^qgpine  in  the  hope  of  being 
useful  to  the  allies  in  the  war  against  France,  that  he  set 
about  preparing  a  field  equipage  with  a  view  to  make  a 
tampaign  in  Inlanders,  and  in  the  mean  time  sent  his  model 
to  his  son  the  Savilian  professor,  the  subject  of  our  next 


ftrtiele,  that  he  might  have  hiS|  and  sir  Isaac  Newton's  opi« 
hion  of  it.  His  son  shewed  it  to  Newton  without  letting 
hiai  know  that  his  own  father  was  the  inventor  of  it.  Sir 
Isaac  was  much  displeased  with  it,  saying,  that  if  it  had 
tended  as  much  to  the  preservation  of  mankind,  as  to  their 
destruction,  the  inventor  would  have  deserved  a  great  re- 
ward :  but,  as  it  was  contrived  solely  for  destruction,  and 
would  soon  be  known  by  the  enemy,  he  rather  deserved 
to  be  punished,  and  urged  the  professor  very  strongly  to 
destroy  it,  and  if  possible,  to  suppress  the  invention.  It 
is  probable  the  professor  followed  this  advice,  as  he  died 
'soon  after,  and  the  model  was  never  found.  Sir  Isaac's 
f^ljection,  however,  appears  rather  to  be  fastidious,  and 
might  apply  with  equal  force  to  any  improvement  in  rous* 
keis,  Sec.  or  to  gunpowder  itself.-^Wheh  the  rebellion 
broke ^  out  in  1715,  Mr.  Gregory  went  a  second  time  to 
Holland,  and  returned  when  it  was  over  to  Aberdeen, 
where  he  died  about  1720,  aged  liinety-three,  leaving  be- 
hind  him  a  history  of  his  own  time  and  country,  which  was 
never  published.  One  of  hisidaughters  was  mother  to  the 
late  celebrated  Dr.  Thomas  Reid  of  Glasgow,  by  whointhe 
above  particulars  were  first  communicated.' 

GREGORY  (David),  son  of  the  preceding,  and  nephew 
to  the  inventor  of  the  reflecting  telescope,  was  born  June 
24,  1661,  at  Aberdeen;  where  be  also  received  the  first 
grounds  of  bis  learning,  but  was  afterwards  removed  to 
Kdinburgb,  and  took  his  degree  of  M*  A.  in  that  university, 
l^he  great  advantage  of  his  uncle^spapers  induced  his  friends 
to  recommend  the  mathematics  to  him  ;  and  he  had  a  natu«» 
ral  subtilty  of  genius  particularly  fitted  for  that  studj',  to 
which  he  applied  with  indqlatigable  industry,  and  suc- 
ceeded so  well  that  he  was  advanced  to  the  mathematical 
chair,  at  Edinburgh,  at  the  age  of  twenty-three.  The 
same  year  he  published  a  treatise,  entitled  *<  Exercitatio 
Geometrica  de  dimensione  figurariim,^'  Edinb.  1684,  4to^ 
in  which  assuming  the  doctrine  of  indivisibility,  and  the 
arithmetic  of  infinites,  as  already  known,  he  explained  a 
method  which  not  only  suited  his  nucleus  examples,  left  by 
him  without  any  way  of  finding  them,  but  discovered  others^ 
by  which  an  infinite  number  of  curve-lines^  and  the  areas 
contained  between  thpiu  and  righ^  lines  (such  as  ho  other 
itoethod  then  known  extended  to)  might  be  measured.     He 

>  Htttton'tf  Pick.— Oleig's  $applemeut  to  the  Eoeypl,  Brit«nDica-. 



bad  already  seen  some  hints  in  bis  und^^s  papers  'conc($m# 
ing  sir  Isaac  Newton's  method,  of  which  he  made  the  best 
use  he  could  * ;  and  the  advantage  he  found  thereby  raised 
an  ardent  desire  in  him  Xo  see  that  method  puhlished. 
Under  this  impatient  expectation,  the  **  Principia'^  was  ho 
sooner  out  in  1€S7,  bnt  our  author  took  it  in  band,  and 
presently  made  himself  so  much  master  of  it  as  to  be  able 
to  read  his  professorial  lectures  upon  the  philosophy  con** 
tained  in  it,  and,  causing  his  scholars  to  perform  their  ex** 
ercises  for  their  degrees  upon  several  branches  of  it,  be^ 
eaihe  its  first  introducer  into  the  schools. 
.  .He  continued  at  Edinburgh  till  1691,  when,  bearing  of 
Dr.  Bernard's  intention  to  resign  the  Savilian  professorship 
of  astronomy  at  Oxford,  he  left  Scotland,  and,  coming  to 
London,  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  society  :  and 
paid  bis  addresses  to  sir  Isaac  Newton,  who  took  the  first 
opportunity  of  recommending  him  to  Mr.  Flamstead  (masf 
ter  of  the  mathematical  school  in  Christ's- hospital,  Lon* 
don),  with  a  letter,  recommending  his  mathematical  merit 
,ebove  all  exception  in  these  terms :  **  Sir,  it  is  almost  a 
fortnight  since  I  intended,  with  Mr«  Paget  and  another 
friend  or  two,  to  have  given  you  a  visit  at  Greenwich  ;  but 
sending  to  the  Temple  coffee-house,  I  understood  you  had 
not  been  in  London  for  two  or  three  weeks  before,  wbioh 
maide  me  think  you  were  retired  to  your  living  for  a  time. 
The  bearer  hereof,  Mr.  Gregory,  mathematic  professor  <tf 
Edinburgh  coll<^e,  in  Scotbmd,  intended  to  have  given 
you  a  visit  with  us.  You  will  find  him  a  very  ingenious 
person,  and  a  good  mathematician,  worth  your  acquaint*" 
ance.'*  In  proceeding,  be  mentions  our  author  as  a  fit 
person,  in  case  of  Mr.  Flamstead's  death,  to  carry  on  his 
astronomical  views.  Thus  recommended,  the  royal  astro«- 
Bomer  used  his  best  interest  to  procure  him  success  at  Ox»- 
ford,  where  he  was  elected  astronomy-professor  this  year, 
bavine  been  .first  admitted  of  Baliol  college,  and  incorpo* 
rated  M.  A.  February  8,  and  he  was  created  M.  D.  on  the 

*  In  his  Latin  <*  Treatise  of  PracU- 
tal  Geometry,"  there  is  a  series  of 
Jiis  vncle's,  vbieh  be  reeeoBmeods  for 
jH)uaring  die  circle>'thimigh  it  eonfevf •• 
so  slow,  as  to  be  otteHy  of  no  use  in 
pr»etiee»  without  some  farther  artifice'. 
This  is  obserred  by  Mr.  Maclaiirtn, 
who  published  an  English  translation  of 
it  in  1745,8¥0,  with  additions,  and  the 
second  edition  vat  printed  tt  Edin* 

burgb,  1751, 8vo.  However,  Mr.  Mao* 
laiirin*s  remark  shews  our  author's  «^in 
in  infinite  series  to  be  eery  iai|>erftfot» 
at  the  time  of  reading  those  leetores, 
from  which  the  tract  waa  compiled 
after  his  death ;  and  Mr.  Celes.  of  Caw- 
bridge,  spohe  alighUy  of  bit  abilities  hi 
that  doctrine.  Gen.  Diet.  fol.  IV,  p^ 

G  R  E  G  O  R  T. 


19th  of  the  •atne  month,  but  he  had  no  relUh  for  the  tech* 
nical  part  of  hia  profession,  and  was  seldom  seen  in  the 
abserratory.  His  genius  lay  more  to  geometry,  and  in 
that  way  he  succeeded  very  well,  both  in  his  elements  of 
optics*,  and  of  physical  and  geometrical  astronomy.  This 
last  is  reckoned  his  master-piece ;  and,  having  finished  it 
in  1702,  folio,  he  immediately  engaged  in  carrying  on  the 
noble  Resign  of  his  predecessor,  Dr.  Bernard,  to  print  all 
the  works  of  the  ancient  mathematicians,  the  first-fruits  of 
which  appeared  in  an  edition  of  Euclid's  works  in  Greek 
and  Latin,  folio,  the  following  year.  In  the  same  design 
he  afterwards  joined  with  his  colleague.  Dr.  Halley,  in.  pre- 
paring an  edition  of  '^  Apollonius's  Conies  f  *  Dr.  Bernard 
had  left  materials  for  the  four  first  books,  which  our  author 
undertook  to  complete,  but  was  prevented  by  his  deaths 
which  happened  October  10,  1708.  He  died  at  the  Grey- 
hound-inn, at  Maidenhead,  in  Berkshire,  in  his  way  from 
London  to  Bath.  His  disorder  was  a  consumption.  He 
was  interred  at  Maidenhead,  but  there  is  a  handsome 
marble  monument  erected  to  his  memory  in  St.  Mary*s 
church  at  Oxford,  by  his  wife. 

•  Our  professor's  genius  lay  chiefly  in  inventing  new  and 
elegant  demonstrations  of  the  discoveries  made  by  others^ 
He  gave  the  first  demonstration  of  that  curve,  which  is  well 
known  since  by  the  name  of  catenaria,  or  the  curve  that  is 
formed  by  a  chain  fastened  at  each  end  ;  and  first  disco* 
vered,  that  thi?*  curve  iuverted  gave  the  form  of  a  true  and 
legitimate  arch,  all  the  parts  supporting  each  otherf*  There 
are  several  other  papers  of  his  in  the  *^  Philosophical  Trans- 
actions," vols.  XVIII.  XIX.  XXI.  XXIV.  and  XXV.  He 
left  also  in  MS.  "  A  short  treatise  of  the  nature  and  aritb* 
metic  of  Logarithms,"  which  is  printed  at  the  end  of  Keill*^ 
translation  of  Commandine's  Euclid ;  and  the  <'  Treatise  of 
Practical  Geometry"  menUoned  in  the  note,  as  published 
by  Mr.  Madaurin.    .His  explication  of  sir  Isaac  Newton's 

.  *  It »««  published  in  1^95,  in  La- 
tio,  entitled  **  CatoptricB  &  Dioptrics 
Spherics  Eleraenta,  Ox<».^Bro,  and 
vat  codBiMled  from'  hw  leotttKi*  read 
at  fidinhursh  in  1684.  In  H  he  g^ivet 
the  preference  to  lir  Isaac  Newton's 
rafleeclng  telescope^  above  thatofhli 
fade  James  Oregory.  It  was  much 
fsteemed  for  the  neatness  and  easiness 
tf  the  demonstrations ;  and  a  seoond 
edition  ir'  fiofiish  came  ovt  in  1703, 

by  Dr.  Browne ;  and  a  third  in  1*735, 
by  Dr.  Desa|:uliers,  who  added  an  ap- 
pendix, containinif  the  history  of  tlio 
two  reAootins  tolesoopet,  with  theU 
seTeral  improvements  at  that  time. 

t  This  is  printed  in  the  Phil.  Trans. 
No.  Sdl.  He  obsarrtts,  that  arches  af 
all  othar  fotms,  in  stone*  bfick.  and  ihe 
1ilce»  are  only  supported  by  incladim 
jomecatenary  curve,  within  the  breadth 
of  their  farming  stones. 

i$e  O  R  E  G  O  R  r. 

method,  to  construct  the  orbit  of  a  comet  by  three.  ncoci^tM 
observations,  is  commended  by  Dr.  Halley.  Oar  author  wa« 
a  most  ioiimate  and  confidential  friend  of  sir  'Isaac,  and 
was  intrusted  with  a  manuscript  copy  of  the  ^'  Principia,** 
for  the  purpose  of  making  obsenri^ions  on  it.  Of  these 
Newton  availed  himself  in  the  second  edition,  they  having 
come  too  late  for  his  first  publication,  which  wa?  exceed- 
ingly h«rried  by  Dr.  Halley,  lest  Newton's  backwardness 
might  not  let  it  appear  at  all.  There  is  a  complete  copy 
of  these  observations  preserved  in  the  library  of  the  vni- 
vemty  of  Edinburgh,  presented  to  it  by  Dr.  James  Gre^-. 
gory,  the  present  professor  of  the  practice  of  medicine* 
These  contain  many  sublime  matlinematical  discussions^ 
many  valuable  commentaries  on  the  **  Principia,*'  and 
many  interesting  anecdotes.  There  are  in  it  some  para^ 
graphs  in  the  band-writing  of  Huygens  relative  to  his 
theory  of  light. 

Dr.  David  Gregory  married,  in  1695,  Elizabeth,  the 
daughter  of  Mr.  Oliphant  of  Langtown  in  Scotland.  By 
this  lady  he  bad  four  sons,  of  whom,  the  eldest,  Davip, 
was  elected,  from  Westminster  school  in  1714»  student  of 
Christ  church,  Oxford  ;  became  rector  of  Semly  in  Wilt* 
shire;  was  installed  canon  of  Christ  church,  June  8,  }7S6| 
and  dean,  May  18,  1756.  He  was  appointed  the  first  pro^ 
fessor  of  modern  history  and  languages  on  the  foundation 
of  that  professorship  by  George  I.  prolocutor  of  the  lower 
house  of  convocation,  and  master  of  Sherbuni  hospital^ 
near  Durham.  He  died  and  was  interred  in  Christ  church 
cathedral,  1767,  in  the  seventy-first  year  of  his  age,  in  the 
same  grave  with  his  wife  Mary  (Grey),  who  died  in  176^. 

When  Dr.  David  Gregory,  the  Savilian  professor,  quitted 
Edinburgh,  he  was  succeeded  in  the  professorship  at  that 
university  by  his  brother  Jam£S,  likewise  an  eminent  ma- 
thematician ;  who  held  that  office  for  tbirty-three  ye&rs^ 
and,  retiring  in  1725,  wss  succeeded  by  the  celebrated 
Maclaurin.  A  daughter  of  this  professor  James  Gregory, 
IT  young  lady  of  great  beauty  and  accomplishments,  was 
the  victim  of  ah  unfortunate  attachment,  that  furnished  the 
subject  of  Mallet^s  welUknown  ballad  of  ^*  William  imd 
Margaret."  Another  brother,  Charles,  was  created  prcM 
fessor  of  mathematics  at  St.  Andrew^s  by  queen  Anne,  in 
1707.  This  office  he  held  with  reputation  and  ability  for 
thirty^two  years;  and^  resigning  in  1739,  was  succeeded 

G  RE  G  O  It  T.  4t9 

hfhu  9on^  who  eminently  inherited  the  tttentt  of  hiii  fa^ 
mily,  and  died  in  1763.* 

GREGORY  (John),  professor  of  medicine  in  the  oni* 
Tersity  of  Edinburgh,  was  born  at  Aberdeen  in  1724.  He 
was  the  third  son  of  James  Gregory,  M.  D.  professor  of 
medicine  in  King's  college,  Aberdeen,  by  Anne,  daughteir 
of  the  rev.  George  Chalmers,  principal  of  King^s  college 
there.  His  grandfather  was  David  Gregory  of  Kinardie, 
and  his  grand-uncle  the  James  Gregory,  whose  life  we 
have  first  given,  the  inventor  of  the  reflecting  telc^scope. 
Though  the  father  of  Dr.  John  Gregory  died  when  he  wai 
very  young,  his  education  was  carefully  superintended,  and 
be  made  a  rapid  progress  in  his  studies,  and  like  the  rest 
of  bis  ancestors  became  deeply  versed  in  mathematical 
knowledge.  He  also  cultivated  an  elegant  and  just  taste, 
(dearoess  and  beauty  of  expression,  with  precision  of 
judgment,  and  extensive  knowledge.  He  was  the  early*, 
iatimate,  and  constant  friend  and  associate  of  Drs.  Grerard, 
Beattie,  and  the  other  eminent  men.  who  belonged  to  the 
university  of  Aberdeen.  In  1742,  he  went  to  Edinburgh 
to  prosecute  the  study  of  medicine,  and  thence  to  Leydeii 
in  1745,  and  to  Paris  in  1746,  for  further  improvement; 
On  his  return  lie  was  appointed  professor  of  philosophy  in 
King's  college,  Aberdeen,  and  had  at  the  same  time  the 
degree  of  M.  D.  conferred  upon  him.  He  held  this  pro^ 
fessofship  for  a  few  years.  In  1754,  he  went  to  London, 
frberehe  cultivated  the  acquaintance,  and  fixed  the  esteem 
atid  friendship  of  some  of  the  most  distinguished  literati 
|bere.  Edward  Montague,  esq.  an  eminent  matheniatician^ 
iQaintaiued  a  firm  friendship  for  the  doctor,  founded  on  a 
similarity  of  manners  and  studies.  His  lady  the  celebrated 
Mrs.  Montague,  and  George  lord  Lyttelton,  were  of  the 
number  of  his  friends;  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  he 
would  have  continued  in  London,  and  practised  there  in 
bis  profession,  if  the  death  of  bis  brother  Dr.  James  Gre-* 
gory,  professor  of  physic  in  King's  college,  Aberdeen,  in 
1756,  had  niot  occasioned  his  being  recalled  to  his  native 
university  to  fill  that  chair.  His  occupations  in  physic  now 
began; to  be  active ;  be  gave  a  course  of  lectures  in  physic^ 
aad  practised  in  his  profession^  with  great  success. '  In  the 

*  Biof .  Brit.— »Hutton't  I^iCtionary.— Gleig's  Supplemeot  to  the  Eneyclop, 
Britari.— -Letters  by  Eminent  Persout>  1S13,  3  rols  8?o,  by  which  we  have 
heen  enabled  to  eprrect  the  date  of  Dr.  Gregory *»<leatb|'  giren  erfontouily  by 

all  his  biographer*.  .     ...  > 

,SW  G  K  £  O  O  K  T. 

Above-meDtioncd  year,  while  at  London,  he  was  elected  e 
fellow  of  the  royal  seciety.  In  1766,  on  the  death  of  Dr. 
Robert  Wbytt,  the  ingenious  professor  of  the  theofy  of 
physic  at  Edinburgb|  Dr.  Gregory  was  called  to  succeed 
him,  as  his  majesty's  first  physician  in  Scotland  ;  and  about 
the  same  time  he  was  chosen  to  fill  the  chair  of  professor  of 
the  practice  of  physic,  which  was.  jast  resigned  by  Dn 
Rutherford.  Dr.  Gregory  gave  three  successive  courses  of 
.practical  lectures.  Afterwards  by  agreement  with  his  in* 
genious  colleague,  Dr.  Cullen,  they  lectured  alternate  ses- 
sions, on  the  practice  and  institutions  of  medicine,  with 
just  and  universal  approbation,  till  the  time  of  Dr.  Gre- 
gory's death.  j 

The  doctor  having  attained  the  first  dignities  of  his  pro- 
fession in  bis  native  country,  and  the  most  important  me^ 
dical  station  in  the  University,  far  from  relaxing  firom  that 
attention  to  the  duties  of  his  profession  which  had  raised 
bim,  endeavoured  to  merit  the  rank  he  lield  in  it,  and  in 
the  public  esteem,  by  still  greater  exertions  of  labour  and 
assiduity.  It  was  during  this  time  of  business  and  occupa* 
tion,  that  he  prepared  and  publbbed  his  practical  Syllabus 
for  the  use  of  students,  ifrhich,  if  it  bad  been  finished, 
would  have  proved  a  very  useful  book  of  practice ;  and 
likewise,  those  admired  ^*  Lectures  on  the  Dutte^  Office^ 
and  Studies  of  a  Physician.^' 

Dr.  Gregory,  for  many  years  before  his  death,  fek  the 
approach  of  disease,  and  apprehended,  from  an  hereditary 
and  cruel  gout,  the  premature  death,  which  indeed  too 
soon  put  a  period  to  his  life  and  usefulness.  In  this  anSEious 
expectatioa,  he  had  prepared  ^'  A  Father's  Legacy  to  his 
Daughters.''  But  for  some  days,  and  even  that  preceding 
his  death,  he  had  been  as  well  as  usual ;  at  midnight,  he 
w%9^  left  in  good  spirits  by  Dr.  Johnstone,  late  physician  in 
Worcester,  at  that  time  his  clinicid  clerk;  yet  at  nine 
o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  10th  of  February,  1773,  be 
was  found  dead  in  his  bed. 

Pr.  Gregory  was  taU  in  person,  and  remarkable  for  the 
sweetness  of  his  disposition  and  oountenance,  as  wdl  as  for 
the  ease  and  openness  of  his  maimers.  He  was  an  univer- 
sal and  (elegant  scholar,  an  experienced,  learned,  sagadou% 
and  humane  physician — a  professor,  who  had  the  happy 
talent  of  interesting  his  pupils,  and  of  directing  their  at- 
tention to  sttl^jects  of  importance,  and  of  explaining  diffi- 
culties with  simplicity  and  clearness.     He- entered  with 

GREGORY.  28$ 

groM  mnmh  into  the  interests  and  conduct  of  his  heare^^ 
and  gave  such  as.  deserved  it  every  encooragement  and  as« 
sistaace  ia  bis  power :  open^  frank,  soKcia!,  and'tindisgaised 
in  his  life  aad  manners,  sincere  in  his  friendships,  a  ten«- 
der  husband  and  father :  and  an  unaifected>  cheerful^  can- 
did^ benevolent  man. 

Dr.  Gregory  married  in  1752,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
William  lord  Forbes-:  he  lost  this  amiable  lady  in  1761  : 
she  left  the  doctor  three  sons  and  three  daughters.  HiA 
eldest  son,  James  Gregory,  M.  D.  now  professor  of  medi- 
cine in  £dinborgh,  is  likely  to  perpetuate  the  honours  of 
this  learned  family,  which  has  given  sixteen  professors  to 
British  universities. 

Dr.  Gregory  published :  1.  **  Comparative  View  of  the 
state  and  faculties  of  Man  with  those  of  the  Animal  World,** 
8vo,  This  work  was  first  read  to  a  private  literary  society 
at  Aberdeen,  and  without  the  most  distant  view  to  publica- 
tion. Many  bints  are  thrown  out  in  it  oii  subjects  of  con- 
sequence, with  less  formality,  and  more  freedom,  than  if 
pnbUcation  bad  been  originally  intended.  The  author  put 
bis -name  to  the  second  edition  of  this  work ;  many  additions 
are  4I90  joined  to  it;  and  it  is  dedicated  tb  George  lord 
Lyttelton,  who  always  professed  a  high  esteem  for  thist 
author  and  his  writings.  This  work,  indeed,  if  the  author 
bad  left  no  other,  must  convince  every  one,  that,  as  a  man 
of  science,  he  possessed  extensive  knowledge,  exquisite 
taste  and  judgment,  and  great  liberality  of  mind.  2.  "  Ob- 
servations on  the  duties  and  oflBices  of  a  Physician,  and  oft 
the  method  of  prosecuting  inquiries  in  Philosophy,"  177O', 
9vo,  published  by  one  who  heard  the  professor  deliver  them 
in  lectures ;  but  they  were  acknowledged,  and  republished 
in  a  more  correct  form,  by  the  author^  in  the  same  yean 
3.  ^^  Elements  of  the  practice  of  Physic  for  the  use  of 
Students,**  1772,  republished  1774,  and  intended  as  a  text 
hook,  to  be  illustrated  by  his  lectures  on  the  practice  of 
physic ;  but  be  died  before  he  had  finished  it,  and  before 
he  had  finished  the  first  course  of  lectures  which  he  gave 
on  that  text. 

The  doctor's  death  happened  while  he  was  lecturing^  oh 
the  pleurisy.-— His  son,  Dr.  James  Gregory,  finished  that 
course  of  lectures,  to  thd  general  satisfaction  of  the  uni- 
Veisity ;  and  published  in  1774,  a  small  tract  of  his  father's, 
entitled  <<  A  father's  Legacy  to  bis  Daughters  ;**  which 
was  written  solely  for  their  use  (about  eight  years  before 

Vol.  XVI.  U 

150  G  fl  t  dr  O  R  T. 

the  author  died)  ii^ith  the  tei^derest  aflPeetioii,  and  deepest 
concern  for  their  happiness.  This  work  evinces  great 
kndwiedge  of  huaaafii  nature,  and  of  the  worlds  and  mani'- 
fests  such  jtoUcitude  for  their  welfare  as  strongly  recoai- 
mends  the  advice  which  he  gives.  In  1788,^  all  his  works 
were  published  together  in  4  vols*  8?o,  with  a  life  of  hixxt^ 
nelif  and  an  accotint  of  his  fainilj.' 

GREGORY  (Johk)»  a  learned  divine  of  a  different  fa^ 
mily  from  the  preceding,  was  born  November  lOy  1607,  at 
Agmondesham^  in  Bttckinghamshire.  There  appeared  in 
his  infancy  such  a  strong  inclination  to  learning,  as  reccmi- 
mended  him  to  the  notice  of  some  persons  of  the  best  rank 
in  the  town  ;  and,  his  parents  being  well  respected  for  their 
piety  and  honesty,  it  was  resolved  to  give  him  a  liberal 
education  at  the  university,  the  ezpence  of  which  they 
were  not  able  to  support.  To  thi»  purpose^  he  was  chosen 
at  the  age  of  fifteen,  by  Dr.  Crooke,  to  go  with  sir  William 
Drake  to  Christ  church,  in  Oxford,  whom  he  attended  in 
the  station  of  a  servitor,  and  be  was  soon  after  retained  by 
sir  Robert  Crook  in  the  same  capacity  ;  Dr.  George  Mor*- 
ley,  afterwards  bishop  of  Winchester,  was  their  tutor.  Mr. 
Gregory  made  the  best  use  of  this  favour,  and  applied 
8o  closely  to  his  studies,  for  several  years  at  the  rate 
of  sixteen  hours  each  day,  that  he  became  almost  a  pro* 
digy  for  learning.  He  took  his  first  degree  in  arts  in  1628, 
and  commenced  master  in  1631 ;  about  which  time,  enter* 
ing  into  orders,  the  dean,  Dr.  Brian  Duppa,  gave  him 
a  chaplain's  place  in  that  cathedral.  In  1634,  he  published 
a  second  edition  of  sir  Thomas  Ridley's  ^^  View  of  the  Civil 
and  Ecclesiastical  Law,"  4to,  with  notes ;  which  was  weU 
received,  and  afforded  the  world  eminent  proofs  of  his  ex« 
tensive  knowledge ;  the  notes  shewing  him  well  versed  in 
historical,  ecclesiastical,  ritual,  and  oriental  learning,  and 
a  considerable  master  of  the  Saxon,  French,  Italian,  Spa- 
nish, and  all  the  eastern  languages.  All  these  acquisitiona 
were  the  pure  fruit  of  his  own  industry ;  for  he  had  no  as* 
iistance,  except  for  the  Hebrew  tongue,  in  which  Mr.  Joha 
Dod,  the  decalogist,  gave  him  some  directions,  during  on« 
vacation  that  he  resided  with  him  near  Banbury.  Hia  me- 
rit engaged  the  farther  kindness  of  Dr.  Duppa;  and,  when 
that  prelate  was  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of  Chichett^ 
in  1638,  he  made  Mr.  Gregory  his  domestic  chaplain^  Md 

I  Life  prefixed  t*  his  YfotkM^^^mi  m  tbe  Mandietter  Umoin^  1786. 

O  R  E  O  O  R  T.  f91 

'teme  time  after  gave  him  a  prebend  in  that  church.  His 
^patron  also  continued  his  favours  after  his  translation  td  the 
see  of  Salisbury  in  1641,  when  he  seated  him  in  a  stall  -of 
that  cathedraL 

But  he  did  not  enjoy  the  benefit  of  these'  preferments 
long :  being  a  firm  loyalist,  as  well  as  his  patron,  he  was 
deprived  of  both  by  the  tyranny  of  the  usurpers,  and  was 
reduced  some  years  before  his  death  to  great  distress.  In 
these  circumstances,  he  was  taken  into  the  bouse,  of  one 
Sutton,  to  whose  son  he  had  been  tutor  ;  this  was  an  ob* 
scure  ale-house  on  Kiddington-green,  near  Oxford^  where 
he  died  March  13,  1.646,  of  an  heredkary  gout,  with  which 
be  had  been  troubled  for  above  twenty  years,  and  which 
at  last  seized  his  stomach.  His  corpse  was  carried  to  Ox- 
ford, and  interred,  at  the  expence  of  some  friends,  in  that 
cathedral.  He  was  honoured  with  the  acquaintance  and 
favour  of  the  greatest  men  of  the  age,  and  held  a  corre- 
spondence with  several  eminent  persons  abroad,  as  well 
Jews  and  Jesuits,  as  others.  His  works  are,  ^'  Notes. and 
Observations  oh  some  passages  of  Scripture,^'  published  a 
little  before  his  death  in  1646,  4to,  and  besides  being  re- 
printed four  times  in  the  same  form,  were  translated  into 
Lalin^  and  inserted  in  the  **  Critici  Sacri.^'  •  His  posthu- 
mous works  were  published  by  his  friend  Mr.  John  Gur- 
gany,  B.  D.  of  Merton  college,  in  a  quarto  volume,  entitled 
«<Gregorii  Posthuma,"  1650,  1664, 1671,  and  1683.  This 
volume  contains,  I.  *^A  Discourse  of  the  LXX  Interpreters; 
the  place  and  manner  of  their  interpretation."  II.  **  A 
Discourse  declaring  what  time  the  Nicene  Creed  began  to 
be  sung  in  the  Church."  III.  ^^  A  Sermon  upon  the  Re- 
surrection, from  1  Cor.  xv.  verse  20."  IV.  "  Koiiw  JaJry®-, 
or,  a  Disproof  of  him  in  the  third  of  St.  Luke,  verse  36.? 
V.  '*  Episcopus  Puerorum  in  die  Innocentium.^'  YI.  *^  De 
Mtis  &  Epochis,  shewing  the  several  accounts  of  time 
among  all  nations  from  the  creation  to  the  present  age.'f 
VII.  ^^  The  Assyrian  Monarchy,  being  a  description  of  its 

*  rise  and  fall."    VIII.  ^*  The  description  and  use  of  the 

:  Terrestrial  Globe."  Besides  these,  he  wrote  a  tract  en^ 
titled  **  Alkibla,"  in  which  he  endeavoured  to  vindicate  the 

.  antiquity  of  worshiping  towards  the  East.  There  is  a 
manuscript  of  his  entitled  ^^  Obseirvationes  in  Ip^a  qusedam 

;l  excerpta  ex  Johannis  MalelsB  chronographia,"  in  the  pub- 
lic library  at  Oxford ;  and  he  intended  to  have  published  a 
l4ttin  translation  of  that  author  with  annotations.    He 

u  3 

traislaftefl  Mke^int^trota  Greeds  ititc^ latin,  1.  ^^Palladitis  de 
Gc»tib«M  Iniim  A  BraebmanibiM  ;'*  2.  <<  S.  Ambrosiiis  de 
Moribiis  BracbmannoFum  9^'  S.  '^  Anonymus  de  Braeh-^ 
manibus  t^*  wbich  translations  came  after  his  deatb  into 
die  bands  of  Mr.  Edmund  Cbilmead^  cbaplaki  of  Cbrist 
chnrcby  Oxfofd,  and  then  into  those  of  Edward  Byshe,  esq; 
who  publiflbed  tbetn  in  bis  own  name  at  London,  1665, 4tOv 
I  GREGORY  (Gboroe),  D.  D.  a  divine  and  miscella* 
iieous  writer,  was  descended  from  a  family,  originally  from 
SeotUnd,  but  a  branch  of  wbich  was  settled  in  Ireland^ 
His  father,  w&o  had  been  educated  in  Trinity  college, 
Dublin,  held,  at  the  time  of  his  son^s  birth,  the  living  of 
£dernin,  and'  a  prebend  in  the  cacbedral  of  Ferns.  Pr< 
Gregory  was  born  April  14,  1754,  and  after  bis  father's 
death  io  1766,  was  removed  to  Liverpool,  where  his  mo- 
ther fixed  her  residence.  He  passed  some  time  under  thd 
tuition  of  an  excellent  schoolmaster  of  the  name  of  Holden, 
Iby  whom  be  was  much  distinguished  for  his  proficiency  ia 
learning.  As  it  was  his  mother^s  desire  that  bcf  should  be 
brought  up  to  commerce,  be  spent  some  years  in  mer-? 
eantile  employments ;  but  a  taste  fbr  literature,  which  con-^ 
tinned  to  be  his  ruling  propensity,  produced  a  final  deter- 
mination in  favour  of  a  learned  profession.  Although  the 
regular  process  of  education  for  this  purpose  had  been  in- 
terrupted, tbe  intervening  variety  of  pursuit  and  observa^ 
tion  proved  the  foundation  of  a  great  store  of  information 
relative  to  the  arts  and  sciences,  to  commerce,  'manufac- 
tures, and  political  institutions,  that  was  very  useful  in  his 
subsequent  compilations.  When  his  destination  was  fixed, 
be  passed  an  interval  of  study  at  the  university  of  Edin- 
burgb,  and  in  1776  entered  into  holy  orders.  He  first  ofli- 
ciated  as  a  curate  at  Liverpool,  where  he  distinguished 
himself  as  a  preacher,  and  wrote  some  occasional  pieces  in 
the  periodical  journals  and  magazines,  particularly  against 
the  slave  trade,  which  he  had  the  spirit  to  attack  in  tbe 
principal  seat  of  that  traffic.  In  1782  he  removed  to  Lon-« 
don,  and  obtained  the  curacy  of  St.  Giles's  Cripplegate>  in 
which  parish  he  became  very  popular,  both  in  that  capa- 
city and  afterwards  as  their  morning  preacher.  His  t>ther 
London  preferments,  if  they  toay  be  so  called,  were  the 
curacy  and  lectureship  of  St.  Botolph's,  the  lectureship  of 

1  Life  prefixed  to  hi*  PosUmmoat  Worki.— Gen.  Diet— Biog.  Brit  Sttppl^ 
musaX.-^AOu  Ox.  foL  II.— Uojd'i  Memoir*,  folioi  p.  86.— FuUer^i  WoiUuci. 

6  b:e  G  O  B  Y.  in 

St.  L^ke%:QBe  <>{the  weekly  lectureships  of  St  Aiitholin*s. 
^nd  a  small,  prebend  jq  St.  Paul's,  which  he  relinquished 
fQr  the  rectory  o£  Stafdeford  in  Hertfordshire.  He  was 
also  spme. time  one  of  the  evening. preachers  at  the  E'ound^ 
ling  hospital.  .  In  1804  he  was  presented  by  Mr.  Adding-^ 
ton,  now  ;lord  Sidmouth^  to  the  valuable  living  of  West 
Ham  in  Essex,  where  in  a  little  .tinie  the  powers  of  his 
Gonstitutiopy,  although  apparently  a  strong  one,  suddenly 
gave  way,  and  he  died,  after  a  short  confinement,  March 
12,  1808. 

.    The. greater  part  of  Dr.  Gregory's  time,  after  his  arrival/ 
in  London,  was  spent  in  literary  employment,  rand  princi« 
pally  in  compilations  that  were  successful  and  useful*     He 
was  tb^  first  who,  about  1762-3,  suggested  a.  series  efex^ 
tracts  from  eminent  authors,  which  were  published  by  the  late 
i/Lr,  Kearsley  of  Fliaet-stve^  under  the  name  of  -^^  Beau- 
tiiss,"  and  Md  a  very  .extensive  sale.     He  afterwards  pub^ 
lished  an  original  work,  entitled  **  Essays  historical  and 
iDonU/*  nSSf  8vo,  which  introduced  him  very  favourably 
to  the  notice  of  the  ;public,  and  Ieacbed^a  second  edition 
in  178S.    This  was  followed  by,  l.A  translation  of  Lowtfa'a 
Lectures  on  the  sacred  poetry  of  the  Hebrews,  17S7.**    2.. 
*«  Church  History,"  1788,  and  1795,  2  vols.     3.  *Mife  rf 
Chattertpn,"  1766,  8vo,  inserted  afterwards  in  the  <*  BiO* 
graphia  Britannica,"  for  which  it  was  originally  intended. 
4.  "  Sermons,"  1769.     5.  A  translation  of  Telemachus,  or 
rather  a  reWsal  of  Hawkesworth^s  translation,  1796,  4 to. 
C.  "  The  Economy  of  Nature,"  3  vols.  8vo.     7.  <«  A  Dio- 
tionary  of  Arts  and  Sciences,"  1 806,  2  vols.  4to.    To  some 
of  these  it  is  supposed  he  contributed  little  more  than  his 
Dame;  but  the  number  of  works  which  he  compiled  with- 
put  bis  name,  would  furnish  perhaps  a  more  numerous  li^. 
Among  others  he  was  many  years  editor  of  the  ^^  New  An- 
nual Register,"  conducted  through  the  whole  of  the  French 
wmx  with  bitter  hostility  to  the  meai^ores  of  the  British  go- 
viernment.     He  took  advantage,  however,  of  the  short  in- 
terval of  peace,  to  give  it  a  turn  favourable  to  the  then  ad- 
ministration, which  it  is  said  procured  him  the  living  of 
West  Ham.     He  left  in  the  press  '<  Letters  on  Natural  aiM 
Experimental  Philosophy,"  and  a  ^'  Series  of  Letters  to 
}iis  Son,"'  which  have  since  been  published.^ 

GRENADA  (Lewis  de),  a  celebrated  Dominican  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  one  of  the  greatest  masters  of  what 

1  Athensum^  vol.  III.—GeDt,  Mas*  ▼ol.  LXXVIII* 

ft9^  6R  E  N  A  da: 

Roman  catholics  call  the  spiritaal  life,  was  born  in  1504,  at' 
Grenada.     He  was  educated  in  the  house  of  the  marquis 
de  Mondejar,  and  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  piety^ 
preaching,  and  writings.     The  kings  of  Portugal  and  Cas- 
tile had  a  particular  esteem  for  him,  and  would  have  raised 
him  to  the  highest  ecclesiastical  dignities,    but  he  per- 
sisted in  refusing  their  offers.     He  died  December  31^ 
1588.     His  works  have  been  translated  into  French  by 
Mr.  Girard,  in  2  vols,  folio,  and  10  vols.  8vo.     They  are 
said  to  be  written  with  uncommon  eloquence  of  style,  and 
contain  solid  instruction.     The  principal  are,  '^  The  Sin- 
ner's Guide,**  1  vol. ;  the  **  Memorial  of  the  Christian  Life,** 
with  the  supplement,  3  vols. ;  a  **  Treatise  on  Prayer,'*  2 
vols. ;  an  excellent  '<  Catechism,"  4  vols. ;  the  edition  of 
1709  is  more  complete  than  the  preceding  ones.     ^'In- 
structions for  Preachers,*'  8vo,  a  treatise  on  the  duties  of 
bishops;   '<  Sermons,**   6  vols.    8vo,    Antwerp,   1604,  in 
Latin ;  the  Life  of  the  Holy  Priest,  Avila,  &c.^ 

GRESHAM  (Sir  Thomas),  descended  of  an  ancient 
family  distinguished  by  many  honourable  persons,  which 
took  its  name  from  a  town  so  called  in  Norfolk,  was  the 
younger  son  of  sir  Richard  Gresham,  knight,  silderman, 
sheriff,  and  lord  mayor  of  London,  an  opulent  mer^^hant, 
and  a  man  of  great  public  spirit,  who  died  in  February 
1548.     His  brother,  sir  John  Gresham,  was  also  an  opu- 
lent merchant,  and  had  served  the  offices  of  alderman, 
sheriff,  and  lord  mayor.     He  died  of  a  pestilential  fever  in 
1556,  after,  among  other  acts  of  munificence,  endowing  the 
free  school  of  Holt  in  Norfolk,  and  bestowing  the  govern- 
nent  of  it  on  the  fishmongers*  company  in  London.    Tho- 
mas, the  son  of  the  preceding  sir  Richard,  was  born  in 
1519  at  London,  and  bound  apprentice  to  a  mercer -there 
while  he  was  young :  but,  to  enlarge  his  mind  by  an  edu« 
cation  suitable  to  his  birth  and  fortune,  was  sent  to  Gains 
college,  then  Gonvil-hall,  in  Cambridge;  where  he  re- 
.mained  a  considerable  time,  and  made  such  improvements 
in  learning,  that  Gains  the  founder  of  the  college  s^les 
him  '*  doctissimus  mercator,**  the  very  learned  merchant 
However,  the  profits  of  trade  were  then  so  great,  and  such 
large  estates  had  been  raised  by  it  in  his  own  family,  chat 
)ie  afterwards  engaged  in  it,  and  was  admitted  a  member 
pf  th^  Mercers*  company  in  1543.    About  this  time  hQ 

V  Diet,  Hist.«^Moreri, 

6  R  E  S  R  A  M.  29C 

ttnried  Anne,  fhe  daughter  of  William  Fernley,  esq.  of 
West  Creling,  in  Suffolk,  and  widow  of  William  Reade,  of 
Falbam,  in  Middlesex,  esq^  by  whom  he  had  a  son  named 
Richard,  who  not  long  after  succeeded  his  father  in  the  office  . 
of  agent  to  king  Edward  for  taking  up  money  of  the  mer- 
chants at  Antwerp,  and  removed  to  that  city  with  his  family 
in  1551. 

The  business  of  his  employ  gave  him  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  and  much  uneasiness.  The  usual  method  in  which 
the  business  of  taking  up  money  of  the  merchants  at  Ant- 
werp for  the  king's  use,  had  been  managed,  was  greatly  to 
the  prejudice  of  the  crown  of  England,  as  well  by  giving  a 
very  large  interest  for  the  money  borrowed,  as  other  in« 
conveniencies,  when  the  principal  was  not  paid  Within  the 
time  of  the  contract  >  And  as  the  money  which  was  now 
taken  up  in  Mr.  Gresham^s  agency,  was  not  paid  at  the 
time  agreed  on,  this  gave  him  great  uneasiness,  his  busi- 
ness being  then  to  get  it  prolonged,  which  was  not  to  be 
done  without  the  consideration  of  the  king's  purchasing 
jewels  or  some  other  commodities  to  a  large  amount,  as  a 
consideration  for  prolonging  the  debt,  besides  continuing 
the  interest.  But  this  way  of  proceeding  he  neither  thought 
for  his  majesty's  honour  nor  his  own  credit,  as  his  agent, 
and  therefore  projected  the  following  scheme  to  bring  the 
king  wholly  out  of  debt  in  two  years — Provided  the  king 
and  council  would  assign  him  1200^.  or  1300/.  a  week,  to 
be  secretly  received  at  one  man's  hands,  that  so  it  might 
he  kept  ctecret,  he  would  so  use  that  matter  in  Antwerp, 
that  every  day  he  would  be  seen  to  take  up  in  his  own 
name  200/.  sterling  by  exchange,  which  would  amount  in 
one  year  to  73,000/.  and  so  doing  it  should  not  be  per- 
ceived nor  give  occasion  to  make  the  exchange  fall.  He 
proposed  farther,  that  the  king  should  take  all  the  lead 
into  his  own  hands,  and  making  a  staple  of  it,  should  put 
out  a  proclamation  or  shut  up  the  custom-house,  that  ho 
iead  should  be  conveyed  out  of  the  kingdom  for  five  years; 
by  which  the  king  might  cause  it  to  rise,  and  feed  them  at 
Antwerp  from  time  to  time,  as  they  should  have  need.  By 
which  means  he  might  keep  his  money  within  the  realm, 
and  bring  himself  out  of  the  debts  which  his  father  and  the 
late  duke  of  Somerset  had  brought  upon  him.  This  scheme 
being  put  into  execution,  had  the  proposed  effect  in  dis- 
charging his  majesty's  debts,  which  were  very  consider- 
^le^  as  well  as  in  raising  his  majesty's  credit  so  high 


G  R  E  S  H  A  U 

ftbroad>  that  be  might  have  boirowied  #hat  wois  he  jfleased; 
and|  by  the  adrants^geous  turn  which  by  ibis  m^ans  was 
given  to  the  exchange  in  favour  of  England,  not  only  the 
price  of  all  foreign  commodities  was  greatly  sunk  and 
abated ;  but  likewise  gold  and  silver,  which  before  had 
been  exported  in  large  quantities,  were  mosjt  pientifuDy 
brought  back  again. 

In  the  performance  of  ^h^se  servic^s^  -Gr^bam  often 
stretched  his  own  credit,,  and  kept  up  the  eKcbanige  at 
his  own  risk,  by  which  be  frequently  losit  several  hundred 
pounds  at  a  time;  and  on  one  particular  time  he  iook  up 
50,000/.  for  the  king's  service..  In  the  course  of  thesSe 
transactions,  he  had  frequently  occasion  to  meddle  wiih 
political  affairs,  as  well  as  those  immediately  committed  to 
his  charge,  through  the  application  of  the  empieror's  Stis- 
ter,  then  regent  in  .the  Netherlands,  as  well  as  that  of 'tiie 
king  his  master ;  so  that  be  made  at  least  forty  joitrneys 
from  England  to  Antwerp  during  ihe  remainder  cif  the 
short  reign  of  Edward  VL  These  services  werje  so  acc^- 
able  to  the  young  monarch,  that  abcmt  three  weeks  before 
his  death,  be  granted  to  Mr.  preshatn,  as  a  mark  of  his 
favour,  lOOZ.  a  year  to  him  and  his  ^irs  for  evert  Mr. 
Gresham  also  obtained,  in  t|ie  course  of  that  reign  .grants 
of  estates  and  reversions  to  the  value  of  about  300/.  a;year. 
fie  was  but  a  young  man  when  first  employed  by  king  Ed* 
ward;  and  the  skill  and  prudence  ^displayed  in  the  various 
matters  in  which  he  was  employed,  discovered  an  uncom- 
mon knowledge  of  mercantile  affairs.  But  notwithstanding 
his  abilities,  and  the  considerable  services  he  had  rendered 
to  the  crown,  he  was,  upon  the  accession  of  queen.  Mary^ 
removed  from  his  agency.  This  induced  him  to.  draw  up 
a  memorial  of  his  services  to  the  late  king,  which  he  sent 
to  a  minister  of  state  to  be  laid  before  her  majesty ;  and 
the  services  represented  as  done,  not  only  to  the  king,  but 
to  the  nation  in  general,  by  the  increase  both  of  money 
and  trade,  and  the  advancement  of  the  public  credit,  being 
observed  to  be  fact,  be  was  taken  soon  after  into  the 
queen^s  service,  and  reinstated  in  his  former  employment, 
its  appears  by  the  commissions  given  him  at  different  times 
during,  that  reign.  After  the  decease  of  queen  Mary,  in 
1558,  he  was  taken  immediately* into  the  service  of  queeh 
Elizabeth,  who  employed  him  on  her  accession  to  provide 
and  buy  up  arms;  and  in  1559  she  conferred  on  him  the 
bonoor  of  knighthood,  and  appointed  him  her  agept  m 

G'R  E  S  H  A  M.  297 

Mtign  paiti.  In  tbis  stttte  ctf  cte&it  bnfl  rieputation,  ht 
thou^tfvrdper  to  prdvide  himself  with  a  mansion -^^hmise  in 
die  city,  snitable  to  his  station  attd  dignity  ;  and  with  tbb 
spivk  built  a  large  and  sumptoous  'house  for  his  ewn  dWelU 
ingy  on  the  west-side  of  Bishopsgate-street,  London,  af^ 
terwards  called  Gresham-college,  where  he 'maintained  an 
establishment  becoming  bis  character  and  station.  Bai 
this  fiow  of  profiipemy  received  a  heavy  check  by  the  lost 
6£  bis  only  son,  aged  16  years,  who  died  in  1564,  and 
was  buried  in  St  Helen's  church,  opposite  to  his  mansTod 

At  this  time  the  merchants  of  London  met  in  Lombard^ 
street,  exposed  to  the  open  air  and  all  the  injuries  of  the 
weather.  To  remedy  which  inconvenience,  sir  Thomases, 
fieither  during  his  shrievalty  wrote  a  letter  to  ^ir  Thomas 
Audeley  then  lord-privy-seal,  acquainting  him  that  there 
were  certain  houses  in  that  street  belonging  to  sirOeorg^ 
Monoux,  which  if  purchased  and  pulled  down,  a  bandslom^ 
exchange  might  be  built  on  the  ground  ;  he  therefore  de«- 
sired  his  lordship  to  move  his  majesty,  that  a  letter  might 
be  sent  to  sir  George,  requiring  him  to  srell  those  houses 
io  the  mayor  and  commonalty  of  the  city  of  London  for 
that  purpose.  The  building  he  supposes  would  cost  up- 
wards of  2000/.,  1000/.  of  Which  he  doubts  not  to  raise 
before  he  was  out  of  his  office :  but  nothing  effectual  was 
done  in  it.  Sir  Thomas  therefore  took  up 'his  father's  de- 
sign, dnd  improving  upon  his  spirit,  proposed  that  if  the 
citizens  would  give  him  a  piece  of  grbund  in  a  proper 
place  large  enough  for  the  purpose,  he  would  build  an 
exchange  at  his  own  expence  with  large  and  covered 
walks,  where  the  merchants  and  traders  of  all  sorts  might 
daily  assemble  and  transact  businiess  at  all  seasons,  without 
interruption  from  the  weather  or  impediments  of  any  kiud. 
This  generous  offer  was  gratefully  accepted,  and  in  1566 
several  houses  upon  Cornhill  and  the  back  of  it,  with  three 
alleys,  called  Swan-alley,  New-alley,  and  St.  Christo- 
pber'is  <Llley,  containing  in  all  eighty  houses,  were  purchased 
by  the  citizens  for  more  than  3532/.  and  sold  for  478/.  on 
Condition  of  pulling  them  down,  and  carrying  off  the  stuf£ 
Tbis  done,  the  ground- plot  was  made  plain  at  the  charges 
of  the  city,  and  possession  given  to  sir  Thomas,  who  wad  ' 
Atyled  "  Agent  to  the  queen's  highness  ;**  and  who,  on  the 
7th  of  June,  laid  the  first  stone  of  the  foundation ;  and 
Ifce^^ork  was  forthwith  followed  with  such  diligence,  that 

t98  G  R  E  S  H  A  M. 

by  Not.  1567,  the  same  was  covered  with  slaiei  and  the 
abell  shortly  after  fully  finished.  It  is  said  that  the  tiinbec 
of  which  this  fabric  was  built,  was  first  framed  aod  put  to- 
gether at  Battisford,  near  Ipswich,  in  Suffolk,  and  dkence 
1>l'ought  tQ  London. 

The  plan  of  this  edifice  was  formed  from  the  exchange 
at  Antwerp,  being  an  oblong  square,  with  a  portico  sup- 
ported with  pillars  of  marble,  ten  on  the  north  and  south 
fides>  and  seven  on  the  east  and  west ;  under  which  stood 
the  shops  each  seven  feet  and  a  half  long,  audi  five  feet 
broad,  in  ail  120,  twenty-five  on  each  side  east  and  west^ 
^nd  thirty-four  half  north,  and  thirty-five  and  an 
half  south,  each  of  which  paid  sir  Thomas  4L  lOs,  a  year 
upon  an  average.  There  were  likewise  other  shopa  fitted 
up  at  first  in  the  vaults  below,  but  the  dampness  and  dark- 
ness rendered  these  so  inconvenient,  that  the  vaults  were 
soon  let  out  to  other  uses;  upon  the  roof  stood  at  each 
corner,  upon  a  pedestal,  a  grasshopper,  which  was  the 
crest  of  sir  Thomas's  arms.  This  edifice  was  fully  com- 
pleted, and  the  shops  opened  in  1569;  and  Jan.  29,  1570, 
queen  Elizabeth  attended  by  her  nobility,  came  from  Somer- 
set-house thither,  and  caused  it  by  a  trumpet  and  a  herald 
to  be  proclaimed  *^  The  Royal  Exchange.''  The  story,  how- 
ever, of  sir  Thomas's  having  on  this  day  reduced  a  costly 
pearl  to  powder,  and  drank  it  up  in  a  glass  of  wine,  seems 
to  rest  on  very  .slender  foundation,  and  is  very  incon- 
sistent with  his  character,  who  knew'  how  to  unite  the 
magnificence  of  the  nobleman  with  the  prudence  of  the 

In  the  mean  time  he  had  scarcely  entered  upon  the  exe- 
cution of  this  noble  design,  when  in  1566,  he  vrsa  sent 
over  to  Antwerp  to  take  up  the  sum  of  14,667/.  Flemish 
money,  for  her  majesty,  and  prolong  the  time  of  payment 
for  34,385/.  more;  and  in  December  of  the  same  year, 
there  was  another  debt  of  the  queen's  prolonged  of  8532/* 
Flemish.  Sir  Thomas,  however,  perceiving  the  disad- 
vantage of  borrowing  money  from  foreigners,  at  an  exor- 
bitant iaterest,  advised  her  majesty  to  take  up  what  money 
she  wanted  of  her  own  merchants ;  which  advice,  however, 
was  not  imqnediately  adopted,  but  in  1569  an  opportunity 
occurred  which  rendered  his  advice  necessary.  The  quar- 
rel which  at  this  time  took  place  between  <|ueen  Elis^abeth 
and  the  king  of  Spain,  obliged  the  English  merchants  to 
«end  th^ir  effects  to  Hamburghi  on  which  the  duke  of 


iliva,  goyetnor  of  the  Netherlands,  prohibited  all  com^ 
merce  with  England.     Upon  this,  secretary  Cecil,  who  was 
then  at  the  head  of  the  exchequer,  had  his  fears  lest  the 
merchants  would  not  have  money  enough  to  carry  on  their 
trade,  and  the  queen  lest  the  falling  off  in  the  duties  on 
cloth  might  prevent  her  paying  her  debts  abroad.     Sir 
'Thomas,  however,  when  consulted,  told  the  secretary  that 
in  his  opinion  the  queen  needed  be  at  no  difficulty  to  pay 
her  creditors,  if  she  saw  her  merchants  well  paid  in  London 
their  first  payment,  which  was  half  of  her  debt  to  them ; 
for  by  the  time  the  other  half  should  be  payable,  the  mer- 
chants would  have  plenty  of  money  both  here  and  at  Ham- 
Irargh*     He  assured  him,  that  the  commodities  shipped  by 
•our  merchants  from  Hamburgh  were  well  worth  100,000/. ; 
and  those  shipped  hence  with  our  goods  thither,    were 
i¥orth  upwards  of  200,000/<  so  that  the  duty  upon  cloths 
'(10,000/.  at  least)  would  enable  the  queen  to  discharge  her 
debt.     As  to  the  secretary's  fears  respecting  the  mer« 
chants,  sir  Thomas  observed  that  there  was  no  foundation 
.for  them,  considering  the  great  vent  our  commodities  had 
at  Hamburgh  already,  and  were  likely  to  have,  and  there- 
fore he  advised  that  the  first  payment  agreed  on  at  Ham- 
burgh should  above  all  things  be  provided  for ;  assuring 
the  secretary,  that  he  knew  certainly  that  the  duke  of  Alva 
was  more  troubled  with  the  queen's  great  credit,  and  with 
the  vent  of  her  commodities  at  Hamburgh,  than  he  was 
with  any  thing  else,  and  **  quaked  for  fear  ;'*  that  this  was 
one  of  the  principal  hindrances  to  the  payment  of  the  tenth 
penny,  then  demanded  by  the  duke  for  the  sale  of  any 
kind,  of  goods  in  the  Netherlands ;  which  he  believed  would 
be  his  undoing.     He  then  renewed  his  advice  respecting 
'borrowing  of  her  own  subjects  in  preference  to  foreigners, 
urging  many  reasons  grounded  on  facts.    When,  however, 
the  motion  of  lending  money  to  the  queen  was  first  pro- 
posed among  the  merchants  by  sir  Thomas,  it  met  with 
great  opposition,  and  was  negatived  in  the  common-hall; 
but  upon  more  mature  consideration  afterwards  several  of 
the  merchants  and  aldermen  lent  her  majesty  various  sums 
•  of  money,  to  the  value  of  16,000/.  for  six  months,  at  6  per 
cent,  interest  for  that  time.     She  gave  bonds  to  each  of 
them  separately  for  re-payment,  and  likewbe  other  accus* 
tomed  bonds  to  discharge  them  of  the  statute  of  usury;  and 
when  the  six  months  were  expired,  she  prolonged  the  pay- 
'  went  for  six  months  more,  paying  the  same  interest,  whk 

900  O  !R  £  S  H  A  M. 

brokag&r  A$  her  majesty  was  thus:  enabled  to  borrow 
money  of  her  own  subjects,  instead  of  foreigners^  ,aad;the 
commerce  with  Flanders,  particularly  Ant werp»  wf»  nom 
prohibited,  sir  Thomas's  office  as  agent,  for  her  majes^  n 
those  parts,  (leased  of  course.  .  But  in  1^72,  to  sh^w  b&c 
regard  for  him,  she  was  pleased  to. appoint  him,  together 
with  the  archbishop  of  .Canterbury,  tbe^bi^^P  of*. London, 
jind  other  persons  of  eminence,  assistants jto  the  lord  mayor 
for  the  government  of  the  city  .of  Loudon  .dpring  her  iur 
tended  progress  that  summer.  .  This  , method  wfts.afterr 
wards  .continued  on  similar,  occasions^  and  sir  Thoauus 
Gresham  wasjoinedin-the  commission  till  157S.    .. 

Though  sir  Thomas  had  purchased  very  large  estates,  io 
several  counties  of  England,  yet  he  thought  a  country  seait 
near  London,  to  which  he  might  retire  from  business  And 
the  burry  of  the  city  as  often  as  he  pleased,  would  be  veiy 
cotivenient.  With  this  view  he  bought  Osterleyrpark,  aesir 
Brentford,  in  Middlesex,  where  he  built  a  large  magni&- 
cent  seat  within  the  park,  which  he  impaled;  .beipg  well 
wooded,  and  furuished  with  many  ponds  stocked  witk  fish 
and  fowl,  and  of  great  us^  for  mills,  as  paper-^mills,  oil- 
mills,  and  corn-mills.  In  1578,  queen  Elizabeth  visited 
Osterley,  where  sir  Thomas  entertained  her  magnificently. 
On  this  occasion,  having  given  it  as  her  opinion  that  the 
court  before  the  house  would  look  bettet  divided  mth  a 
wall,  sir  Thomas  in  the  night  sent  for  workmen  from  Lon- 
don, who  so  speedily  and  so  silently  performed  ^their  task, 
that  before  morning  the  wall  was  finished,  to  the  great 
surprize  of  the  queen  and  her  courtiers,  one  of  wbon^^ 
however,  observed,  that  it  was  no  wonder  that  he  who 
could  build  a  change  should  so  soon  change  a  building. 
This  became  afterwards  the  property  of  the  family  of 
Child,  and  is  now  that  of  the  right  hon.  the  earl  of  Jersey, 
by  marriage  into  that  family. 

Before  Osterley  was  completed,  sir  Thomas  projeefeed 
and  executed  that  noble  design  of  converting  his  ntansioii- 
iiouse  in  Bishopsgate-street  into  a  seat  for  the  muses,  :aad 
endowing  it  with  the  revenues  arising  from  the  royai  ex- 
change ^fter  his  decease.  While  he  was  meditating  this 
design,  the  university  of  Cambridge  wrote  him  an  elegant 
-Latin  letter,  reminding  him  of  a  promise,  as  they  had 
l>een  informed,  to  give  them  500/.  either  towards  building 
A  new  college  there,  or  repairing  one  already  built.  This 
iette^^was  dated  A^ch  14,^  1574-5^. and  it  was  foUowol 

G  R  E  S  H' A  M.  sot 

by  another  of  the  2Sth,  to  acquaint  him  with  a  report  they 
had  heard,  that  he  had  promised  lady  Burghley  both  to 
foand  and  endow  a  college  for  the  profession  of  the  seven 
liberal  sciences.  They  observe,  that  the  only  place  proper 
for  such  a  design,  was  either  London,  Oxford,  or  Cam- 
bridge ;  they  endeavour  to  dissuade  him  from  London,  lest 
it  sbdaid  prove  prejudicial  to  the  two  universities ;  and 
they  hope  he  will  not  make  choice  of  Oxford,  since  he  was 
himself  bred  at  Cambridge,  which  might  presume  upon  a 
superior  regard  from  him  on  that  account.  At  the  same 
time,  they  wrote  another  letter  to  the  lady  Burghley,  in 
which  they  earnestly  request  that  she  will  please  to  use 
her  interest  with  him,  to  fix  upoA  Cambridge  for  the  place 
of  his  intended  college. 

But  these  letters  had  not  the  desired  eifect ;  he  persisted 
in  his  resolution  to  settle  it  in  his  house  at  London ;  an<l 
accordingly,  by  an  indenture  dated  May  20,  1575,  he 
made  a  disposition  of  his  several  manors,  lands,  tenements^ 
and  hereditaments;  with  such  limitations  and  restrictions^ 
particularly  as  to  the  royal  exchange  and  his  mansion- 
house,  as  might  best  secure  hfe  views  with  regard  to  the 
uses  for  which  he  designed  them.  This  indenture  was  soon 
followed  by  two  wills,  one  of  his  goods,  and  the  other  of 
bit  real  estates :  the  former  &{  these  bears  date  July  4tk 
ensuing,  whereby  he  bequeaths  to  his  wife,  whom  he 
makes  his  sole  executrix,  all  his  goods,  as  ready  money^ 
plate,  jewels,  chains  of  gold,  with  all  his  stock  of  sheep 
and  other  cattle  if  within  the  realm  of  England,  and  like- 
wige  gives  several  legacies  to  his  relations  and  friends  and 
to  all  his  servants,  amounting  in  the  whole  to  upwards  of 
2000^.  besides  some  small  annuities,  'the  other  will  is 
dated  July  the  5th,  wherein  he  gives  one  moiety  of  the 
royal  exchange  to  the  mayor  and  commonalty  of  London, 
and  the  other  to  the  Mercers  company,  for  the  salaries  of 
seven  lecturers  in  divinity,  law,  physic,  astronomy,  geo- 
metry, music,  and  rhetoric,  at  50/.  per  annum  for  each, 
with  bis  house  in  Bisbopsgate-street  for  the  lecturers*  re- 
sidence, where  the  lectures  were  to  be  read.  He  likewise 
leaves  53/.  6s.  8d.  yearly  for  the  provision  of  eight  alms- 
folks  residing  in  the  alms-houses  behind  his  house,  and 
Ip/.  yearly  to  each  of  the  prisons  in  Newgate,  Ludgate, 
King^s-bench,  the  Marshalsea,  and  Compter  in  Wood- 
street,  and  the  like  sum  to  each  of  the  hospitals  of  Christ- 
church,   St.  Bartholomew,  Bedlam,   Southwark,  and  the 

S02  Q  R  E  S  H  A  M. 

Poultry  ^compter ;  and  100/.  yearly  to  provide  a  dinner  for 
tbe  whole  Mercers  company  in  their  hall  on  eveYy  of  their 
quarter  days,  at  25L  each  dinner.  By  this  disposition  suf- 
ficient care  was  taken  that  the  two  Corporations,  to  whom 
the  affair  was  trusted,  should  receive  no  damage  by  tbe 
execution  of  it ;  for  the  stated  annual  payments  amount  to 
no  more  than  603/.  6s.  Sd,  and  tbe  yearly  rents  of  the  ex<*^ 
change  received  by  sir  Thomas  were  740/.  besides  the  ad- 
ditional profits  that  must  arise  from  time  to  time  by  fines, 
which  were  very  considerable.  But  the  lady  Anne  his 
wife  was  to  enjoy  both  the  mansion-house  and  the  ex- 
change daring  her  life  if  she  survived  sir  Thomas,  and  then 
they  were  both  vested  in  the  two  corporations  for  the  uses 
declared  in  the  will  for  the  term  of  fifty  years ;  which  limi- 
tation was  made  on  account  of  the  statutes  of  mortmain^ 
ibat  prohibited  the  alienation  of  lands  or  tenements  to  any 
corporation,  without  licence  first  had  from  the  crown.  And 
that  space  of  time  the  testator  thought  sufficient  for  pro- 
coring  such  licence,  the  doing  of  which  he  earnestly  re- 
commends to  them  without  delay ;  in  default  whereof,  at 
the  expiration  of  fifty  yeait,  these  estates  were  to  go  to^his 
heirs  at  law. 

Having  thus  settled  his  affairs  so  much  to  his  own  honour, 
the  interest  of  the  public,  and  tbe  regards  due  to  his  fa- 
mily, he  was  at  leisure  to  reap  the  fruits  of  his  industry 
and  success.  But  be  did  not  long  enjoy  this  felicity,  for 
Nov.  21,  1579,  coming  firom  the  exchange  to  his  house  in 
Bishopsgate-street,  he  suddenly  fell  down  in  bis  kitchen, 
became  speechless,  and  presently  died.  He  was  buried 
in  his  own  parish  church  of  St.  HelenV  His  obsequies 
were  performed  in  a  very  solemn  manner,  tbe  corpse  being 
attended  by  l6o  poor  men,  and  the  like  number  of  poor 
women,  whom  he  had  ordered  to  be  cloathed  in  black 
gowns  of  5s.  Sd,  per  yard  at  his  own  expence.  The  charges 
of  the  funeral  amounted  to  800/.  His  corpse  was  deposited 
in  a  vault  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the  church,  which  he 
had  before  provided  for  himself  and  family,  with  a  curious 
marble  tomb  over  it ;  on  the  south  and  west  sides  of  which  are 
bis  own  arms,  and  on  tbe  north  and  east  the  same  impaled 
with  those  of  his  lady.  The  arms  of  sir  Thomas,  together 
with  the  City  of  London  and  Mercers  company,  are  like- 
wise painted  in  the  glass  of  the  east  window  of  the  church, 
above  tbe  tomb,  which  stood  as  be  left  it  without  any  in- 
scription, till  1736,  when  the  following  words^  taken  from 

•  \ 

G  R  E  3  H  A  M.  SOS 

the  parish  register,  were  cut  on  the  stone  that  covers  it, 
hy  order  of  the  church-wardens :  '^  Sir  Thomas  Gresham^ 
jknight,  was  buried  December  15,  1579.''  By  his  death 
aoaany  large  estates  in  several  counties  of  England,  amount<« 
ing  at  that  time  to  the  clear  yearly  value  of  2300/.  and  up- 
wards, came  to  his  lady,  who  survived  him  many  years^ 
and  continued  to  reside  after  his  decease  in  the  mansion- 
house  at  London,  in  the  winter,  and  at  Osterley^park  in 
the  summer  season,  at  which  last  place  she  died  Nov.  23, 
1596,  very  aged.  Her  corpse  was  brought  to  Laadoo,  and 
buried  in  the  same  vault  with  her  husband* 

Mr.  Ward  has  drawn  sir  Thomas's  character  at  lai^, 
and  observes,  that  he  had  tl\e  happiness*  of  a  mind  every 
way  suited  to  his  fortune,  generous  and  benign;  ready  to 
perform  any  good  actions  and  encourage  them  in .  others* 
He  was  a  great  friend  and  patron  of  our  celebrated  mas- 
tyrologist  John  Fox.     He  was  well  acquainted  with  the 
ancient  and  several  modern  languages ;    he  had  a  very 
comprehensive  knowledge  of  all  afislrs  relating  to  com- 
merce, whether  foreign  or  domestic;  and  his  success  was 
not  less,  being  in  his  time  esteemed  the  richest  commoner 
in  England.     He  transacted  queen  Elizabeth's  mercantile^ 
affairs  so. constantly,  that  he  was  called  **  The  Royal  Mer- 
chant,"^ and  his  house  was  sometimes  appointed  for  the  re- 
ception of  foreign  princes  upon  their  first  arrival  at  London. 
As  no  one  could  be  more  ready  to  perform  any  generous 
{ actions  which'  might  contribute  to  the  honour  of   this 
country,  so  he  very  well  knew  how  to  make  the  best  use 
of  them  for  the  most  laudable  purposes.     Nor  was  he  less 
serviceable  both  to  the  queen  and  her  ministry  on  other 
occasions,  who  often  consulted  him,  and  sought  his  ad- 
vice in  matters  of  the  greatest  importance  relating. to  the 
welfare  of  the  government.     But  the  most  shining  part  of 
his  character  appears  in  his  public  benefactions.     The 
royal  exchange  was  not  only  a  lingular  ornamefit  to  the 
city  of  London,  and  a  great  convenience  to  the  merchants, 
who  wanted  such  a  place  to  meet  and  transact  their  affairs 
in,,  but  likewise  contributed  very  much  to  the  promotion  of 
trade,  both  by  the  number/of  shops  erected  there,  and  the 
much  greater  number  of  the  poor,  who  were  employed  in 
working  for  them.     And  the  donation  of  his  own  mansion- 
iiouse  for  a  seat  of  learning  and  the  liberal  arts,  with  the 
handsome  provision  made  for  the  endowment  and  support 
of  it|  was  such  an  instance  of  a  generous  and  public  spirit 

804  G  R  S  a  H  A  Af; 

9A  bas  been  equalled  by  few,  and  must  p^rpehiate  hta  me« 
mory  with  the  highest  esteem  atid  gratitude  so  long  as  any 
regard  to  learning  and  virtue  is  preserved  among  us.  Not 
ought  his  charities  to  the  p^oi^,  his  alms-houses/  and  tii^ 
bteral  contributions  to  the  ten  prisons  and  hospitals  in 
(.otidpn  and  Southwark,  to  be  omitted.  . 

His  public  benefactions,  the  royal  exchange,  and  his 
mansion-house  on  the  decease  of  his  lady^  immediately 
cattle  into  the  hands  of  the  two  corporations,  the  City  of 
London^and*  the  Mercers'  company,  who,  according  to  their 
trust,  obtained  a  patent  from  the  crown,  dated  Feb.  dr, 
1614,  12  iacobi  I.  to  botd  thiem  for  ever  upon  the. terms 
expt^ssed  in  the  will  of  the  donor/ 

GRESSET  (John  Baptwt  Lewis),  a  French  poet  of 
considerable  emitieHCe,  was  born  1709,  at  Amiens,  en- 
tered among  the  Jesuits  at  1 6,  and  quitted  the  society  at 
the  age  of  26,  about  the  end  of  1735.  It  was  about  this 
lime  bis  <<  Ver  Vert''  furst  came  out,  which  hists  been  sb 
justly  admired,  as  tbe  production  of  a  geiiius  (in  Rousseau^'s 
judgment)  *^  at  oncd  refined,  embellished,  ornamented  ;** 
iappearing  in  short,  <<  in  all  its  perfection.?'  This  great 
poet  considers  the  author  as  .  **  displaying  in  his  familiar 
style,  whatever  is  'most  brilliant  in  poetry,  and  every  idea 
with  which  a  complete  knowledge  of  the  world  could  for- 
nisb  a  man  who  had  passed  his  whole  life  in  it.'*  He  thought 
the  same  of  the  ^'  Chartreuse,''  anotiier  of  his  productions, 
but  accused  its  author  of  negligence  in  his  other  pieces, 
being  of  opinion  that  the  familiar  style  did  not  exclude  the 
perfection  of  poetry.  M.  Gresset  was  admitted  into  the 
French  academy  in  1748,  and  gave  up  poetry  that  he 
might  devote  himself  wholly  to  works  of  piety,  and  died 
June  16,  1777,  at  Amiens,  after  having  received  letters  of 
nobility,  and  been  appointed  historiographer  of  the  order 
of  St.  Lazore.,  He  married  in  1751,  mademoiselle  Gal- 
land,  daughter  of  a  merchant  of  Amiens,  but  had  no 
children.  Besides  the  pieces  above-mentioned,  he  wrote 
«  Le  Lutria  vivant;"  «  Les  Ombres;"  «  Epistles;'^ 
**  Odes ;"  a  poetical  translation  of  Virgil's  Eclogues  ; 
**  Edward  III."  a  tragedy ;  "  Sidney,"  and  "  Le  Mechant,'* 
comedies ;  the  latter  of '  which  is  deservedly  admired. 
They  have  all  been  collected  in  1748,  9  vols.  12mb.  Two 
little  poems  in  the  style  of  "  Ver  Vert"  were  found  among 

1  Biof.  Brit— 'Ward*!  Gicsham  Aofctson,— Liodge's  lUvitcatioMi  Tal.L  ' 

G  R  £  S  S  E  T»  >  S0« 

his  papen,  one  entitled  **  Le  Gassetin  ;*'  Ibe  other^  ^  Le 
Parfain  Magnifique/'  but  not  the  two  cantos  which  be  bad 
added  to  the  Ver  Vert.  This  last  poem  has  been  versified 
in  English  by  Gilbert  Cooper,  and  by  Dr.  Geddes.' 

GRETS£R  (James),   a  learned  German,  was  bom  at 
Marcdorf  about  1561,  and  entered  among  the  society  of 
Jesuits  at  the  age  of  seventeen.     When  he  bad  finished  his 
stadi^ss,  be  was  appointed  a  professor  at  Ingolstad,  where  he 
spent  twenty-four  years,  teaching  philosophy,  morality,  and 
schools-divinity,  employments  which  did  not  hinder  him  from 
composing  an  unusual  number  of  books.    The  catalogue  of 
them,  as  given  by  Niceron,  consists  of  near  153  articles; 
which,  he  tells  us,  were  copied  by  him  from  the  proposals, 
published  in  1753,  for  printing  an  edition  of  all  Gretser*s 
works  at  Ratisbon,  in  17  vols,  folio.     His  great  erudition 
Was  equalled  by  bis  modesty,  and  we  are  told  he  could  not 
bear  to   be  commended.     The  inhabitants  of  Marcdorf 
were  desirous  of  having  his  picture ;  but  when  iqform^  of 
the  earnest  application  they  had  made  to  his  superiors  for 
that  purpose,   he  expressed  bis  diagrin,  and  told  them, 
diat  if  they  wanted  his  picture,  they  need  but  draw  that 
of  an  ass.     Still,  however,  to  shew  their  regard,  and  in  a 
way  more  acceptable  to  him,  they  purchased  all  his  works, 
and  devoted  them  to  the  use  of  the  public     He  died  at 
Ingolstad,  in  1635.     He  spent  his  whole  life  in  writing 
'  against  foreign  and  English  protestant  authors  (See  Tho* 
MAS  Jam£S),  and  in  defending  the  order  to  which  be  be^ 
longed.     Some  authors  have  bestowed  very  great  enco«i 
miuras  upon  biro,  but  others  think  his  works  only  compila^ 
tions  of  materials  that  may  be  useful  to  writers  of  more 
judgment.    They  were  printed  according  to  the  proposads 
above-mentioned,  at  Ratisbon,  1739,  17  vols,  folio.' 

GREVILLE  (FULK  or  Foulk),  lord  Brooke,  an  inge* 
nious  writer,  was  the  eldest  son  of  sir  Fulk  Greyille,  of 
Beauchamp-court  (at  Alcaster)  in  Warwickshire,  and' bora 
there  in  1554.  It  is  conjectured,  that  he  was  educated  at 
the  school  in  Shrewsbury ;  whence  he  was  removed  to 
Cambridge,  and  admitted  a  fellow-commoner  at. Trinity « 
college ;  and  some  time  after,  making  a  visit  to  Oxfordy 
he  became  a  member  of  that  university,  but  of  what  col- 
lege is  not  certain.      Having  completed  his  academical^ 

1  Diet.  Hiit— Eloge  by  Baaiy. 

«  Dapin.— Geo.  Dict,-*-Moren.^NicerDD,  rol.  XXVIQ.*-^^!  OaomiisU 

Vol.  XVI.  X 

S06  G  R  £  V  I  L  L  E. 

studies,  he  travelled  abroad  to  finish  his  education  ^  ami 
upon  bis  return,  being  well  accomplished,  was  introduced 
Co  the  court  of  queen  Elizabeth  by  hi»  uncle  Robert  Gre« 
ville,  where  he  was  esteemed  a  most  ingenious  person,  and 
particularly  favoured  by  the  lovers  of  arts  and  sciences* 
He  was  soon  nominated  to  some  benefictal  employment 
in  the  court  of  marches  of  Wales  by  hi»  kinsman,  sir 
Henry  Sidney,  then  lord-president  of  that  court  and  prin* 

Our  author  was  not  then  above  twenty*two  years  of  age^ 
so  that  this  post  may  be  esteemed  an  honourable  attestatioa 
of  his  merit.     But  the  nature  of  it  did  not  please  him ;  bi» 
ambition  prompted  him  to  another  course  of  life.     He  had 
already  made- some  advances  in  the  queen^s  favour,  had 
attained  a  competent  familiarity  with  the  modern  languages, 
and    some  expertness  in  the  martial  exercises  of  those 
times ;  these  were  qualifications  for  a  foreign  employmen^:^ 
whiob  was  more  agreeable  to  the  activity  of  his  temp^r^ 
and  promised  a  quicker  access  to  some  of  the  first  posts^lr 
the  state.     In  reality  he  was  so  eager  to  advance  his  for-* 
tune  in  this  line,  that  to  gratify  bis  desire,  he  ventured 
to  incur  his  royal  mistress's  displeasure,  and  made  sevc^ral 
attempts  in  it,  not  only  with,  but  even  without  her  ma- 
jesty's consent.     Out  of  maiiy  of  these  we  have  an  account 
of  the  few  following  from. his  own. pen. .   First,  .when. the 
two  mighty  armies  of  Don  John  and  the  duke  Casimire 
were  to  meet  in .  the  Lowrcountries,  .he ,  applied  and.  ok* 
tained  her  majesty's  leave  tinder  her  own  hand,  to  go  thi* 
ther ;  but  after  his  horses  with  all  other  preparations  were 
shipped  at  Dover,   the  queen   (who  always  discouraged 
these  excursions)  sent  her  messenger,  sir  Edward  Dyer, 
with  her  mandate  to  stop  him.     He  was  so  much  vexed  at 
this  disappointment,  that  afterwards,  when  secretary  Wal<5 
singbam  was  sent  ambassador  in  1578,  to  treat  with  those^ 
two  princes,  an  opportunity  of  seeing  an  affair  in  which  so 
much  Christian  blood  and  so  many  Christian  empires  were 
concerned,  was  so  tempting,  that  he  resolved  not  to  risque 
a  denial,  and  therefore  stole  away  without  leave,  and  went 
over  with  the  secretary  incog.     The  consequence  was, 
that  at  his  return  the  queen  forbade  him  her  presence  for 
«iany  months.     To  the  same  ambition  ma^alspbe  referred 
his  engagen^ent  with  sir  Philip  Sidney  to  accompany  sir 
Francis  Drake  in  his  last  expedition  but  one  to  the  West^ 
Indies  iii  1515,  itx  which  they  were  both'  frustrated  by  th« 
same  authority. 

G  R  E  V  I  L  L  £.  907 

Again,  when  the  earl  of  Leicester  was  sent  general  of 
her  majesty's  forces  the  same  year,  and  had  given  Mr. 
Grevilie  the  command  of  one  hundred  horse^  *'  Then  I,'^ 
to  use  his  own  words,  **  giving  my  humour  over  to  good 
order,  yet  found  that  neither  the  intercession  of  this  gran-- , 
dee,  seconded  with  my  own  humble  suit,  and  many  other 
honourable  friends  of  mine,  could  prevail  against  the  con- 
stant course  of  this  excellent  lady  (the  queen)  with  her 
servants,  so  as  I  was  forced  to  tarry  behind,  and  for  this  tm* 

'  portunity  of  mine  to  change  my  course,  and  seem  to  press 
nothing  before  my  $ervice  about  her ;  this  princess  of  go- 
vernment as  well  as  kingdoms  made  me  live  in  her  court  a 
spectacle  of  disfavour  too  long  as  I  conceived/' 

During  his  excursions  abroad,  his  royal  mistress  granted 

bim  the  reversion  of  two  of  the  best  offices  in  the  court. of 

the  marches  of  Wales,  one  of  which  falling  to  him  in  1580^ 

4ie  met  with  some  difficulties  about  the  profits.     In  this 

.^ontest  he  experienced  the  friendship  of  sir  Philip  Sidney, 

^ivho  by  a  letter  written  to  his  father's  secretary,  Mr.  Moly- 
neux,  April  10,  1581,  prevailed  on  him  not  to  oppose  his 
cousin  Greville's  title  in  any  part  or  construction  of  his 
patents ;  and  a  letter  of  sir  Francis  Walsingham  to  the 
president,  the  next  day,  April  11,  put  a^  end  to  the  op-^ 

;  position  that  had  been  made  from  another  quarter.  This 
office  appears  to  be  clerk  of  the  sigtiet  to  the  council  o£ 
Wales,  which  is  said  to  have  brought  him  in  yearly  above 
2000/.  arising  chiefly  from  the  processes  which  went  out  of 
that  court,  ail  of  which  are  made  out  by  that  officer.  He 
was  also  constituted  secretary  for  South  and  North  Wales 
by  the  queen's  letters  patent,  bearing  date  April  25, 1583. 
In  the  midst  of  these  civil  employments  he  made  a  con-* 
spicaous  figure  when  the  French  ambassadors,  accompanied 
by  great  numbers  of  their  nobility,  were  in  England  a  se-« 
cond  time  to  treat  of  the  queen's  marriage  with  the  duke 
of  Anjou,in  1581.  Tilts  and  tournaments  were  the  courtly 
entertainments^  in  those  days ;  and  they  were  performed  in 
the  most  magnificent  manner  on  this  occasion  by  two  noble- 

'  men,  beside  sir  Philip  Sidney  and  Fulk  Grevilie,  who  with 
die  rest  behaved  so  bravely  as  to  win  the  reputation  of  a 
most  gallant  knight.  In  1586  these  two  friends  were  se- 
parated by  the  unfortunate  death  of  the  former,  who  be^ 
queathed  to  his  dear  friend  one  moiety  of  his  books.  , 
In  1558   Mr.   Grevilie  attended  his  kinsman,  the  earl 

'   oi  EiseXy  to  Oxford^  iin4  among  other  persons  in  that 

X  2 


favourite^s  train  was  created  M.  A.  April  1 1,  that  year.  In 
1558  he  was  accused  to  the  lords  of  the  council^  by  a  cer- 
tificate of  several  gentlemen  borderers  upon  Farickwood  in 
Warwickshire^  of  having  made  waste  there  to  the  value  of 
14,000/.  but  the  prosecution  seems  to  Iiave  been  dropped^ 
and,  October  1597,  be  received  the  honour  of  knighthood. 
In  the  beginning  of  March  the  same  year,  he  applied  for 
the  oflSce  of  treasurer  of  the  war ;  and  about  two  years  af^ 
terwards,  in  the  41st  of  Elizabeth,  be  obtained  the  place 
of  treasurer  of  marine  causes  for  life.  In  1599  a  commis- 
aion  was  ordered  to  be  made  out  for  him  as  rear-admiral  of 
the  fleet,  which  was  intended  to  be  sent  forth  agaiBst 
another  threatened  invasion  by  the  Spaniards^ 

During  this  glorious  reign  he  frequently  represented 
his  county  in  the  bouse  of  commons,  together  with  sir 
Thomas  Lacy;  and  it  has  been  observed  that  a  better 
choice  could  not  have  been  made,  as  both  of  them  were 
learned,  wise,  and  honest.  He  continued  a  favourite  of 
queen  Elizabeth  to  the  end  of  her  reign.  The  beginning 
of  the  next  opened  no  less  in  his  favour.  At  the  corona^i^ 
tfon  of  James  I.  July  15,  1603,  he  was  made  K.^B.  and  fai$^ 
office  of  Secretary  to  the  council  of  the  court  of  marches  of 
Wales  was  confirmed  to  him  for  life,  by  a  patent  bearing 
date  July  24.  In  the  second  year  of  this  king  he  obtained 
i  grant  of  Warwick  qastle.  He  was  greatly  pleased  witb 
this  favour  ;  and^  the  castle  being  in  a  ruinous  condition^ 
h^e  laid  out  at  least  20^000/.  in  repairing  it. 

He  was  afterwards  possessed  of  several  very  beneficial 
places  in  the  marches  court  of  Wales,  and  at  this  time  he 
seems  to  have  confined  his  views  within  the  limits  of  these 
officesb'  He  perceived  the  measures  of  government  quite 
altered,  and  the  state  waning  froin  the  kistre  in  which  he 
had  seen  it  shine ;  besides,  be  had  little  hopes  of  being  pre* 
ferred  to  any  thing  considerable  in  the  ministry,  as  he 
met  witb  some  discouragements  from  sir  Robert  Cecily  the 
secretary,  and  the  persons  in  power.  In  this  position  of 
affairs  be  seems  to  have  formed  some  schemes  of  retire* 
kient,  in  order  to  write  the  history  of  queen  Elizabeth's 
life.  With  this  view  he  drew  up  a  plan,  commencing  with 
the  union  of  the  two  roses  in  the  marriage  of  Henry  VH. 
and  had  made  some  progress  in  the  execution  of  ii ;  but 
the  perusal  of  the  records  in  the  council  chest  being  denied 
him  by  the  secretary,  as  he  could  not  complete  his  work 
ill  that  authentic  and  substantial  manner  which  wodd  d(> 


faim  credit,  he  broke  off  the  design,  and  disposed  himself 
to  revise  the  product  of  his  juvenile  studies  and  his  poeticiA 
recreations  with  sir  Philip  Sidney. 

During  the  life  of  the  treasurer  Cecil,  he  obtained  no 
advancement  in  the  court  or  state;  but,  in  1615,  some 
time  after  his  death,  was  made  under-treasurer  and  chan^ 
ceUor  of  the  exchequer ;  in  consequence  of  which  he  was 
called  to  the  board  of  privy-council.  In  1617  he  obtained 
from  the  king  a  special  charter,  confirming  all  such  liberties 
as  had  been  granted  to  any  of  his  ancestors  in  behalf  of  tb# 
town  of  Alcester,  upon  a  new  reserved  rent  of  ten  shillings 
a  year;  and,  in  1620,  was  created  lord  Brooke  of  Beau* 
champ-court.  He  obtained  this  dignity  as  well  by  hid 
merit  and  fidelity  in  the  discharge  of  his  offices  as  by  his 
noble  descent  from  the  Nevils,  VViiloughbys  de  Brook,  and 
Beauchamps.  In  September  1 62 1  ^  he  was  made  one  of  the 
lords  of  the  king^s  bed-chamber;  and  on  this,  resigning  his 
post  in  the  exchequer,  he  was  succeeded  therein  by  Richard 
Weston,  afterwards  earl  of  Portland.  After  the  demise  of 
king  James,  he  continued  in  the  privy-council  of  Charles 
I.  in  the  beginning  of  whose  reign  he  founded  a  history-* 
lecture  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and  endowed  it 
with  a  salary  of  100/.  per  annum.  He  did  not  long  survive 
this  last  act  of  generosity ;  for,  though  he  was  a  munificent 
patron  of  learning  and  leanied  men,  he  at  last  fell  a  sacri« 
fice  to  the  extraordinary  outrage  of  a  discontented  domes« 
tic«  The  account  we  have  of  this  fatal  event  is,  that  his 
lordship,  neglecting  to  reward  one  Ralph  Hey  wood,  who 
had  spent  the  greatest  part  of  his  life  in  his  service,  this 
attendant  expostulated  thereupon  with  his  lordship  in  hii 
bed-chamber,  at  Brook-house  in  Holborn  ;  and,  being  se-* 
verely  reproved  for  it,  presently  gave  his  lordship  a  mortal 
stab  in  the  back  with  a  knife  or  sword ;  after  which  ha 
withdrew  into  another  room,  and,  locking  the  door,  mur^ 
dered  himself  with  the  same  weapon.  He  died  September 
30, 1628,  and  his  corpse  being  wrapt  in  le^d,  was  conveyed 
from  Brook-house,  Holborn,  to  Warwick;  where  it  was 
interred  on  the  north  side  of  the  choir  of  St.  Mary's  churdt 
there,  in  bis  own  vault,  which  had  formerly  been  a  cbap*^ 
ter-house  of  the  church ;  and  where,  upon  his  monument^* 
there  is  this  inscription :  <^  Fulke  Grevitle,  servant  to 
queen  Elizabeth,  counsellor  to  king  James,  and  friend 
to  sir  Philip  Sidney.  Tropheum  peccati.*^  He  uAde  that 
dear  friend  the  great  exemplar  of  his  life  in  every  thing ; 


SIO  G  R  E  V  I  L  L  E. 

i&nd  Sidney  being  often  celebrated  93  the  patron  of  tfaa 
jnuses  in  general,  and  of  Spenser  in  particular,  so  we  are 
told,  lord  Brooke  desired  to  be  known  to  posterity  under 
no  other  character  than  that  of  Shakspeare^s  and  Ben  Jon- 
son's  master,  lord*-chanceIlor  Egerton  and  bishop  OveraFs 
patron.  His  lordship  also  obtained  the  office  of  clarepcieux 
at  arms  for  Mr.  Camden,  who  very  gratefully  acknowledged 
it  in  his  life-time,  and  at  his  death  left  him  a  piece  of  plate 
in  bis  will.  He  also  raised  John  Speed  from  a  mechanic 
to  be  an  historiographer. 

His  lordship  had  an  inclination  to  history  and  poetry. 
Hence,  with  respect  to  the  former,  it  was  that  lord  Bacon 
submitted  his  ^^  Life  of  Henry  VII.''  to  his  perusal  and 
animadversions.  And  his  extraordinary  kindness  to  sir 
William  Davenant  must  be  added  to  other  conspicuous 
evidences  of  the  latter ;  that  poet  he  took  into  his  family 
yvrhen  very  young,  and  was  so  much  delighted  with  his  pro* 
mising  genius,  that,  as  long  as  the  patron  lived,  the  poet 
bad  his  residence  with  him,  and  probably  formed  the  plan 
of  some  of  his  first  plays  under  his  lordship's  encourage- 
ment, since  they  were  published  soon  after  his  death.  This 
noble  lord  was  never  married,  so  that  his  honour  falling 
by  the  patent  to  his  kinsman  Robert  Greville,  he  directed 
bis  estate  also  by  his  will  to  go  along  with  it  to  the  same 
relation,  being  next  of  kin  to  him. 

Notwithstanding  lord  Orford's  flippant  and  detracting 
estimate  of  lord  Brooke's  talents  and  character,  he  appears 
to  have  cherished  a  taste  for  all  kinds  of  polite  learning, 
though,  as  just  noticed,  his  inclination  led  him  more  parti- 
cularly to  poetry  and  history.  Phillips,  or  Milton,  remarks^^ 
^hat  in  all  his  poems  is  observable  a  close,  mysterious,  and 
sententious  way  of  writing,  but  without  much  regard  to  ele- 
gance of  jstyle  or  smoothness  of  verse.  His  principal  works 
are,  l.  ^*Tbe  Life  of  the  renowned  sir  Philip  Sidney,"  Lon- 
don^ li652,  12mo,  rather  a  kind  of  dissertation  than  a  life> 
but  sufficiently  ^xpressive  of  his  connection  with,  and  at- 
tachment to  that  eminent  character.  2.  *^  Certaine  learned 
luid  elegant  wprkes  of  the  right  hon.  Fulke  lord  Brooke, 
lyritten  in  his  youth,  and  familiar  exercise  with  sir  Philip 
Sidney,"  Lond.  1633 ;  all  the  copies  extant  of  this  work 
want  twenty-two  pages  at  the  .beginning.  These  pages 
are  said  to  have  contained  *^  A  treatise  on  Religion," 
aiid  weie  cancelled^  as  Mr.  Malone  i^o  bis  Histoi^r  of  tto 

GH  E  V  I  L  L  E.  SIJL 

S^age)  surmises,  by  order  of  archbishop  Laud.  The  rest 
of  the  ¥okiine  consists  of  poetical  treatises  and  letters,  and 
the  tragedies  of  Alaham  and  Mustapha.  3.  '^  The  Remains 
of  sir  Folk  Greville,  lord  Brooke ;  being  poems  of  Monar** 
chy  and  Religion,  never  before  printed/'  Lond.  1670,  8vo^. 

The  Robert  Greville,  whom  we  have  mentioned  as  the 
adopted  heir  of  lord  Brooke,  was  educated  by  him  as  be- 
came the  estate  and  dignity  to  which  he  was  to  succeed  ; 
but  when  the  civil  war  commenced,  he  joined  the  parlia- 
ment army,  in  whose  cause  he  had  written  some  treatises, 
and  was  killed  in  battle  at  Litchfield,  in  1643,  in  the  thirty- 
fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  wrote,  4.  ^^  The  Nature  of  Truth ; 
its  union  and  unity  with  the  soule,  which  is  one  in  its  es- 
sence, faculties,  acts;  one  with  truth,''  Load.  1641,  12mOy 
an  abstruse  piece  of  metaphysical  reasoning,  which,  how- 
ever, Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Wallis,  professor  of  geometry^ 
understood  so  well  as  to  be  able  to  answer  it,  in  1643.  2. 
^^A  Discourse  opening  the  nature  of  that  Episcopacie 
which  is  exercised  in  England,"  ibid.  1641,  4to.  3.  <<Two 
Speeches,  spoken  in  the  Guildhall,  London,  concerning  his 
^oaj^sty's  refusal  of  a  Treaty  of  Peace,"  ibid.  1642.  4. 
^Answer  to  the  Speech  of  Philip  earl  of  Pembroke,  con«. 
cerning  Accommodation,  in  the  house  of  lords,  Dec.  19, 
1642,"  printed  by  order  of  the  house,  and  reprinted  in 
lord  Somers's  tracts ;  but  which  appears  to  have  been 
drawn  up  by  lord  Clarendon,  as  containing  the  substance 
of  lord  Brooke's  sentiments.  5.  ^*  Speech  at  the  Election 
of  his  captains  and  commanders  at  Warwick-castle,"  Lon- 
don, 1643.1 

GREVIN  (James),  a  French  poet  and  physician^  was 
*  born  at  Clermont,  in  Beauvoisis,  in  1538.  He  began  %^rly. 
to  write,  producing  his  tragedy  of  the  ^^  Death  of  Caesar'* 
in  his  fifteenth  year ;  and  practised  physic  with  success.' 
He  was  long  retained  in  the  service  of  Margaret  of  France^ 
duchess  of  Savoy,  whom  he  followed  to  Piedmont     He 

^tiordOrford  erroneously  attributes  4to,  which  was  evident)]^  written  by 

to  him  "  Sir  Fnlke  Greville's  Five  one  of  the  presbyterian  party,  and  was 

Yeares  of  king  jnoes,  or  the  condition  afterwards  republished,  with  additions^ 

of  the  slate  of  Englandj,  and  the  rela-  under  the  title  of  "  The  first  Fourteen 

tion  it 'bad  to  other  proTinces,"  1643,  Years  of  king  James,*'  1^1,  4to. 

I  Biog.  !Brit.'-*Uoyd's  State  Worthies.— Park's  edition  of  lord  Orfofd's  Royal 
4Ad  N^ble  Atttbora.-^Censtira  ii^ria,  vol.  I.->Uidge*s  Illustrations,  toU  II. 
I— Ellis's  SpecimeDs**— Cqo|»^8  Mines  Libr&ry.— >Lord  Qiareadon's  Life  anU^ 

sit  G  R  E  V  S  N. 


died  at  Tarin  thi  5th  of  November  1573i  Ttere  iM  three 
plajs  extant  of  bi» :  **  The  Treasii^rer^ft  Wife^**  a  comedy, 
in  1558;  the  <<  Death  of  CsBsar/'  a  tragedy;  and  the 
<<  Frighted  Ones,  (Les  Esbahis)*'  a  comedy,  both  acted  th6 
same  day  at  the  college  of  Beauvais  in  1560.  GreTin, 
though  snatched  away  by  a  premature  death,  bad  acquired 
a  great  reputation,  not  only  as  a  poet,  but  a^  a  physician. 
Some  of  bis  countrymen,  speaking  of  bis  drama$,  give  him 
tiiis  favourable  testimony,  ^^  that  be  effaced  alt  who  pre* 
ceded  him  on  the  French  stage,  and  that  eight  or  teh  such 
poets  as  he  would  have  put  it  on  a  good  footing,  hi^  versi- 
fication being  easy  and  sodootb,  especially  in  his  comedies, 
and  his  plots  well  contrived.'*  His  poems  and  plays  were 
printed  at  Paris,  1561,  8vo.  He  left  also  a  <'  Treatise  on 
Poisons/*  and  another  **  against  Antimony,"  both  translated